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Vol.  CXIX 


Special  Index  Issue 


243  West  39th  Street 


Founded    1876 

Published  Fortnightly 
in  New  York 

Six    Dollars 

r  I  T    HIS  index  is  fur  the  119th  volume  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT.     This  scries  of  volumes  constitutes  an 
£       encyclopaedia  of  architecture  in  America.     They  mark  the  progression  from  a  tune  wlien  our  architecture 
was  but  a  re-echo  of  classic  precedent  to  the  present  day  when  architecture,  as  practiced  in  this  cmintr\, 
sets  a  standard  for  emulation  all  over  the  world. 

^The  development  of  architecture  in  America  is  a  reflex  of  our  great  advancement  as  a  nation.  The  progress 
of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  has  been  in  keeping  with  this  great  advancement.  It  mirrors  todav,  as  it  has  ulwuvs 
clone,  the  highest  ideals  of  a  profession  that  is  the  oldest  of  ail  the  arts,  and  it  has  blazed  the'  n-ay  to  a  better 
appreciation  of  the  dignities  and  the  responsibilities  of  architectural  practice. 

Its  twenty-sir  issues  each  year,  more  than  twice  as  many  as  any  other  architectural  publication,  form  a  com- 
pendium to  architectural  practice. 

Its  many  illustrations  —  more  than  four  hundred  full  page  plates  and  approximately  twice  as  manv  tc.rt 
illustrations  —  give  to  readers  a  larger  volume  of  suggestive  material  on  architectural  subjects  than  is  to  be  found 

Its  various  departments  of  Architectural  Engineering,  Economics  as  applied  to  building,  Specification  and 
Cubage  Costs,  place  in  the  hands  of  subscribers,  a  fund  of  material  that  makes  tlie  magazine  indispensable  to 
architects,  engineers  and  students  who  are  keenly  interested  in  our  architectural  development. 



Light-faced  figures  refer  to  tc.rt  pages;  bold-faced  to  serial  number 

— F— 

— O— 

American    Architecture,    147,    2355. 

American     Specification     Institute,     93,     2353; 

175,   Z356. 

Annual  Convention   of  the  A.  I.   A.,   515,   2366. 
Architect,    The    Advancing,    649,   2370. 
Archives    Building,   A  National,   245,   2358. 

Calder    Committee,    Report    of,    427,    2363. 

Canadian   Copyright   Law,    Proposed,   489,    1365 

Chicago's   Opportunity,   365,   2361. 

Civic   Center   in    New   York,    275,  2359. 

Confidence,  319,  2360. 

Confidence,    Commonsense    and    Co-operation, 

43,  2351. 
Congress     and     the     Housing     Shortage,     44, 

Contractors    Adopt    Code    of   Ethics,   395,    23«2. 

—  D— 

Daylight   Saving,  275,  2359. 
Digest,  A  Nationwide,  453,  2364. 

—  E— 

Elimination    of    Waste    in    Building    Industry, 

555,   2367. 

F.thics    in     Architectural    Design,    147,    2355. 
Europe    Turns     to    American    Architects,    69, 

Excessive    Bidding,   70,   2352. 

Farm    Buildings,    Improving,    613,    2369. 
Farm     Conditions,     Improving,    245,    2358. 
Fine    Arts   in    the    Government.   94,    2353. 
Fund    to    Assist    Young    Architects,    43,    2351. 

Greenwich    Village,    Los    Angeles,    175,    2356. 

— H— 

Holy    Land   in   1920,    122,  2354. 

How   Much   Will  It  Cost?   44,  2351. 


Ignoring  Our   American   Art,   121,  2354. 
Illinois  Chapter,  A  Timely   Resolution   of,  427, 

League  of  New   York   Artists,   489,   2365. 

— M— 

Military  Honors   to   an   Artist,   453,  2364. 

— N— 

National    Duty,    A,    585,    2368. 
New    Jersey    Abolishes    State    Architect,    555, 

Organized     Labor     Enters     FieM     of    General 
Contracting,  205,  2357. 

— P— 

Personal      Equation      Editorial      by      Sullivan 

Jones,    176,   2356. 
Philadelphia    Building    Trades    Work    Toward 

Building   Resumption,   365,   2361. 
Plain   Duty.  275,   2359. 
Prices,  94,  2353. 
Public   Library,   For  What   Is   It   Maintained? 

585,  2368. 

— s— 

Sketching  for  Architects,  515,   ?366. 

Skilled    Workmen    for    the    Building    Trades, 

93,  2353. 
State     Registration     Fails     in     Indiana,     427, 


State    Societies,    649,    2370. 
State    Societies   and    the   Institute,   613,  2369. 

— T— 

Traffic  Congestion  in    New  York,  To   Relieve, 

395,   2362. 
Transportation    Tangles,    Reducing,    148,    Z3SS. 

— w— 

What   Is   a    "Public?"  69,   2352. 
Where   Does   the  Evil    Lie?    121,  2354. 


Light-faced  figures  refer  to  text  pages;  bold-faced  to  serial  number 

— A— 

Ambassador  Hotel,  The.  Warren  &  Wet- 
more,  Architects,  644,  2370. 

American  Chippendale,  Some  Examples  of, 
321,  2360. 

American  Institute  of  Architects,  Fifty- 
fourth  Annual  Convention  of,  573,  2368. 

American  Specification  Institute,  172,  2356; 
320,  2360. 

American  Specification  Institute,  Announce- 
ment by  Board  of  Governors  of,  670,  2370. 

Architect  and  Engineer,  Relation  Between. 
By  Kort  Berle,  4,  2350. 

Architects,  What  They  May  Think  About  in 
1921,  11,  2350. 


Architectural  Interiors  of  the  United  States 
Shipping  Board  S.  S.  "Hawkeye  State." 
By  Francis  B.  Ellis,  446,  2364. 

Architectural  League  of  New  York,  Thirty- 
sixth  Annual  Exhibition,  475,  2365. 

Architectural  Management.  By  Francis  B. 
Ellis,  397,  2362;  428,  2363. 

Architectural  Quicksands.  By  Clinton  H. 
Blake,  Jr.,  390,  2362;  484,  236S.  v' 








;il    Registration    Boards,    National 
Z3M;   580.   2JM. 

Building,   Relation    Between 

\tll  i    ill,-    MOM. MI     1'iL-ture.      By 



,    of.     By  <  .11. 

•'•  of  the  Sm.ill  College.     By  S.   I!. 

:.d«e.  614.  ZJ«. 
ng   gjcperim<nts     ni     the    Schools, 

B.ium,  Dwicfc*  Tames,  Architect,  Notes  on 
Work  of,  557,'  23*7. 

Beauty,  The  Bsnis  of.  it,.'.  23SS. 

Beaux-Arts  Institute  uf  Design.  2/6.  23S»; 
HI.  OM;  516,  23W:  609,  23M;  651,  237*. 

Boston  CoIVRt.  Ti.e  New.  By  Ralph  Adams 
...  615,  2W». 

Building  Gilds  and  Housing  in  England,  304, 

Building  Material  Costs  in  1921.  By  A.  K. 
Kr.-ichti.ium,  19.  2SS». 

Building  Outlook  in  the  Middle  West.  16, 

Buildings  on  Narrow  Streets,  High.  By  Har- 
vey W.  Corbett,  603,  ZW». 

Business  Conditions,  .126,  23M. 

Chicago  Bridges.  552,  23(7. 

Competition   for  School   Group,   New    Britain, 
•  ..    59.  23S2. 

Color  in   Architecture,   202,   2357. 

Congestion   Defended    by     Landscape    Archi- 
tect,  454,   23(4. 

'ruction    Costs,    Some    Solid    Tacts    on. 
By   K.   E.  Davidson,  268,  2JS». 

Craftsmanship,    The    True.      By    "Travi,"    9, 

Creating    n    New    Investment    Center    in    New 
York.   6.'7.  2371. 

PunninK.    X.    Max.   Work   of.    Ill,  2354. 
— E— 

Entasis,  Calculation  of.     By  T.  T.  Tubby,  550, 

— F— 

r.utorv    Profluclion    Applied    to   Housing.     By 

Robert  Tappan,  62.  2352. 
Financial  Outlook.     By   Francis  II.   Sisson,  7, 

<;.iham  National  Bank  Building.  Sommer- 
feld  &  Steckler,  Architects;  Kenneth 
MurchUon.  Consulting  Architect,  350, 

— H— 

l|..*|Mtal    Construction    Affecting    Distribution 

of  Food.  2.14,  2358. 
Hotel    Webster,    Chicago.      Fridstcm    &    Co., 

Engineers,  383,  23(2. 


Impression  of  the  Washington  Convention, 
An.  By  Howard  Van  Doren  Shaw,  620, 



Japanese  Life,  Insight  Into,  39,  2351. 

Labor  Attempts  to  Organize  Architectural 
Draftsmen,  36,  2351. 

Legal  Regulation  of  Standards  of  Architec- 
tural Practice.  By  Emory  Stanford  Hall, 
199,  Z357. 

Louis  XV  Paneled  Room,  A,  586,  23M. 

— M— 

Mclntire,    Samuel.       By    W.     H.     Hunt,    415, 

Memorial    Bridge    Across    the    Hudson    River 

at   New  York,   Proposed.     Alfred   C.   Bos- 

som.  Architect,  423,  2363. 
Minneapolis    Architects    Have    a    Colony,    88, 


— N— 

New  York  District  Conference,  of  Building 
Industry,  1.19,  2355. 

Noyes-Buick  Building,  Boston.  Mass.  Ar- 
thur H.  Bowditch,  Architect,  195,  2357. 

— CD- 
OM    Salem    Houses.      By    W.    H.    Hunt,    507 

Own   Your  Home   Small   House   Competition, 

Prize  Designs  of,  321,  23«0. 

— P— 

Paris,    Extension    of,   64,   2352. 
Personal    Equation,    What    About     the?    324, 

Prague—  As  a  City  of  the  Baroqur,   Part   III. 

By   Selwyn   Brinton,  343,   2361. 
Prague,    Housing    Problem   Met   in,  66,   2352. 
Prices,  Study  of.     By  Edmund  D.  Fisher,  117, 

2353,   133,   2354,   163,    2355. 
Proposal    Worth    Millions,   An   Intangible,   366, 


— R— 

Real  Estate  Outlook  for  1921.  By  Joseph  P. 
Day,  7,  2350. 

Reconstruction  in  Northern  France.  By 
Ralph  Fanning,  167,  2356. 

Registration  Matters,  Architectural,  116, 

Research  and  Educational  Hospitals  of  Illi- 
nois. Schmidt.  Garden  &  Martin,  Archi- 
tects, 223,  235». 

Roman  Catholic  Church  of  St.  Clare,  Staten 
Island.  Eggers  &  Higgins,  Architects,  41, 

School  Buildings  in  Syracuse,  N.  Y..  Two. 
James  A.  Randall,  Architect,  89,  2353. 

Scottish  Rite  Cathedral  Competition,  Port- 
land, Oregon.  Extracts  from  Competition 
Program  of,  358,  2361. 

Side  Trip  in  Building.  By  Thomas  Crane 
Young,  85,  2353. 

Southern  Intercollegiate  Competitions,  523, 

Specifications,   Department   of,  667,   2378. 

Standardization  of  Parts  in  House  Construc- 
tion. By  D.  Knickerbacker  Boyd,  200, 

State  Societies,  629,  236». 

Straus,  S.  W.,  &  Co.,  Building.  Warren  & 
Wetmore,  Architects,  637,  2370. 

— T— 

Trade  Agreements  in   Chicago,  650.  2370. 
Trained  Observer?   Are  You  a,   150,  2355. 

— u— 

Unwise  Building  Laws,  Written  and  Un- 
written. By  Grosvenor  Atterbury,  90, 

Urban  Congestion — A  Study  of  Its  Causes 
and  Suggestions  for  Its  Eradication.  By 
John  Irwin  Bright,  581,  2368. 

— W— 

War  Memorials.     Cass  Gilbert,  Jr.,  33,  2351. 
Westward— Ho!  149,  2355. 


Zoning  Regulations,  Simpler.  By  Herbert  S. 
Swan,  454,  2364. 


Light-faced  figures  refer  to  text  pages;  bold-faced  to  serial  number 


Atterbury,  Grosvenor: — 
Building    Laws,   Unwise,    Written   and  Un- 
written, 90,  2353. 

— B— 

Berle,  Kort: 
Architect  and   Engineer,  Relation  Between, 

4,  235*. 
Blackill  C.  H.:— 

Architecture   in    1921,   Practice   of    1    235* 
Blake.  Clinton  H.,  Jr.:— 
Architectural     Quicksands,     390,     23(2;     484, 

Boardman,   Charles  S.  :— 

Steel   Sheet    Piling,   123,   2354. 
Roiiom,  Alfred  C.  :— 
Memorial  Bridge  Across  the  Hudson  River 

»t  New  York,  Proposed,  423,  23(3. 
Bowditch.  Arthur  H.  :— 
Noyes-Buick    Building,    Boston,    Mass,    195, 


Boyd,   D.   Knickerback* 

Standardization    of    Parts    in    House    Con- 
struction,  200,  2357. 
Bright,  John,  Irwin: 

T'rhan   Congestion    A   Study    of  Its   Causes 
»nd   Suggestions  for  Its  Eradication.  58], 

Brinton,  Selwyn:— 

Prague— As  a  City  of  the  Baroque,  343,  23(1. 
Bryant,  Henry  F. :— 

Noyes-Buick  Building,  Boston,  Engineering 
Features  of,  207,  2357. 

Corbett,  Harvey  W.:— 

Buildings    on    Narrow    Streets,    High,    603, 

Cram,  Ralph  Adams:— 

Boston  College,  The  New,  615,  23W. 

Davidson,  F.  E.  :— 

Construction    Costs,    Some    Solid    Facts    on, 

268,  2359. 
I'ay,  Joseph  P.:— 

Real  Estate  Outlook  for  1921.  7,  23S». 

— E— 

Eggers  &  Higgins:— 
Roman    Catholic    Church    of    St.    Clare     41 


Kllis,  Francis  B. : 

Architectural  Interiors  of  the  United  States 
Shipping   Board    S.    S.   "Hawkeye    State." 

7™,    2364. 

Architectural   Management,   397,   23(2;   428, 


Ericson,  Lambert  T.:— 
Creosoted  Wood  Block  Factory  Floors,  212, 


— F— 

Fanning,  Ralph:— 
Reconstruction    in     Northern     France,     167, 


Farwell,  Milo  S.: 

Reinforced  Concrete,  Short  Cuts   for  Calcu- 
lating and  Estimating,  251,  2358. 
Fisher,  Edmund  D. :— 
Prices,    Study    of,    107,    2353;    133,    2354;    163, 


Fridstein  &  Co.:— 
Hotel  Webster,  Chicago,  383,  23(2. 

Gardner,  Henry  A.  :— 

Paints    and    Varnishes,    Fire-Resisting,    594, 

Gilbert,  Cass,  Jr.:— 

War  Memorials,  33,  235L 



I   KM    AKV     ID   jl'NK,    lg_M 



— H— 

Ihill,    Emory    Stanford: — 

Architectural     Practice,     Legal     Regulation 

of  Standards,   199,  2357. 
Horowitz,   Louis   Jay: — 

Architecture     and     Building,     Relation     Be- 
tween, 2,  2350. 
Hubbard,   Charles   L. :— 

Heating    and     Ventilating     Equipment,    367, 
2361;  399,   2362. 

Heating    and    Ventilating    Industrial    Build- 
ings, 71,  2352;  95,   2353. 

Refrigeration,  528,   2366;   587,  2368;  654,  2370. 
Hunt,   W.   H.:— 

Mclntire,  Samuel,  415,  2363. 

Old  Salem  Houses,  507,  2366. 

— K— 

K t  ii-i  hbaum,    A.    R.: — 
Building  Material  Costs   in   1921,  19,  2350. 

— M— 

Matteson,  Victor  Andre: — 

Architect  and  Engineer,  51,  2351. 
Mensch,   L.  J.: — 

Warehouse  for  The  National  Tea  Company, 
Chicago,  492,  2365. 

— N— 

N'immons,   George  C.   &  Co.: — 
Federal  Electric  and  Walker  Vehicle  Plants, 
Chicago,    559,   2367. 

Owen,   Allan   F.:— 

Hollow    Tile    Floor    Construction,    An    Im- 
provement  in,  26,  2350. 

— R— 

Randall,    James    A.: 
School   Buildings   in   Syracuse,   N.    Y.,   Two, 

89,   2353. 

Rohm  &  Son,  Jean  B.:— 

Warehouse  for  The  National  Tea  Company. 
Chicago,  492,  2365. 

Schmidt,   Garden   &  Martin: — 
Research  and  Educational  Hospitals  of  Illi- 
nois, 223,  2358. 

Shaw,  Howard  Van   Doren: — 
Impression  of  the    Washington   Convention, 

An,  620,  2369. 
Sisson,   Francis  H.: — 

Financial  Outlook,  6,  2350. 
Sommerfeld  &  Sleekier:— 
Gotham      National      Bank      Building       New 

York,  350,  2361. 
Swan,   Herbert   S.  :— 
Xoning   Regulations,    Simpler,  454,  2364. 

_  »T»  _ 

Factory    Production   Applied   lo   H.msiiiK,  6J. 


Trowbridge,   S.   B.    P.:— 
Architecture    and    the    Small    College.    614, 


Tubby,  J.  T.:- 
Entasis,  Calculation  of,  550,  2367. 

—  W— 

Warren    &  Wetmore:— 
Ambassador    Hotel,    New    York    City,    644, 

Straus,   S.   W.,   &  Co.,   Building,   New   York 

City,  637,  2370. 
Willard,    A.   C.:— 

Warm-Air    Furnaces,    Rating    and    Compar- 
ing,   155,  2355. 

— Y— 

Young,  Thomas  Crane: — 
Side  Trip  in  Building,  85,  2353. 

Ziegler,    Carl    A.:— 

Architecture    anil    the    Motion    Picture,    543, 


Figures  refer  to  text  pages 


Alabama    Architects,    188. 

American   Academy    in   Rome,   159. 

American  Federation  of  Arts,  Convention 
of,  439. 

American  Standard  of  Living,  31. 

American  Students  to  Help  France  Re- 
build, 597. 

America's  Gift  to  the  World,  337. 

Ancient  Stone  Plaque,  632. 

Architects   Elect   New  Officers,   569. 

Architects  Join  National  Group,  257. 

Architect's   Service,   The,  375. 
Architect's  Service  Bureau,  An,  596. 
Architects    to    Compete,    Manhattan    College, 

Architect  Wins  Prize  for  Writing  Best  Play, 

Architectural      Association      Elects      Officers, 


Architectural  Exhibit  for  Ghent,  Belgium,  52. 
Architectural  League  Exhibition,  376. 
Architectural    League    of    Indianapolis,    30. 
Architectural  Water  Colors,   187. 
Architecture,   Growing  Appreciation  for,  596. 
Armour    Institute    of    Technology,    Head    of, 


Art  Appreciation  Lacking,  190. 
Art  Center  Getting  Settled,  376. 
Art   Historian   Dies,  257. 

rt    n  te      ome,        . 
Artists  Divide  Auto  Prize,  500. 

Birren  Frize,  4t>/. 
Bismarck's  Unique  Park,  357. 

Borglum   to  Carve  Army  on   Mountain,  162. 

Boston  Architectural  Show,  257. 

Boston  Society   of  Architects  Meets,  335. 

Brangwyn  to  Decorate  Missouri  Capitol,  129. 

Bridge  for  the  U.  S.,  Highest,  438. 

Bridge  Resists  Floods  for  Ages,  80. 

Brooklyn's  Plymouth  Church  Rebuilding,  104. 

Builders  Form  New  Organization,  500. 

Building  Now,  Wisdom  of,  255. 

Building  Officials'   Conference,  438. 

Building    with    Government    Aid,   255. 

Bungalow  on  Factory  Roof,  297. 

Bureau   of  Housing,   105. 

Burning  Coal  Mine  Under  City,  Fighting,  131. 

Burroughs    Memorial,    Plan,   631. 

Cabinet  May  Urge  War  Reductions,  502. 
Calder     Committee     Suggests     Remedy      for 

Housing  Shortage,  469. 
Cambridge    Architect    Wins,  337. 
Carnegie   Institute,  439. 
Carnegie    Institute    Exhibit,    376. 
Chicago  Architectural  Exhibit,  159. 
Chicago  Architectural  Exhibit—  1921—  The  34th 

Annual,  468. 

Chicago  News  Notes,  53,  106. 
Chicago  Notes  of  Interest,  336. 
Chicago's  Field  Museum,  596. 
Chinese   Art,   536. 
Circulating  of  Pictures,   162. 
City  Bureau  to  Plan  Homes,  105. 
City   Plan   for  St.   Paul,  438. 
City    Planning   in   Kansas,   470. 
Civic  Federation  to  Discuss  Labor  Problems, 


Coal,  Plan  to  Pipe,  296. 
Cocoanut  Palm,  The  Versatile,  297. 
Competition,  Small  House,  29. 
Concrete  Building,  Largest,  31. 
Construction    Division    U.    S.    A.    Holds    Re- 

union, 103. 

Contractor,    Ethics    for    the,   295. 
Corinthian   Capital,  The  Origin    of   the,  295. 
Country's    Oldest    House,    This,   579. 
Crane,  R.  T.,  Buys  Westover,  469. 

—  D— 

Danes    Erect    Obelisk,   80. 

Doctors'    Co-operative    Building,    499. 

Dutch  Dry   the  Zuyder  Zee,  215. 

Efficiency    Body    Favors    World    Fair    in    1926. 


Engineer,  Definition  of  2000  Years  Ago,  30. 
English   Architects  Meet,   630. 
Estate  Management,  Will  Teach,  407. 

— F— 

Factory    Machinery    No    Longer    Black,    130. 

Fine  Exchange  of  Unselfish  Recognition,  A 

Finns  Develop  Own  Architecture,  296. 

Fire  Loss,  1920,  Third  Largest  on  Record, 

Forrests    in    Northwest,    Vast,    104. 

France  Plans  Home  for  Married  Women 
Only,  104. 

French    Town,    To    Build    Model,   362. 

French  Village  Has  American  Aid  in  Memor- 
ial, 190. 

Georgia  Architects  Organize,  187. 
Georgia  School  of  Technology,  536. 
Germany   Wants   Skyscrapers,  215. 
Gobelins,  Trying   to   Save,   105. 
Gobelin  Works  Admit  Women,  80. 
Good  Housing  Hurt  by   Shortage,  255. 
Gotham   National   Bank,  53. 
Government   Service,    For,  408. 

— H— 

Health     Commissioner    Invokes     Millionaires. 


Henry   Reinhardt,  Art  Dealer,  Dead,  103 
High   Bridge  Saved,   159. 
High    School    Competition,  376. 
Historic    St.    Paul's,    in    Washington,    D.    C, 

Destroyed  by   Fire,  570. 
Home  Builders,  To  Help,  375. 
Home  Building  by  Advertising  Campaign,  To 

Push,  499. 

Hotel  Entrances,  189. 
House  Managers  for  the  Dutch,  217. 
House  Names,  407. 
Housing    and    Garden    City    League    Formed, 


Housing  Conference,  105. 
Housing  in   Germany,  104. 





x  Problem  in  America.  256 
II. nising   Problems   to   Be   Considered,  5.! 

:i|(     Kc><illlt  .    256. 

tin*   \\  .-  Look  from  Ah"v.-, 

Hudson     River    I"    It.'     lli'.ii;.    1.    1"! 

— I— 

Illinois  Chapter  Ar. -hit.-.  Is   Mold   Meeting.  338. 

IH  ,,i  Art  Works,  189.  Mad  -45  Story  Apartment.  1)2. 
Induitrial   Art   at    Museum,   103. 
Industrial     Teachers'     Scholarships     in     \e\v 

York.  630. 
Information  Bureau  for  New  York  State  Con 

tractors,  56V.  Congress  of  Cities  in   Paris,  160. 
Int.-Miational    Situation.   502. 
Inter  State    Bridge,   Maine,   161.>    Wants  Art   Treasures,  615. 


Jamestown  Architects  Organize,  499. 
Japanese  Houses,  Signs  on,  216. 
Jersey   City    Building  Active,  160. 
Jersey    City    Chinning,   160. 

John    Hopkins    Plans    Building    Costing    $11,- 
500,000,  5J. 

— K— 

Kansas  Architects  Annual  Meeting,  188. 
K:.IIV.LS   City    Architects   Announce   New  Ser- 

vi.  -    Bureau,  569. 
Kitchen    Marathon  Two  Miles,  104. 

Landmarks  for  the  Aviator,  297. 

I-angley,   Batty,  Two  Books   Illustrating  De- 

signs   by,   631. 
Leases,  $600,000  in.  499. 
LcBrim   Scholarship  Award,   191. 
Legacy  to  Posterity,  A,  583. 
Leviathan,  Nobody   Wants  the,  467. 

Library    of    Congress    Wants    The    American 
Architect,   52. 

Lumbermen   to  Reduce  Building  Costs,  104. 

—  M— 

Marriage  Profitable  in  Berlin,  "336. 

MrKaddrn   Art    Disposal,  375. 

Memorial    Competition,    296. 

Memorial   Plans,  439. 

Michigan  Chapter,  A.  I.  A.,  632. 

Model  City  for  China,  272. 

Moving  a  C'ity,  536. 

Mural    Painters   Appointed.   -Us 

Museums,  Additions  to,  377. 

—  N— 

National  Arboretum,    188. 

N'atiiuial  Building-   Code,    256. 

National  Landmark,  A,  570. 

National  Memorials  Committee  Issues  Warn- 

ing,   569. 


Nebraska   Chapter   Elects  Officers,   159. 
New    York    MIM  i-Ilaiiies,  53. 

N'cw   York    Went    Laws  Upheld,  377. 

New  York   Society   of  Architects,  29,  159,  408, 

N.-w     Yoik     Society     of     Architects,     Annual 

Dinner    of,   5'),-. 
New   York   Society    of   Architects,    Year   Book, 


\ew   York   State  Association   Meets,  336. 
\i:iK'.na    Power,  161. 
\Hiscs,   Silencer   for   Street,    131. 

— o— 

Omaha   Art   School,   189. 

Origin   of  "Checks,"   105. 

Our   Most    Popular   Building,  537. 

(  iwn    Your    Home,  377. 

Own  Your  Home  Competition,  215. 

— P— 

Painters  Hear  Lecture  on  Color  Dimensions, 

Paris  Prize,  Society  of  Beaux-Arts  Archi- 
tects, 187. 

Paris  Salon,  American  Architects  Invited  to 
Exhibit  in,  129. 

Paris  to  Have  Mosque,  631. 

Paris   Walls   for   War  Area   Homes,    162. 

Peace   Gardens   for   War   Gardens,    536. 

Pennsylvania  Academy  Exhibit  Announced, 

Permanent    State    Buildings    in    Washington, 

D.  C.,  A  Proposed  Erection  of,  631. 
Personalities  of  Cities,  538. 

Philadelphia  Architects  Co-operate  with 
Labor,  189. 

Philadelphia  Architects  Join  Exposition,  103. 
Philadelphia   Architects    Receive    Gold    Medal 
Award,  499. 

Philadelphia's  Exhibit,  335. 
Philadelphia's  New  Art  Museum,  5%. 
Portland,  Ore.,  to  Get  City  Plan,  468. 
Poverty  of  Immigrants,  257. 
Prague,  In,  79. 

Prehistoric  Village  Found,  79. 
Publicity  by  Contractors,  191. 
Pueblo  Architecture  in  Concrete,  296. 
Pullmans  Used  as  Houses,  538. 
Puppets    in    Egyptian    Tombs    Show    Ancient 
Conditions,    161. 

— R— 

Razing  Paris   Forts,  409. 

Heal  Estate  Lecture  Course,  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  52. 

Realistic  Art  Is  Urged,  537. 

Reconstruction   in   Belgium,  80. 

Reduce   Excessive   Building   Costs,  256. 

Reims,    Two    Churches   Unde'r,    631. 

Rembrandt,  A  Rare,  Stolen,  105. 

"Rembrandt"  Found,  132. 

Kh(597S    °"heilral'    <"armot    Match    Stone    in, 

Ricker   Library   of  Architecture    189 

Koine    Extending   Her   Area,  272 

Roosevelt    Memorial    in    Washington    to    Sur- 

pass  All,  160, 

Roosevelt  Memorial  Proposed,  52 
Roosevelt   Memorial   Site,   536. 
Rotch   Scholarship   Award,  632 
Rotch  Scholarship   Examinations    407 
Roumanian    Parlor  Stoves,   215 

— s— 

St.  Lazare  Prison  Is  to  Be  Demolished,  Fa- 
mous, 377. 

St.   Louis  "Own  Your  Home  Exposition,"  -t(j : 

San   Francisco  Is   Unearthed,  Ancient,   349. 

Sargent  Returns  to  Boston,  188. 

Scholarships,   M.    I.   T.,  438. 

School   Building  Program   for  New  York,   191. 

Schoolhouse,  Good-Bye  to  Little   Red,  296. 

Scientists  to  Delve  in  Ruins  of  Old  Palestine, 

Seattle  A.  I.   A.    Elects,  335. 

Skyscraper,  Birth  of  the,  408. 

Skyscrapers,  Rue  de  Rivoli  Wants,  190. 

South  America  Offers  Inducements  to  Im- 
migrants, 537. 

Southern    California  Chapter's  Officers,   187. 

Spain  to  Use  Electricity,  362. 

Spanish   Missions   to   Be   Restored,   216. 

Specification  Writers  Reports  Progress,  Or- 
ganization of,  407. 

Speir,  Oswald,   Dead,  187. 

Stage  Settings  from   Blocks,  296. 

Standard   of   Living,   255. 

State  Financing  for  Home  Building,  Favors, 

Summer  Classes  in  Architecture,  568. 

— T— 

Tax    Exemption    Passed    in    New    York    Citv, 


Teacherages    Are    Gaining    Favor,    439. 
Teach  Housing  in  Schools,  256. 

Technical  Man  in  War  Department,  Want, 

Tenement,  Revamping  the,  257. 

Thessalian    Temple,   Unearth,   632. 

Tmver  Made  of  Tree  Trunk,  536. 

Traveling  Exhibits  of  Art,  130. 

Treasures  of  Loreto  Are   Reduced   to   Ashes, 

— u— 

U.   S.   Wearing  Away,  162. 

University  of  Chicago,  To  Enlarge,  597. 

Upbuilding  the   Nation,  255. 

— V— 

Virginia   Chapter  Names  Officers,  188. 

— w— 

Washington  State   Society   Elects,   188. 
Westminster    Acknowledges    American     C.ift, 

Whale  Bones  for  Building,  337. 
Where  Land  Costs  Most,  536. 
White  House  Again  to  Become  Mecca  Under 
the  Hardings,  337. 

Wichita  Architects  Hold  Election,  188. 

William  Willett  Dead,  467. 

Workhouse    Closes,    Famous,   79. 

World's  Fair  in  Philadelphia,  160. 

World's  Fair,  Permanent  Buildings  for,  189 

World  Trade,  To  Restore,  469. 


Zoning,  Saving  by,  295. 

American  Specification  Institute.  I  ,,,,,,mmica- 
lion,  from  Architects,  67.  IN,  .>*).  i>>  37S 

Appreciative  Letter  fr,,m  an  old  SoWi-iber 
BV  )•'•  'lueen,  490. 


"Hawkeye  State,"  The.     By  Edwin   D.   Weary. 
"Westward-Ho,"   An   Echo  from.  303. 

I  MU'X 




Light-faced  figures  refer  to  text  pages;  bold-faced  to  serial  number 

Ambassador   Hotel  and   the  Architectural   En- 
gineer, The,   659,   2370. 
American    Engineering   Standards    Committee, 

The,  466,   2364. 
liiiuininous  Concrete   Foundation,  Advantages 

of.   5.54,  2366. 
II   ok    Notes— A    Book    of    Ceilings,    298.    2359; 

Hcndrick's    Commercial    Register    for    1921, 

298,    2359;    Red    Lead,    and    How    to    Use    It 

in     Paint,    497,    2365. 
Ki.ildniu;   Cudcs,    Inconsistencies   of   Some,   463, 

lYment    Slabs,    New    Design     Data    for,    287, 

C   ntral     Warehouse,     Chicago,     Shoring     and 

I'lnU-i-pinning  the,  592,  2368. 
Cleveland  Auditorium,  21,  2350. 
(  o;il  Hin  of  Unusual  Design  and  Construc- 
tion, A  Concrete,  621,  2369. 
Colored  Wall  Plaster,  661,  2370. 
Concrete  Strength,  Effect  of  Colorings  on, 

661,  2370. 

Crane,    Making,    the,    Safe,    154,    2355. 
Creosoted    Wood    Block    Factory    Floors.      By 

Lambert  T.  Ericson,  212,  23S7. 
Elevator   Motors,  Controls   for  A.   C.,  434,  2363. 
Engineers   and   Architects,    Estrangement    Be- 

'twcen,   294,   2359. 
l-Vdcral   Electric   and    Walker  Vehicle   Plants, 

Chicago,  The.     George  C.  Nimmons  &  Co., 

Architects,  559,  2367. 
Fire    Precautions    in    a    Woodworking    Plant, 

331,    2360. 

Fire  Tests,  498,  2365. 
Flat  Slab  Floors,  100,  2353. 
Flues,   Proper  Size   and    Design   for,   158,  2355. 

Frame  Roof  a  Thatched  Appearance,  Giving 
a,  373.  2361. 

(iarage  Fire  Record,  76,  2352. 

Generator  Units,    Emergency,  334,  2360. 

Good  Design  Increases  Rental  Values,  151, 

Heating  and  Ventilating  Equipment.  By 
Charles  L.  Hubbard,  367,  2361;  399,  2362. 

Heating  and  Ventilating  Industrial  Buildings. 
By  Charles  L.  Hubbard,  71,  2352,  95,  2353. 

High   Bridge,   Fate   of,  45,  2351. 

Hollow  Tile  Floor  Construction.  An  Improve- 
ment in.  By  Allan  F.  Owen,  26,  2350. 

Lighting  Fixtures,  New  Idea  in,  50,  2351. 

Linoleum  and  Its  Proper  Application,  565, 

Metal  Lath  to  Avoid  Plaster  Cracks,  Appli- 
cation of,  246,  2358. 

Method  of  Securing  Weather-tight  Contact 
Between  Swinging  Doors,  534,  2366. 

Motor  Transport  Industry,  A  New  Building 
for  the,  429,  2363. 

National  Safety  Council,  1921  Campaign,  405, 

Noyes-Buick  Building,  Boston,  Engineering 
Features  of.  By  Henry  F.  Bryant,  Engi- 
neer, 207,  2357. 

Overhead  and  Underground  Streets  for  New 
York,  463,  2364. 

Paints  and  Varnishes,  Fire-Resisting.  By 
Henry  A.  Gardner,  594,  2368. 

Pittsburgh  Changes  Regulation  on  Wall 
Thickness.  535,  2366. 

Plaster  Walls,  Preventing  Cracks  in,  186, 

Raising  and  Shoring  a  Fireproof  School 
House,  464,  2364. 

Refrigeration.  By  Charles  L.  Hubbard,  528, 
2366;  5X7.  2368;  <>5-4,  2370. 

Reinforced  Concrete  Against  Electrolysis, 
Protection  for,  498,  2365. 

Reinforced  Concrete  Construction,  Modern 
Practice  in,  177,  2356. 

Reinforced  Concrete.  Short  Cuts  for  Calcu- 
lating and  Estimating.  My  Milo  S.  Far- 
well,  251,  2358. 

Relative  Heat  Conductivities  of  Building 
Materials,  78,  2352. 

Sheathing  and  Wall  Board,  Relative  Strength 
of,  498.  2365. 

Single  Doors  for  Entrances  to  School  Build- 
ings, 534,  2366. 

Spray  Painting,  Recent  Developments  in,  157, 

Stairs,  The  Rise  and  Run  of,  661,  2370. 

Steel  Forms  for  Concrete  Columns  and  Floor 
Slabs,  332,  2360. 

Steel  Sheet  Piling.  By  Charles  S.  Boardman, 
123,  2354. 

Theatre.  Safety  in  a  Modern,  292,  2359. 

Tile  and  Concrete  Floor  Shows  to  Advantage 
Under  Test,  327,  2360. 

Ventilation  of  the  Home  Office  Building  of 
the  Travelers  Insurance  Company,  Hart- 
ford, Conn.,  429,  2364. 

Warehouse  for  The  National  Tea  Company, 
Chicago.  Jean  B.  Rohm  &  Son,  Archi- 
tects; L.  J.  Mensch,  Engineer,  492,  2365. 

\\':irm-Air  Furnaces.  Rating  and  Comparing. 
By  A.  C.  Willard,  155,  2355. 

Wrought    Iron,    How.  It    Is    Made,    101,    2353. 


Figures  refer  to  the  number  of  the  issue,  not  to  the  text  pages 

Albro,   Lewis   Colt:— 
Mendleson     Memorial    Chapel.     Loudenville, 

N.  Y.,  2368. 
. \shfim,  Leonard: — 

1'ire    ami     Police    Station    for    the    City    of 

Bridgeport,   Conn.,  2369. 
Harber,    Donn: — 
Hartford   Times    Building,    Hartford,    Conn., 


Barnard,  John: — 
Second     Prize,     Brick     House,     Own     Your 

Home   Small   House  Competition,  2360. 
Bates   &   How: — 
House  of   Mr.    Chapin    S.    Pratt,    Bronxville, 

N.    Y.,  2365. 

Maum,  Dwight   James: — 
House    of    Mr.    John    W.    Griffin,    Fieldston, 

N.  Y.,  2367. 
House  of  Mr.  R.  E.  Lewis,  Hartsdale,  N.  Y., 

House  of  Mr.  M.  A.  Shea,  Fieldston,  N.   V., 

Riverdale    Country    Club,    Riverdale,    N.    Y., 


Hla.  kail,    Clapp   &    Whittemore:— 
Broadway    Theatre,    South     Poston,    Mass., 

lioehm,  G.  A.  and  H.:— 

Store   of   Richard    Hudnut,    New    York,   2364. 
Howditch,  Arthur  H.:— 

Noyes-Buick   Building,   Boston,   Mass.,   2357. 
Muchman  &  Kahn: — 

Borden  Building,  New  York  City,  2365. 
House    of  Mr.    Herman    Younker,    Elmsford, 

N.  Y.,  2365. 
Childs  &  Smith:— 

First   National   Bank,   Menasha,   Wis.,   2351. 
II  .use  of  Mr.  G.   S.  Gaylord,  Neenah,  Wis., 

House  of  Mr.   A.    C.   Gilbert,   Neenah,   Wis., 

House  of  Mr.  Ralph  Isham,  Santa  Barbara, 

Cal.,   2351. 

House  of  Mr.  Mowry  Smith,  Menasha,  Wis.. 

Menasha  Cafe,  Menasha,  Wis.,  2364. 
Cross    &   Cross: — 
Guaranty    Trust    Company,     Fifth    Avenue, 

New  York  City,  2365. 
Davis,  McGrath  &  Kiesling:— 
Community    Building,    Flint,    Mich.,    2365. 
Industrial     Savings    Bank     Building,     Flint, 

Midi..  2365. 

Dies,  J.   Ivan  and  Maier,   E.   J.:— 
Second     Prize,     Frame     House,     Own     Your 
Home   Small   House   Competition,  2360. 

Dunning,  N.   Max: — 
American  Book  Co.,  Chicago,  2356. 
Bethany   Bible   School,   Chicago,  2354. 
Dixon  National  Bank,  Dixon,  111.,  2356. 
Dixon  Telephone  Co.,  Dixon,  111.,  2356. 
House  of  Mr.  C.  D.  Barnes,  Kenosha,  Wis., 

House  of  Mr.  F.  C.  Traver,  Kenilworth,  HI., 

House   of   Mr.    Robert    E.    Ward,    Wilmette, 

111.,  2354. 

Kenosha   Hospital,    Kenosha,   Wis.,   2356. 
National    Cloak    &    Suit    Co.,    Kansas    City, 

Mo.,  2354. 
Newell    Memorial     Chapel,     Kenosha,    Wis., 


Shelter  House,   Kenosha,    Wis.,  2357. 
Simmons   Mfg.   Co.,   Kenosha,   Wis.,  2354. 
Stromberg  Motor  Device  Co.,  Chicago,  2356. 
N.  Max  Dunning  &  John   W.   McKecknie: — 
House   of  Mr.    Robert   J.  Thome,   Lake    For- 
est, HI.,  2359. 
Eggers,  O.  R.:— 

Drawings   of   Early   American   Architecture: 
Old  Shop,  Litchfield,  Conn.,  2350. 
Door    of     a    Dutch     Farm    House,    North 

Paterson,  2351. 

Trinity    Church,    Newport,    R.    L,   2.152. 
Doorway,  Trinity  Church,  Newport,  R.  I., 


Old   State   House,   Newport,   R.   I.,  2354. 
A  Street  in  Newport,  R.  I.,  2355. 
Billop   House,   Staten    Island,    N.    Y.,   2356 
St.  Andrew's  Church,  Staten  Island,  N.  Y., 


Old  Tavern,  Rossville,   Staten  Island,  2358. 
Old    Dutch    Farm     House,    Staten    Island, 


Christ    Church,    Philadelphia.    2361. 
St.    Peter's  Church,   Philadelphia,  2362. 
Christ    Church    and    Graveyard,    Philadel- 
phia, 2363. 

Old  State  House,  Philadelphia.  Pa..  2364. 
Pennsylvania    Hospital,    Philadelphia,    Pa., 


Old  Custom  House,  Philadelphia.  Pa.,  2366. 
Old  State  House,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  2367. 
Doorway    to    Fairfax    House,    Alexandria, 

Va.,  2.V8. 

Kitchen    Wing,    Mount    Vernon,   Va.,    2369. 
Christ  Church,   Alexandria,  Va..  2370. 
Fridstein    &•    Co.: — 

Hotel   Webster,   Chicago,  2362. 
Green,   James  C. : — 

House    of    Mr.    Duane    Armstrong,    Green- 
wich, Conn.,  2365. 

Gregory,  Julius: — 

House  of    Mr.   Clarence    McDaniel,   Harts- 
dale,  N.   Y.,  2362. 
Holabird    &   Roche:— 
Building    for   Beckley-Ralston    Co.,  Chicago, 

Building    for    R.    T.     Ederer    Co.,    Chicago, 

Building    for    Maxwell    Sales    Co.,    Chicago, 


House   for   Mr.   Louis   A.    Ferguson,    Evans- 
ton,  111.,  2363. 

House  of  Mr.  Joseph  E.  Tilt,  Chicago,  2363. 
Wesley    Foundation,    University    of    Illinois, 

Urbana,  111.,  2364. 
Hood,    Raymond    M.: — 
House    of    Mr.     Cyril     Crimmins,     Noroton, 

Conn.,  2359. 
Jackson,   John    F.: — 
House    of    Mr.    E.    L.    Woodworth,    Passaic, 

N.  J.,  2364. 
Justement,    Louis: — 
First  Prize,  Frame  House,  Own  Your  Home 

Small   House  Competition,  2360. 
First  Prize,  Stucco  House.  Own  Your  Home 

Small    House   Competition,   2360. 
Kohn,    Robert    D. :— 

I-oft    Building,   New   York,   2368. 
Leone,  Amedp: — 
Second     Prize,     Stucco     House,    Own     Your 

Home  Small  House  Competition,  2360. 
McGoodwin,   Robert   R.: — 
House   at   Chestnut    Hill,    Pa.,   2369. 
House    of    Mr.     Norman     Ellison,    Chestnut 

Hill,   Pa.,  2369. 
House  of  Mr.  Spencer  Erwin,  Chestnut  Hill, 

Pa.,  2369. 
House    of    Mr.    Norman    Mackie,    Chestnut 

Hill,   Pa.,  2369. 
House    of    Mr.    Walter    Schwartz,    Chestnut 

Hill,  Pa.,  2369. 
House   of  Dr.    George   Woodward,   Chestnut 

Hill,  Pa.,  2369. 
Nfclmire,  Samuel:— 

Baldwin -Lyrnan    House,   Salem,   Mass.,   2366. 
Cabot-Endicott-Low    House,    Salem,    Mass., 

Details  of  Old  Salem  Houses,  Salem,  Mass., 


Teffrey   Lang  House,   Salem,   Mass.,  2366. 
Old    Ladies'    Home.    Salem,    Mass..    2363. 
Pickering  House.   Salem.   Mass.,  2366. 
Pierce-Nichols    House,    Salem,    Mass.,    2363. 
Richard-Derby    House,    Salem,    Mass.,   2366. 
Stearns   House,    Salem,    Mass.,   2366. 






Mi-Kecknie,  John  W.,  &  N.  Max  Dunning:— 
OM  nf   Mr     Robert  J.  Thorne.   Lake  For- 
est, III..  2359. 
Mi  -Kim,   Meat!   &   White:— 

II. ill.    N,  w   York,  2355. 

Murvhisun,    Kenneth   M.: — 

I'rimelles    Building.    Havana,   Cuba,   2365. 
I'ennell,   H.   B.:- 

•-•  Building  for  Pennell,  Gibbs  &  OuirinK 
.    II.. -i. ,n.   Mass.,  2362. 

.lottn   Russell: — 

llcmsr    of   Mr.    Andrew   V.    Stout.    Redbank, 
N.  J.,  2368. 

Randall,   James  A.: — 
Blodgett     Vocation; 
ware  School,  Syracuse 

Blodgett     Vocational     High     School,     Dela- 
ware School,  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  2353. 
Kossiter  &  Muller:- 

House     of     Mr.     B.     Austin     Cheney,     New 

Haven,  Conn.,  2368. 

Salomonsky,  Edgar,  and  Vt-rna  Cook: — 
First  Prize,  Brick  House.  Own   Your  Home 

Small    House    Competition,    2360. 
-Schmidt,    Garden    &    Martin:— 
Cosmopolitan     State     Bank,     Chicago,     111., 


Sommerfelcl   &  Steckler:— 
Gotham      National      Bank      Building,      New 
York,  2361. 

button    &   Whitney: — 

Scottish   Rite   Cathedral    Competition,    Port- 
land, Oregon,   First   Prize  Design,  2361. 

Walker  &  Gillette:— 

House    of    Mr.    James    J.    Hill,     Westbury, 
L.  I.,  N.  Y.,  2350. 

Warren   &   Wetmore: — 

Ambassador   Hotel,   New    York   City,   2370. 
Straus,  S.   W.,    &  Co.    Building,   New    York 
City,  2370. 

Welsh,  Lewis  E. :— 

House  of  Mr.  Laurence  M.  Thompson,  Mon- 
trose,  Pa.,  2365. 


Figures  refer  to  the  number  of  the  issue,  not  to  the  text  pages 

Administrative    and    Governmental 

l-irc  and  Police  Station  for  the  City  of 
Bridgeport,  Conn.  Leonard  Asheim, 
Architect,  2369. 

Town  Hall.  New  York  City.  McKim,  Mead 
&  White,  Architects,  2355. 


<  oMnopolitan  State  Bank,  Chicago,  III.    Rich- 

ard E.  Schmidt,  Garden  &  Martin,  Archi- 

tects, 2364. 
Dixon    National    Bank    Building,    Dixon,    111. 

N.  Max  Dunning  Architect  2356. 
First    National    Bank   Menasha,    Wis.     Childs 

&  Smith,  Architects,  2351. 
<;.,iham   National  Bank  Building,  New  York. 

Sommerfeld   &  Sleekier,  Architects,  2361 
(iuaranty  Trust  Company,  Fifth  Avenue,  New 

York    City.     Cross    &    Cross,    Architects, 

Industrial     Savings     Bank     Building,     Flint, 

Mich.    Davis,  McGrath  &  Riesling,  Archi- 

tects, 2365. 
Straus,    S.    W.,    &    Co.    Building,    New    York 

City.      Warren    &    Wetmore,    Architects, 


Bethany     Bible    School,     Chicago.      N.    Max 

Dunning,  Architect,   2354. 
Mendelson      Memorial     Chapel,     Loudenville, 

N.  Y.     Lewis  Colt  Albro,  Architect,  2368. 
Newell   Memorial   Chapel,  Kenosha,   Wis.     N. 

Max   Dunning,  Architect,   2356. 
Scottish    Rite    Cathedral    Competition,    Port- 

land Oregon—  First   Prize  Design.     Sutton 

&   Whitney,  Architects,  2361. 


Blodgett  Vocational  High  School,  Syracuse, 
N.  Y.  Delaware  School,  Syracuse.  N.  Y., 
James  A.  Randall,  Architect,  2353 

State  Normal  School  Competition,  New 
Britain,  Conn.  Guilbert  &  Betelle,  W  F 
Brooks,  Aymar  Embury,  II,  Architects, 

U  .  Kiev  Foundation.  University  of  Illinois, 
Urbana.  111.  Holabird  &  Roche,  Archi- 
tects, 2364. 


enice,          . 

French    Romanesque    Doorway,   2353 
<  athedral,  Mainz,  Germany.  2354. 

Veni«all23r5>5  Parapet>   Church  of  S.   Mark, 
Gothic     Window,     Cathedral,     Wetzlar,     Ger- 


Salute'    Venic<1. 

neM  ' 

Tomb  of  Beato   Pacificio  Buon,  Venice    2359 
Monuments  oi  Doges,  Venice,  2360 

2361  ch  of  S'-  Maclou,  Rouen,  France, 

Cathedral,  Wetzlar,   Germanv    2362 

2363an<1    Br'dge    °'    'he    Miraco1'.    Venice, 
Ravenna,  Italy,  2364. 

Entrance      Detail,      Andrew-Safford      House, 

Salem,  Mass. 

Detail  of  Doorway,  Rathaus,  Lucerne,  2367. 
Church  of  S.  Stephen,  Florence.  Italy,  2368. 
Detail  of  a  Spanish  Church,  Circa  XV-XVI 

Century,  2369. 
Basilica  of  S.   Spirito,   Ravenna,   Italy,  2370. 


Ambassador  Hotel,  New  York  City.     Warren 

&  Wetmore,   Architects,   2370. 
Menasha     Cafe,     Menasha,     Wis.       Childs     & 

Smith,  Architects,  2364. 
Hotel    Webster,    Chicago.      Fridstein    &    Co., 

Engineers,  2362. 


American   Book  Co.,   Chicago.     N.   Max  Dun- 
ning, Architect,  2356. 
Borden  Building,  New   York  City.     Buchman 

&  Kahn,  Architects,  2365. 
Building    for    Beckley-Ralston    Co.,    Chicago, 

111.     Holabird  &  Roche,  Architects    2364 
Building   for   R.   T.    Ederer   Co.,    Chicago,   III. 

Holabird   &  Roche,  Architects    2364 
Building  for  Maxwell  Sales  Co.,  Chicago    III 

Holabird  &  Roche,  Architects,  2364. 
Dixon    Home   Telephone   Co.,    Dixon,    111.      N. 

Max  Dunning,  Architect,  2356. 
Hartford    Times     Building,     Hartford,     Conn. 

Donn  Barber,  Architect,  2365. 
Loft   Building,  New   York.      Robert   D.    Kohn, 

Architect,   2368. 
National  Cloak  &  Suit  Co.,  Kansas  City,  Mo 

N.  Max  Dunning,  Architect,  2354 
Noyes-Buick  Building.  Boston,  Mass.    Arthur 

H.   Bowditch,   Architect,   2357. 
Office      for      Simmons      Manufacturing      Co 

tec°OS2354  W'S'     N'   M"X  DunninK'   Archi- 
Strornberg   Motor   Device    Building,    Chicago, 

111.     N.  Max  Dunning,  Architect.  2356. 


Architectural   League   of   New   York,    Thirty- 

sixth   Annual   Exhibition,  2365. 
M  roadway     Theatre,     South     Boston,     Mass 

tecTs    236  &     Whitteraore-     Archi- 

CommnaSty    Building,    Flint     Mich.      Davis. 

McGrath   &  Kieshng,  Architects,  2365 
e'l'1S   °f,  9id   Sa.Iem    Houses,   Salem,    Mass 

bamuel    Mclntire,    Architect,   2366 
Kenosha    Hospital,    Kenosha,    Wis       N     Max 

Dunning,   Architect,   2356. 
Old  Ladies'  Home,  Salem,  Mass.    Samuel  Mc- 

PriMellM   B«i.WinK? 'Havana,   Cuba.     Kenneth 

M    Murchison,  Architect.  2365 
Riverdale     Country    Club,    Riverdale      N     Y 
SI    Ue'r1  He  K    BaUm'   Architect,   2367 


-  A 

House  of  Mr.  C.  D.  Barnes,  Kenosha,  Wis.    N. 

Max  Dunning,  Architect,  2359. 
House  of  Mr.  B.  Austin  Cheney,  New   ii;iv.  ... 
Conn.     Rossiter  &  Muller,  Architects,  2368. 
House  of  Mr.  Cyril  Crimmins,  Noroton,  Conn. 

Raymond  M.  Hood,  Architect,  2359. 
House  of  Mr.  Norman  Ellison,  Chestnut  Hill. 
Pa.      Robert     R.     McGoodwin,    Architect, 

House  of  Mr.   Spencer  Erwin,   Chestnut   Hill, 
Pa.       Robert     R.     McGoodwin,     Architect, 
House  of  Mr.  Louis  A.   Ferguson,   Evanston, 

111.     Holabird  &  Roche,  Architects,  2363. 
House   of   Mr.    G.    S.    Gaylord,    Neenah,    Wis. 

Childs  &  Smith,   Architects,   2369. 
House    of   Mr.    A.    C.    Gilbert,    Neenah,    Wis 

Childs    &    Smith,    Architects,    2351. 
House    of    Mr.    John    W.    Griffin,    Fieldston, 
N.    Y.      Dwight    James    Baum,    Architect, 

House  of  Mr.  Tames  J.  Hill,  Westbury,  L    I, 
N.    Y.      Walker    &    Gillette,    Architects, 
House    of  Mr.    Ralph    Isham,    Santa    Barbara 

Cal.    Childs    &   Smith,   Architects,   2351 
House  of  Mr.  R.  E.  Lewis,   Hartsdale,  N.   Y. 

Dwight   James   Baum,   Architect,   2367 
House  of  Mr.  Norman  Mackie,  Chestnut  Hill, 
Pa.      Robert     R.     McGoodwin,     Architect, 

House  of  Mr.  Clarence  McDaniel,  Hartsdale, 

.    N.  Y.     Julius   Gregory,   Architect,  2362. 
House    of    Mr.    Chapin    S.    Pratt,    Bronxville, 

N.  Y.     Bates  &  How,  Architects,  2365 
House    of    Mr.     Walter    Schwartz,     Chestnut 

Hill,    Pa.      Robert    R.    McGoodwin,    Archi- 

tect, 2369. 
House   of   Mr.    M.   A.    Shea,    Fieldston,    N    Y 

Dwight  James  Baum,  Architect,  2367 
"Ae-,j     Mr-   Mowry   Smith,    Menasha,   Wis 

Childs   &  Smith,   Architects,   2364 
House    of    Mr.    Andrew    V.    Stout,    Redbank. 

"•   J.     J°nn   Russell    Pope,   Architect,  2368. 
House  of  Mr.   Laurence  M.  Thompson.   Mon 

tro»e,    Pa.      Lewis    E.    Welsh,    Architect, 

House  of  Mr.  Robert  J.  Thorne,  Lake  Forest, 
III.  John  W.  McKecknie,  Architect;  N 
Max  Dunning,  Associate  Architect  2359 

House  of  Mr.  Joseph  E.  Tilt,  Chicago.  Hola- 
bird  &  Roche,  Architects,  2363. 

Ho"?c  of  Mr.  F.  C.  Traver,  Kenilworth,  III 
N.  Max  Dunning,  Architect,  2354. 

\f  £rf  Mlr\  Robert  E-  Ward'  Wilmette,  111 
N.  Max  Dunning,   Architect,  2354. 
T!?M  °f    Dr-    George    Woodward,    Chestnut 
tec"'  2369  '  McG°°dwin,    Archi- 

House  of  Mr    E   I.  Woodworth,  Passaic,  N.  T. 

John   F.  Jackson,  Architect.  2364. 
House    of    Mr     Herman    Younker.    Elmsford. 

W.  Y.     Buchman  &  Kahn,  Architects    2365 
Baldwin-Lyman    House,    Salem.    Mass       Sam- 

uel Mclntire,  Architect,  2366 

CibS^.fi«tV1iOW  Fouse'  Sale™.  Mass. 
Samuel  Mclntire.  Architect,  2366 


.  , 

Jeffrey    Lang    House,    Salem,    Mass.  '    Samuel 
Mclntire,   Architect,  2366. 

House  at  Chestnut   Hill,  Pa.     Robert  R    Me 
Goodwin.  Architect,  2369 
CSonn     MarmDu™%Arm  strong,  Greenwich, 
«n.    James  C.  Green,  Architect,  2365. 





Figures  refer  to  the  number  of  the  issue,  not  to  the  text  pages 

Santa    Barbara: — 

House    of    Mr.    Ralph    Isham.      Childs    & 
Smith,   Architects,  2351. 

Connecticut — 

Bridgeport : — 
Fire  and  Police  Station.     Leonard  Asheim, 

Architect,  2369. 
Greenwich: — 

House   of   Mr.    Duane    Armstrong.     James 
C.  Green,  Architect,  2365. 

Hartford    Times    Building.     Donn    Barber, 
Architect.  2365. 
New  Britain: — 

State    Normal    School    Competition.     Guil- 
bert    &    Betelle,    W.    F.    Brooks,    Aymar 
Embury,    II,    Archiects,    2352. 
New  Haven: — 
House  of  Mr.  B.  Austin  Cheney.    Rossitcr 

&   Muller,   Architects,   2368. 
House  of  Mr.  Cyril   Crimmins.     Raymond 

M.   Hood,  Architect,  2359. 

Primelles   Building.     Kenneth  M.   Murchi- 
son,   Architect,   2365. 

Illinois — 

American    Book    Co.      N.    Max    Dunning, 

Architect,  2356. 
Bethany   Bible  School.     N.   Max  Dunning, 

Architect,  2354. 
Building   for    Beckley-Ralston   Co.      Hola- 

bird  &  Roche,  Architects,  2364. 
Building  for  R.  T.  Ederer  Co.    Holabird  & 

Roche,   Architects,  2364. 
Building  for  Maxwell  Sales  Co.     Holabird 

&   Roche,  Architects    2364. 
Cosmopolitan     State     Bank.       Richard     E. 
Schmidt,    Garden    &   Martin,   Architects, 

Hotel    Webster.      Fridstein    &    Co.,    Engi- 
neers, 2362. 
House  of  Mr.  Joseph  E.  Tilt.     Holabird  & 

Roche,  Architects,  2363. 
Dixpn : — 
Dixon    National    Bank    Building.     N.    Max 

Dunning,   Architect,  2356. 
Dixon    Telephone    Co.      N.    Max    Dunning, 

Architect,  2356. 
Kvanston: — 

House  of  Mr.   Louis   A.    Ferguson.     Hola- 
bird &  Roche,  Architects,  2363. 
Kenilworth: — 
House  of  Mr.  F.  C.  Traver.    N.  Max  Dun. 

ning,   Architect,  2354. 
Lake   Forest: — 

House  of  Robert  J.  Thorpe,  John   W.   Mc- 
Kecknie,    Architect;    N.    Max    Dunning, 
Associate  Architect,  2359. 
Urbana: — 
Wesley  Foundation,  University  of  Illinois. 

Holabird   &  Roche,  Architects,  2364. 

House  of  Mr.   Robert   E.   Ward.     N.   Max 
Dunning,  Architect,  2354. 

Massachusetts — 

Boston: — 

Noyes-Buick    Building.     Arthur    H.    Bow- 
ditch,   Architect,   2357. 

Store  Building  for  Penncll,  Gibbs  &  Quir- 
ing Co.     H.  B.  Pennell,  Architect,  2362. 
Boston,   South: — 

Broadway    Theatre.      Blackall,     Clapp     & 

Whittemore,  Architects,  2369. 
Salem: — 

Baldwin-Lyman    House,   Samuel   Mclntire, 
Architect,    2366. 

Cabot-Endicott-Low   House.     Samuel   Mc- 
lntire,   Architect,   2366. 

Details    of    Old    Salem    Houses.      Samuel 
Mclntire,    Architect,   2366. 

Jeffrey    Lang    House.      Samuel    Mclntire, 
Architect,  2366. 

Old     Ladies'     Home.       Samuel     Mclntire, 
Architect,  2363. 

Pickering       House.         Samuel       Mclntire, 
Architect,  2366. 

Pierce-Nichols    House.     Samuel    Mclntire, 
Architect,  2363. 

Richard-Derby    House.     Samuel    Mclntire, 
Architect,  2366. 

Stearns   House.     Samuel   Mclntire,   Archi- 
tect, 2366. 

Community   Building.     Davis,   McGrath   & 

Kiesling,   Architects,  2365. 
Industrial  Savings  Bank  Building.     Davis, 
McGrath  &  Kiesling,  Architects,  2365. 

Missouri — 

Kansas  City: — 

National  Cloak  &  Suit  Co.     N.   Max  Dun- 
ning,  Architect,   2354. 

New  Jersey — 

1'assaic: — 
House  of  Mr.   E.  I.   Woodworth.     John    F. 

Jackson,  Architect,  2364. 

House    of    Mr.    Andrew    V.    Stout.      John 
Russell  Pope,  Architect,  2368. 

New  York— 

Bronxville: — 
House  of  Mr.   Chapin   S.   Pratt.     Bates  & 

How,   Architects,   2365. 
House    of    Mr.    Herman    Younker.     Buch- 

man  &  Kahn,  Architect,  2365. 
Fieldston: — 
House    of    Mr.    John    W.    Griffin.      Dwigbt 

James  Baum,  Architect,  2367. 
House  of  Mr.  M.  A.  Shea.     Dwight,  James 

Baum,  Architect,   2367. 
House  of  Mr.  R.  E.  Lewis.    Dwight  James 

Baum,   Architect,   2367. 
House   of  Mr.   Clarence   McDaniel.     Julius 

Gregory,  Architect,  2362. 
Loudenville: — 

Mendelson    Memorial   Chapel.      Lewis   Colt 
Albro,   Architect,   2368. 

New  York:— 
Ambassador   Hotel.     Warren    &  Wetmore, 

Architects,  2370. 
Borden     Building.       Buchman     &     Kahn, 

Architect,  2365. 
Gotham    National    Bank    Building.      Som- 

merfeld  &  Steckler,  Architects,  2361. 
Guaranty  Trust    Company,    Fifth   Avenue. 

Cross  &  Cross,  Architects,  2365. 
Loft    Building.      Robert    D.    Kohn,    Archi- 
tect, 2368. 
Store  of  Richard  Hudnut.     G.    A.   and   H. 

Boehm,  Architects,  2364. 
Straus,  S.  W.,  &  Co.  Building.     Warren  & 

Wetmore,   Architects,  2370. 
Town     Hall.       McKim,     Mead     &     White, 

Architects,  2355. 
Riverdale: — 
Riverdale    Country    Club.      Dwight    James 

Baum,  Architect,  2367. 
Syracuse: — 
Blodgett      Vocational      School,      Delaware 

School.      James    A.     Randall,    Architect, 


Westbury,  L.  I.:— 
House    of    Mr.    James   J.   Hill.      Walker    & 

Gillette,  Architects.  2350. 

Oregon — 


Scottish  Rite  Cathedral  Competition- 
First  Prize  Design.  Sutton  &  Whitney, 
Architects,  2361. 

Pennsylvania — 

Chestnut  Hill:— 
House   at   Chestnut    Hill,    Pa.     Robert    R. 

McGoodwin,  Architect,  2369. 
House  of  Mr.  Norjnan  Ellison.     Robert  R. 

McGoodwin,    Architect.    2369. 
House   of  Mr.    Spencer   Erwin.     Robert   R. 

McGoodwin,   Architect,   2369. 
House  of  Mr.  Norman  Mackie.    Robert  R. 

McGoodwin,  Architect,  2369. 
House    of   Mr.    Walter    Schwartz.      Roberl 

R.  McGoodwin,  Architect,  2369. 
House   of  Dr.   George  Woodward.     Robert 

R.  McGoodwin,  Architect,  2369. 
Montrpse: — 
House    of    Mr.    Laurence    M.     Thompson. 

Lewis  E.  Welsh,  Architect,  2365. 

Wisconsin — 


House  of  Mr.  C.  D.  Barnes.  N.  Max  Dun- 
ning. Architect,  2359. 

Kenosha  Hospital.  N.  Max  Dunning, 
Architect,  2356. 

Newell  Memorial  Chapel.  N.  Max  Dun- 
ning, Architect,  2356. 

Office    for    Simmons    Mfg.     Co.      N.    Max 

Dunning,   Architect,  2354. 
Menasha: — 

First  National  Bank.  Childs  &  Smith, 
Architects,  2351. 

House  of  Mr.  Mowry  Smith.  Childs  & 
Smith,  Architects,  2364. 

Menasha  Cafe.  Childs  &  Smith,  Archi- 
tects, 2364. 

"House   of  Mr.    G.    S.    Gaylord.     Childs    & 

Smith.   Architects.  2369. 

House    of    Mr.    A.    C.    Gilbert.      Childs    & 
Smith,    Architects,    2351. 

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JANCAUY  TO  Jr.NK.  1921 

an iiinnuittiN uiini'iniiiii iiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iNiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiii '! »'ii«iiiin n m 

iininiiiiiiniiHiin iiiiniiiiii niiiiimiiinii iiiiinimii " «1[l l:l ' 

The  American  Architect 

Specification     Manual  for    1921 

THE  American  Architect  Specification  Manual,  edition  of 
1921,  is  now  being  prepared  and  will  be  ready  for  dis- 
tribution about  August  1st. 

We  publish  this  volume  as  a  service  rendered  to  the  profes- 
sion which  supports  our  publication,  and  copies  of  the  Manual 
will  be  supplied  (until  the  stock  is  distributed)  free  of  charge 
to  all  practicing  architects  sending  us  requests  on  their  office 
stationery.  Many  requests  for  the  1921  edition  have  already 
reached  us,  and  we  suggest  that  promptness  in  forwarding 
these  requests  is  desirable  in  order  to  secure  a  volume  before 
the' stock  is  exhausted. 

We  take  this  opportunity  to  express  appreciation  of  the 
cordial  welcome  given  previous  editions  of  the  Manual. 
These  were  supplied  to  more  than  3,000  architects  in 
America,  and  have  proved  of  practical  value  in  the  prepara- 
tion of  specifications,  as  evidenced  by  hundreds  of  letters 
received  by  us  from  architectural  offices  heartily  commend- 
ing the  work. 

The  1921  edition  will  be  of  greater  size  and  importance  than 
its  predecessors,  and  will  contain  more  than  170  specifica- 
tions of  standard  building  materials  and  processes.  These 
specifications  embody  in  condensed  language  the  result  of 
many  years  of  experience  of  hundreds  of  experts  in  the  use  of 
the  materials  and  methods  specified. 

Mr.  Gardner  C.  Coughlen,  Executive  Secretary  of  the  Amer- 
ican Specification  Institute,  is  acting  as  editor  of  the  1921 
Manual.  This  is  an  indication  of  the  quality  of  the  form  of 
the  specification  material. 

The  American  Architect 

ll""l""l""i"» " ' IIIIIIIIII!J" »»11 ™»"»»«' ' »»»'« ' "m. „   ,, „„„„„„„ „ ,„„„„„„ ,„„ „,„„„„., „, ^J 







NUMBER  2350 

The  Practice  of  Architecture  in  1921 

The  Future  as  Viewed  by  C.  H.  Blackall,  F.  A.  I.  A. 

IN  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  of  June  5,  1918, 
when  the  hopes  of  the  great  war  were  at  their 
lowest  ebb.  the  writer  ventured  to  make  certain 
predictions  as  to  what  architecture  would  be  after 
the  war.  So  far  not  one  of  those  predictions  has 
come  true.  The  much  anticipated  revival  of  business 
has  not  taken  place.  There  have  been  sporadic  de- 
velopments, and  a' few  of  the  favored  ones  have  been 
very  busy,  but  building  as  a  whole  has  not  flourished 
since  the  war  in  any  general  locality,  and  if  we  may 
make  some  rough  approximations  from  general  sta- 
tistics, there  are  not  as  many  architects  in  practice 
today  as  there  were  in  1918,  and  the  amount  of  work 
available  is  very  much  less.  It  would  be  very  easy, 
and  perhaps  quite  natural,  to  deduce  from  this  that 
the  prospects  are  altogether  disappointing,  that  the 
hopes  we  had  cherished  in  the  time  of  our  stress 
were  not  justified  and  that  the  future  is  no  more 
clear  now  that  it  was  then.  Now  what  is  the 
answer  ? 

The  eclipse  which  the  profession  suffered  during 
the  war  has  fairly  passed  away.  In  fact,  even  dur- 
ing the  latter  years  of  the  war  some  of  the  most  im- 
portant war  work  was  entrusted  to  members  of  our 
profession,  not  merely  the  housing,  which  after  all 
was  simply  a  pot-boiler,  but  the  more  serious  engi- 
neering works  which  assumed  the  magnitude  of  mon- 
uments ;  and  we  are  as  a  profession  in  a  better  shape 
to  handle  our  work  because  of  the  experiences  which 
we  had,  and  especially  because  of  the  chastening  in- 
difference which  the  public  and  the  authorities  evinced 
for  several  years  to  our  high  professional  claims.  As 
I  see  it,  the  profession  is  more  nearly  on  a  business 
basis  than  ever  before.  The  discussions  which  took 
place  in  the  last  convention  of  the  American  Insti- 
tute of  Architects  were  on  the  whole  so  eminently 
practical  and  so  free  from  mere  professionalism  that 
they  showed  how  we  have  been  forced  to  look  at  our 
calling,  and  there  has  been  such  a  wide-spread  interest 
in  the  business  and  the  so-called  practical  side  of 
architecture  that  there  must  be  something  behind  it 
more  than  the  mere  desire  of  the  members  of  the 
profession  to  get  work.  In  fact,  one  of  the  character- 

istics of  the  attitude  of  the  profession  has  been  that 
it  ought  not  to  try  to  get  work.  Perhaps  it  would 
have  been  better  if  we  had  tried  more  earnestly  and 
more  intelligently;  perhaps  we  would  have  more 
work  and  more  public  esteem  if  we  were  more  ready 
to  take  part  in  the  constant  fight  for  recognition  ;  per- 
haps we  would  stand  higher  if  we  were  not  so  re- 
tiring. Surely  when  so  much  emphasis  is  placed  on 
the  manner  of  doing  and  getting  our  work,  and  on 
the  necessity  of 'doing  our  work  right  from  the  busi- 
ness and  scientific  as  well  as  the  imaginative  side,  it 
is  pretty  good  evidence  that  the  profession  has  cast 
away  a  very  considerable  proportion  of  the  purely 
professional  attitude  which  so  hampered  it  during 
the  war. 

From  the  standpoint  of  carrying  out  our  work, 
there  is  every  reason  to  anticipate  conditions  will  con- 
stantly improve  in  the  next  few  months.    Also  in  our 
offices  conditions  will  improve.     Few  of  the  young 
men  who  entered  the  service  of  the  government  dur- 
ing the  war  came  out  of  it  with  credit.    They  shared 
in  the  general  let-down  which  affected  all  classes  and 
conditions,  not  excepting  the  architects  themselves, 
and  we  were  forced  to  put  up  with  indifferent  co- 
operation and  inefficient  assistance.  That  is  changing 
fast,  and  by  spring  we  will  have  a  better  choice  of 
help  and  more  hearty  co-operation  than  we  have  had 
for  six  years.     That  will  mean  better  architecture. 
better  satisfaction  to  our  clients  and  a  better  feeling 
on  all  sides.    As  to  what  part  of  the  work  will  come 
to  us  in  the  future,  opinions  may  vary,  but  there  are 
a  number  of  cases  which  have  been  noted  where  the 
architect  has  resumed  not  only  his  past  importance  as 
a  director  of  work,  but  where  he  has  been  looked  to 
in  a  degree  which  would  have  been  impossible  before 
the  days  of  the  war.     In  one  city  the  writer  knows 
of  a  large  project  involving  tens  of  millions  which  a 
few  years  ago  would  have  come  to  the  architect  only 
after  all  the  preliminaries  were  decided,  but  in  this 
case  the  architects  were  called  in  first  and  were  able 
to  assist  at  the  very  beginning  of  the  whole  con- 
ception.    This  is  only  one  of  the  many  instances 
which  are  on  record. 

Copyright,  1931,  The  Architectural  if  Building  Press  (Inc.) 


As  to  how  much  work  the  architects  will  have,  it 
is  my  belief  that  those  who  have  had  in  the  past  and 
have  shown  their  ability  will  have  a  great  deal  more ; 
that  as  a  result  of  the  stress  of  the  war  period,  the 
public  will  be  more  cautious  about  accepting  an  archi- 
uvt  -imply  because  he  is  a  good  fellow,  or  well  con- 
nected, and  that  the  profession  will  see  more  than 
ever  before  the  rise  of  the  architect,  or  architectural 
organization,  controlling  many  millions  of  work,  and 
the  subordination  of  the  men  of  limited  experience 
and  ability  to  the  smaller  work.  This  is  inevitable  and 
will  mean  better  architecture,  better  execution,  and 
in  the  long  run  better  professional  feeling.  One  archi- 
tectural combination  is  reported  as  having  work  run- 
ning up  to  seventy-five  millions  of  dollars.  It  is  a  fair 
probability  that  this  concern  with  seventy  millions  of 
work  will  do  it  better,  more  thoroughly,  more  effi- 
ciently and  more  economically  than  would  have  been 
possible  at  any  time  before  the  war  for  an  architect, 
or  group  of  architects,  to  do  one-tenth  part  of  that 
work.  The  war  lessons  have  not  all  been  hard.  Some 
of  them  we  have  been  able  to  take  very  much  to 
heart,  and  the  most  valuable,  as  I  see  it,  is  the  need  of 

association,  the  impossibility  of  one  man  doing  it 
all,  and  the  inevitableness  of  the  concentration  of 
large  work  in  the  hands  of  the  few  who  are  best  fitted 
for  it.  This  may  seem  like  restricting  the  hopes  of 
the  young  men.  On  the  contrary,  it  greatly  increases 
the  horizon  for  every  yourig  man  who  will  take  the 
pains  to  fit  himself  properly  for  his  profession,  for 
the  opportunities  of  the  profession  are  not  measured 
by  the  average  chance,  but  by  the  higher  prizes ;  and 
with  the  country  suffering  as  it  does  now  from  under- 
building in  every  line,  with  the  vast  accumulation  of 
wealth  in  the  hands  of  banks,  trustees,  insurance  com- 
panies and  the  like,  which  will  be  readily  available  for 
legitimate  building  operations,  I  look  to  see  a  revival 
of  building  such  as  the  world  has  never  seen  be- 
fore, when  we  will  have  opportunities  measured  only 
by  our  capabilities,  when  those  who  are  able  to  take, 
will  have  both  hands  full.  But  we  must  not,  and  we 
cannot,  forget  the  lessons  of  the  war,  nor  ignore  the 
extent  to  which  we  must  live  up  to  the  best  of  our 
profession  and  must  treat  our  calling  as  a  very  exact- 
ing business,  a  very  definite  science  and  the  highest 
art  which  man  can  make  manifest  in  this  world. 

The    Relationship    between    Architecture 

and  Building 

The  Present  Conditions  and  Future  Prosperity  of  the  Building  Industry 

By  Louis  JAY  HOROWITZ,  President,  Thompson-Starrett  Co. 

asked  me  to  express  in  this  article  my  views 
as  to  the  relationship  between  architect  and 
builder,  and  the  present  condition  and  future  pros- 
pects of  the  building  industry.    One  may,  at  best,  of- 
fer only  a  surmise  as  to  what  is  in  store  for  the  in- 
dustry in  the  near  future,  but  of  the  absolute  need  of 
co-operation  between  Architect  and  Builder  in  every 
operation,  I  may  be  allowed  to  speak  with  sympathy 
and  conviction. 

I  am  unalterably  opposed  to  the  methods  of  some 
contractors  who  seek  to  dispense  with  the  architect 
and  who  attempt  to  embrace  in  their  activities  both 
the  design  of  a  building  and  its  execution.  I  am 
opposed  to  it,  not  from  any  sentimental  reason  for 
the  architect,  but  from  purely  business  reasons  for 
the  owner.  The  designing  and  planning  of  buildings 
is  in  itself  a  special  and  separate  study,  and  the  con- 
tractor who  treats  it  as  just  one  more  addition  to  the 
great  variety  of  his  labors  is  not  only  slighting  the 

architect's  profession,  but  disparaging  architecture 
itself,  and  needs  to  be  reminded  (loth  as  I  am  to  ad- 
mit it!)  that  architects  are  remembered  when  build- 
ers are  forgotten.  Sir  Christopher  Wren  designed 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  but  who  built  it?  However, 
the  architect's  case  does  not  rest  on  tradition  alone, 
but  on  efficiency.  His  is  a  cereer  of  true  specializa- 
tion, and  with  the  constantly  rising  cost  of  space  in 
modern  cities,  it  is  sheer  folly  to  underestimate  the 
services  of  one  who  devotes  his  talents  to  utilizing  it 
to  the  best  advantage. 

Obversely,  I  may  be  permitted  the  privilege  of 
saying,  that  the  contractor  cannot  wisely  be  dis- 
pensed with  by  the  architect.  Indeed,  this  must  be 
so,  or  the  other  side  of  the  argument  falls  to  the 
ground.  A  properly-conducted  building  operation  de- 
mands the  services  of  both  architect  and  contractor, 
and,  for  either  to  dismiss  the  services  of  the  other  as 
superfluous,  is  to  create  a  situation  inherently  un- 
sound and  unsafe.  I  will  not  assume  to  define  the 


limits  of  the  architect's  work,  but  I  violate  no  con- 
fidence when  I  say,  that  the  contractor's  end  of  the 
proposition,  if  skillfully  and  conscientiously  handled, 
will  provide  his  organization  with  all  it  can  do.  In 
these  days  of  collusive  bidding,  complex  transporta- 
tion problems,  high  wages,  shortage  of  skilled  me- 
chanics, and  other  economic  difficulties,  a  contractor 
has  enough  to  do  to  cope  with  his  own  tasks  without 
assuming  those  for  which  he  is  not  fitted.  It  is  de- 
plorable that  many  contractors  fail  either  to  appre- 
ciate the  gravity  of  these  problems  or  to  overcome 
them,  and  certainly  any  attempt  to  enlarge  upon 
their  difficulties  by  adding  architecture  to  the  list, 
may  be  set  down  as  due  to  an  excess  of  zeal  for  their 
own  interests  at  the  expense  of  the  client. 

Still  another  advantage  in  having  an  architect  is 
that  he  is  equipped  to  supervise  and  check  the  work 
of  the  contractors,  and  to  see  that  promises  of  speed 
and  economy  are  kept  without  sacrificing  the  spe- 
cifications. Having  no  financial  interest  in  the  build- 
ing beyond  his  fee,  he  is  detached  and  impartial,  can 
be  depended  upon  to  see  that  justice  is  done  to  his 
client,  and  is  ideally  situated  to  act  in  an  advisory  and 
supervisory  capacity.  Obviously,  when  an  architect 
takes  the  contractor's  place,  too,  he  loses  much  of 
that  detachment  and  impartiality,  for  however  zeal- 
ous his  dual  labors  as  both  architect  and  contractor 
his  zeal  can  hardly  be  expected  to  include  criticism 
of  his  own  work !  And  in  any  event  his  fee  is  in- 
adequate to  maintain  a  great  organization  on  his 
payroll,  and  without  such  an  organization  the  work 
is  bound  to  suffer  in  efficiency  and  to  expand  in  cost. 

Coming  to  the  second  part  of  my  assignment,  the 
present  condition  of  the  building  industry  is  obvious- 
ly due  to  three  changes  : 

1.  Universal  business  depression. 

2.  Inability  in  many  instances  to  finance  building 

3.  Disposition  of  owners  to  wait  for  stabilizing 
of  material  and  labor  costs. 

The  pre.-;ent  depression  is,  of  course,  one  of  the 
aftermaths  of  the  great  conflict,  and  no  man  can  say 
just  how  long  it  will  continue.  One  may  only  hazard 
a  guess,  and  risk  the  prophecy.  But  it  is  my  per- 
sonal opinion  that  most  of  the  drastic  processes  of 
post-war  readjustment  should  be  over  in  the  early 
part  of  1921  and  that  we  may  reasonably  look  for 
a  gradual  recrudescence  of  confidence  from  that  time 
on.  It  may  be  argued  that  the  present  chaos  in  Wall 
street — which  is  the  barometer  of  economic  cycles — 
hardly  justifies  a  spirit  of  optimism  at  this  time.  But 
my  own  conviction  is,  that  that  is  just  what  it  does 
justify.  The  great  consolation  in  having  things  so 
bad  that  they  cannot  be  worse,  is  that  they  have 
got  to  get  better.  It  is  blackest  before  the  dawn,  and 
swift  as  have  been  the  disillusionments  of  recent 
months,  the  restoration  of  confidence  will  be  swifter 
still  when  it  starts,  for  the  world  reacts  to  prosperity 
as  its  rightful  heritage,  but  has  no  use  for  trouble. 
With  a  return  of  confidence  money  will  be  easier, 
building  loans  more  readily  available,  and  to  em- 
ploy Webster's  famous  figure  (though  times  are  not 
so  bad  as  when  he  used  it)  "The  corpse  of  public 
credit  will  spring  to  its  feet." 

As  for  building  costs,  I  do  not  luok  fur  any  re- 
duction in  the  scale  of  wages ;  but  inasmuch  as  labor 
is  much  more  efficient  today  than  it  has  been  for  sev- 
eral years  past,  higher  wages  will  be  absorbed  by 
more  skillful  and  competent  workmanship.  Neither 
do  I  look  for  any  substantial  reduction  in  the  cost  of 
building  materials,  though  it  is  sure  to  take  place  in 
such  lines  as  have  been  unduly  susceptible  to  in- 
flation. But  I  believe  that  many  materials,  such  as 
lumber,  for  example,  are  selling  well  below  produc- 
tion cost  at  this  time  on  account  of  forced  liquidation 
to  raise  cash.  There  is,  in  other  words,  no  serious 
obstacle  beyond  the  cited  shortage  of  confidence  and 
credit  to  prevent  much  longer  a  period  of  great 
building  activity  to  take  care  of  requirements  whose 
figures  are  estimated  at  five  billions  of  dollars. 

The  Relationship  between  the  Architect 

and  the  Engineer 

An  Interview  with  Kort  Berle,  M.  Am.Soc.  C.  E.,  of  the  Firm  of  Gunvald  Aus 
Company,  Consulting  Engineers,  New  York  City 

AFTER  a  very  full  and  free  discussion  with 
Mr.  Berle  of  the  relationship  between  the 
architect  and  engineer  as  it  exists  and  as  it 
should  be  one  could  not  avoid  carrying  away  the 
impression  that  if  the  feeling  of  admiration  and 
rstrrm  and  the  attitude  of  helpful  co-operation 
which  exists  between  this  engineering  firm  and  some 
of  its  clients  could  prevail  throughout  the  two  pro- 
fessions there  would  be  no  need  of  any  discussion  of 
this  much  debated  subject.  But  Mr.  Berle  feels 
that  ideal  relationship  does  not  generally  exist,  and 
for  this  condition  he  believes  the  architects  them- 
selves are  largely  to  blame. 

"What,  in  your  opinion,"  we  asked  Mr.  Berle. 
"could  and  should  be  done  to  improve  present  con- 
ditions?" His  answer  was  readily  forthcoming. 

"Simply  a  recognition  on  the  part  of  architects  of 
the  highly  professional  nature  of  engineering  which 
makes  possible  the  erection  of  structures  which 
arouse  the  awe  of  our  European  visitors.  The  archi- 
tect frequently  views  the  structural  engineer  as  no 
more  than  a  draftsman  capable  only  of  pushing  a 
slide  rule  in  figuring  the  size  of  beams  and  getting 
out  structural  drawings.  In  this  conception  he  is  en- 
tirely at  fault.  The  ability  to  compute  loads  and 
stresses  and  set  forth  the  results  by  drawings  is  in- 
deed a  necessary  attribute  for  the  engineer  engaged 
in  building  construction,  but  engineering  is  much 
more  than  this,  as  any  architect  of  important  struc- 
tures will  realize.  The  failure  on  the  part  of  archi- 
tects to  recognize  and  properly  evaluate  the  services 
of  the  engineer,  and  to  accord  him  a  place  as  an  as- 
sociate, tends  to  place  the  engineer  in  a  position  so 
subordinate  that  it  is  unfair.  How  often,  event  on 
buildings  of  great  magnitude,  is  the  name  of  the  en- 
gineer mentioned?  In  the  presentation  of  work  in 
the  architectural  press,  the  engineer's  name  is  almost 
invariably  conspicuous  by  its  absence.  Surely  the 
mention  of  the  man  upon  whose  work  the  stability 
of  the  structure  depends  would  in  no  way  detract 
from  the  credit  accruing  to  the  architect.  Architects 
decry  the  practice  of  the  daily  press  in  so  often  omit- 
ting any  mention  of  the  architect's  name,  yet  in  their 
own  press  they  very  often  deny  the  engineer  the  same 
recognition  for  which  they — however  justly — criti- 
cise others. 

"I  have  often  talked  over  this  matter  with  promi- 
nent architects,  and  they  feel  that  my  attitude  on  this 

subject  is  absolutely  correct,  and  that  in  order  to 
foster  a  greater  co-operation  and  a  more  friendly 
feeling  between  these  brother  professions,  the  archi- 
tect must  recognize  the  engineer  as  a  fellow  profes- 
sional man,  and  not  merely  as  a  subordinate. 

"I  do  not  wish  in  any  way  to  depreciate  the  splen- 
did work  of  the  architects,  and  am  greatly  gratified 
lo  see  a  constant  improvement  in  building  design." 

Mr.  Berle  then  led  the  writer  around  the  office, 
pointing  out  pictures  of  various  structures  ranging 
from  the  humble  warehouse  to  the  lofty  Woolworth 
Tower,  and  called  my  attention  to  their  excellent  ar- 
chitectural treatment,  over  which  he  waxed  so  en- 
thusiastic that  one  would  have  thought  him  an  artist 
rather  than  the  keen,  calculating  engineer  that  he  is. 
Probably  his  former  connection  as  Chief  Engineer 
of  the  Supervising  Architect's  office  in  Washington 
and  his  many  years  of  close  contact  with  some  of  our 
foremost  architects,  have  much  to  do  with  his  high 
appreciation  of  art  in  architecture. 

Since  in  several  recent  instances  structural  engi- 
neers have  been  commissioned  by  the  owners  to  han- 
dle the  entire  work — both  architectural  and  engineer- 
ing— we  questioned  Mr.  Berle  as  to  his  views  on  such 
practices.  We  found  him  absolutely  convinced  that 
such  an  arrangement  was  all  wrong.  To  the  ar- 
rangement by  which  the  engineer  became  associated 
with  an  architectural  organization  as  a  member  of 
the  firm,  he  saw  no  particular  objection  and  felt  that 
such  combinations  led  to  a  better  understanding  be- 
tween the  members  of  both  professions,  while  at  the 
same  time  placing  them  on  an  absolutely  equal  foot- 
ing as  professional  men.  However,  except  where  the 
volume  of  business  handled  by  an  architectural  or- 
ganization was  very  large,  he  expressed  doubt  as  to 
the  possibility  of  the  engineer  member  of  the  firm 
keeping  busy  all  the  time  on  engineering  work. 
"Some  few  architects,"  said  Mr.  Berle,  "have  their 
structural  work  performed  in  their  own  office  by  the 
employment  of  an  engineer  and  assistants  on  a  sal- 
ary basis.  It  should  be  self-evident  that  such  an  ar- 
rangement cannot  properly  fulfill  requirements.  For 
it  is  safe  to  say  that  no  engineer  of  ability  and  high 
standing  in  his  profession  would  be  satisfied  to  hold 
so  subordinate  a  position  and  which,  necessarily, 
would  be  very  limited  as  to  compensation  and  ad- 
vancement as  well  as  to  scope  of  work." 

"In  my  opinion,"  said  Mr.  Berle,  "the  best  inter- 


ests  are  served  by  the  architect  calling  to  his  assist- 
ance a  consulting  engineer  of  the  highest  reputation 
and  one  in  whom  he  can  place  absolute  confidence. 
He  should  call  upon  him  to  co-operate  in  the  work 
from  its  earliest  preliminary  stages.  By  such  an  ar- 
rangement the  architect  can  secure  the  very  highest 
type  of  engineering  service  and  he  is  obliged  to  pay 
only  for  the  work  performed." 

The  importance  of  this  close  co-operation  during 
all  stages  of  the  work,  and  of  the  architect  immedi- 
ately calling  to  the  attention  of  the  engineer  any 
changes,  he  illustrated  by  mentioning  an  instance  in 
which  on  a  certain  piece  of  work  a  20  in.  by  80  Ib. 
I-beam  was  to  span  an  entrance  opening.  Due  to  a 
change  in  the  fagade  requiring  a  shallower  beam, 
the  size  specified  was  replaced  by  two  12  in.  by  40 
Ib.  I-beams  without  the  engineer's  knowledge.  The 
result  was  unfortunate  in  that  the  excess  deflection 
of  the  beams  caused  very  serious  cracks  in  the  stone 
faqade.  In  this  case  2  +  2  did  not  equal  4. 

WE  next  discussed  bridges  and  the  desirability 
of  architectural  treatment  on  such  structures. 
Here  we  found  Mr.  Berle  placed  the  highest  im- 
portance upon  architectural  co-operation.  He  pointed 
to  the  Hell  Gate  bridge  as  a  most  excellent  example. 
But  in  such  work  he  felt  the  order  should  be  re- 
vised— that  while  in  building  design  the  architect 
should  be  the  guiding  head.  "We  must  have  a  head 
to  everything,  you  know,"  he  said — and  the  engineer 
his  co-operating  associate,  in  the  case  of  bridges  the 
engineer  should  be  the  directing  head,  and  the  archi- 
tect the  co-operating  associate.  "I  would  be  the  last 
to  depreciate  the  value  of  aesthetically  designed 
structures,  and  certainly,  beauty  of  line  should  be  an 
object  sought  for  in  the  design  of  any  bridge."  In 
the  matter  of  bridge  approaches,  he  felt  the  architect 
could  render  and  has  already  rendered  most  valuable 

He  denounced  the  practice  of  some  architects  who 
seek  to  obtain  "free"  engineering  services  from  con- 
tracting firms,  such  as  the  design  of  their  structural 
work.  "While  this  service  is  free  to  the  architect," 
stated  Mr.  Berle,  "it  costs  money  to  some  one,  and 
although  it  may  be  indirectly  charged,  the  owner  ul- 
timately has  to  pay  for  it.  It  is  just  as  much  a  viola- 
tion of  a  proper  ethical  code  to  obtain  so-called  free 
engineering  service  as  to  endeavor  to  have  the  con- 
tractor furnish  free  architectural  service.  Both  are 
practised,  but  neither  is  conducive  to  the  best  inter- 
ests of  either  the  owner  or  the  two  professions,  and 
no  architect  can  in  the  long  run  continue  such 
methods  and  retain  either  his  self-respect  or  his  pro- 
fessional reputation." 

Another  point  Mr.  Berle  made  was  the  discrimina- 
tion between  the  structural  and  mechanical  engineer 
by  the  code  of  the  Institute.  It  is  here  stated  that 
the  mechanical  engineer  should  be  paid  a  fee  (on  the 
value  of  all  mechanical  equipment)  by  the  owner, 
whereas  no  such  distinction  is  made  in  the  case  of 
the  structural  engineer,  who  must  conduct  his  own 
negotiations  with  the  architect  as  to  the  amount  of 
his  fee,  which  the  architect  must  pay  out  of  his  own 
often-too-meager  compensation. 

"Why  not  at  least  put  both  structural  and  me- 
chanical engineer  in  the  same  class?"  he  queried. 
"In  justice  both  to  the  architect  and  the  structural 
engineer,  the  Institute  code  should  again  be  revised, 
so  that  all  engineering  services  be  paid  for  by  the 
owner.  This  would  perhaps,  more  than  anything 
else,  tend  to  make  the  relationship  between  the  two 
professions  more  nearly  what  it  should  be." 

In  closing,  Mr.  Berle  expressed  his  belief  that  a 
closer  co-operation  was  already  more  evident  and 
that  the  engineering  profession  welcomed  it.  The 
future  binges  entirely  on  a  better  understanding. 

The  Financial  Outlook 

By  FRANCIS  11.   S.SSON.   rice-President,  Guaranty  Trust  Company  of  New  York. 

WITH   economic   conditions   in   this   country 
fundamentally  sound,  the  great  need  of  the 
hour,  as  we  turn  from  retrospection  to  face 
the  prospects  of  the  New  Year,  is  constructive  think- 
ing.   If  faith  alone  has  moved  mountains,  surely  faith 
plus  brain  power  can  put  the  world  on  a  new  and 
stable  peace  basis. 

We  are  richly  endowed  with  all  the  assets  for  our 
full  participation  in  that  task  and  the  wonderful  fu- 
ture that  lies  ahead  of  us  when  the  task  shall  have 
been  completed— but  we  seem  to  lack  faith.  As  we 
stand  on  the  threshold  of  the  New  Year  and  of  the 
door  to  the  greatest  opportunities  ever  opened  to  any 
nation  in  all  history,  we  hesitate  and  doubt.  Like 
those  who  cannot  see  the  forest  for  the  trees,  we  are 
too  prone  to  exaggerate  our  liabilities  and  not  only 
belittle  but  even  ignore  our  vast  resources. 

Leadership  that  will  direct  our  national  thought 
into  logical  channels  and  more  in  accord  with  our 
manifest  destiny  is  imperatively  demanded  as  we 
enter  1921.  And  it  is  the  duty  of  the  Government, 
especially  Congress,  to  assume  that  leadership. 

Congress  has  never  faced  more  important  prob- 
lems than  those  which  confront  it  today.  It  is  faced 
with  the  necessity  of  not  only  enacting  constructive 
legislation  but  also  of  repealing  obstructive  laws. 

\Yhile  many  changes  should  be  made  in  our  exist- 
ing tax  law  in  the  interest  of  business  progress,  the 
first  and  most  important  step  in  tax  revision  should 
be  the  repeal  of  the  Excess  Profits  tax.  This  tax 
may  have  been  justified  as  a  war  measure,  but  it 
clearly  has  no  place  in  peace-time  legislation,  and 
few,  if  any,  tenable  arguments  can  be  advanced  in 
favor  of  its  retention.  On  the  other  hand,  the  argu- 
ments offered  against  it  have  become  so  familiar  that 
it  is  useless  to  discuss  them.  Let  it  suffice  to  say 
that  the  inequalities  resulting  from  its  application  are 
so  great  as  to  condemn  it  absolutely  and  fully  justify 
its  repeal  at  the  earliest  possible  moment. 

Although  the  adoption  of  a  budget  system  and  the 
introduction  of  a  more  economical  system  of  admin- 
istering the  Government  will  materially  reduce  the 
aggregate  amount  of  revenue  required  for  the  sup- 
port of  the  Government,  it  seems  likely  that  the  rapid 
fall  of  prices  which  we  are  now  experiencing  and  the 
existing  depression  in  business  will  adversely  affect 
the  amount  of  revenue  to  be  derived  from  income 
taxes.  It  will,  therefore,  be  incumbent  upon  Con- 
gress to  adopt  a  new  method  of  taxation  which  will 
serve  to  make  up  the  deficit  resulting  from  the  re- 
peal of  the  Excess  Profits  tax. 

SOME  form  of  sales  tax  at  a  low  rate  seems  to 
offer  the  least  objectionable  substitute  for  the 
Excess  Profits  tax,  since  it  would  be  most  produc- 

tive and  would  be  so  widely  distributed  that  it  would 
not  prove  unduly  burdensome.  Such  taxes  will  not 
have  the  tendency  to  encourage  extravagance  and 
penalize  business  efficiency,  as  is  the  case  with  the 
Excess  Profits  tax,  and,  on  the  other  hand,  from  the 
standpoint  of  the  Government,  will  not  be  subject  to 
great  fluctuation  in  periods  of  business  depression 
and  may  be  easily  administered.  Sales  taxes  can  no 
longer  be  regarded  as  experiments,  if  we  can  rely 
upon  the  reports  of  the  success  of  these  taxes  in 
Canada,  the  Philippines,  and  France,  and  to  a  limited 
degree  in  several  other  countries. 

The  great  burden  of  war  taxation  has  brought 
home  to  business  men  with  added  force  the  need  of 
adopting  as  a  permanent  part  of  our  machinery  of 
Government,  a  well-organized  budget  system  which 
will  result  in  the  placing  of  the  financial  operations 
of  the  Government  on  a  scientific  basis,  thereby  help- 
ing to  eliminate  waste  and  extravagance.  Legislation, 
to  this  end,  should  be  first  considered  by  Congress. 

Of  equal  importance,  as  compared  with  the  prob- 
lem of  taxation,  is  the  state  of  our  international 
relations  and  their  effect  on  our  present  and  future 
foreign  trade.  In  spite  of  the  fact  that  more  than 
two  years  have  elapsed  since  the  signing  of  the  armis- 
tice, we  are  still,  theoretically  at  least,  in  a  state  of 
war  with  Germany  and  her  allies.  No  doubt  exists 
as  to  the  necessity  for  the  establishment,  at  the 
earliest  possible  moment,  of  a  state  of  peace  with 
these  countries  and  the  strengthening  of  international 
economic  relations  with  the  whole  world.  While  it 
seems  probable  that  the  present  period  of  industrial 
depression  is  but  a  temporary  one  and  that  it  is  only 
a  question  of  time  before  our  industries  will  be 
functioning  as  usual,  it  is  quite  evident  that  our 
future  prosperity  is  largely  dependent  upon  our 
international  trade. 

Valuable  service  can  be  rendered  through  the  en- 
larging of  the  Government's  facilities  for  obtaining 
prompt  and  accurate  information  in  regard  to  condi- 
tions existing  in  foreign  countries  which  will  affect 
our  foreign  trade,  and  the  prompt  distribution  of 
this  information  to  business  concerns  who  can  use 

Of  equal  importance  with  the  enactment  of  legisla- 
tion necessary  to  placing  the  Government  on  a 
sound  business,  is  efficient  administration  of  existing 

Basically,  as  I  have  stated,  economic  conditions  in 
the  United  States  are  absolutely  sound,  and  what  is 
chiefly  needed  to  preserve  our  prosperity  is  just  com- 
mon-sense, constructive  co-operation  between  Con- 
gress and  the  progressive  business  interests  of  the 

The  Real  Estate  Outlook  for  1921 

A  Forecast  for  the  Year  by  One  of  the  Country's  Most  Prominent  Real  Estate 

Operators,  Who  Believes  Architects  to  Be  So  Important  in  Our 

Complex  Scheme  of  Civilization  that  They  "Can  Either 

Make  or  Break  Real  Estate  Values" 


REAL  estate,  not  only  in  New  York  City  and 
the  so-called  Metropolitan  Zone,  but  also 
throughout  the  entire  country,  has  had  a 
wonderful  period  of  prosperity  during  the  past  year, 
and  the  outlook  is  for  continued  activity  during  1921. 
The  scarcity  of  buildings  of  all  kinds  has  had  the 
effect  of  increasing  valuations  and  also  has  brought 
this  greatest  form  of  investment  into  stronger  hands 
than  ever  before  in  the  history  of  the  country. 

In  the  first  place  there  has  been  and  is  to-day  a 
distinct  shortage  of  places  of  residence.  The  war 
brought  on  a  recession  of  building  of  this  class  of 
structure,  except  in  certain  industrial  centres  where 
houses  were  erected  to  accommodate  the  war  worker. 
'  Private  operations  came  practically  to  a  standstill 
and  the  high  prices  precluded  the  possibility  of  spec- 
ulative builders  erecting  houses  for  the  open  market. 

Builders,  however,  went  into  the  field  of  construct- 
ing war  plants  and  large  industrial  buildings  to  meet 
what  was  then  the  most  pressing  demand,  with  the 
result  that  apartments  and  dwellings  were  neglected. 
This  had  the  effect  of  increasing  values,  because  the 
demand  far  exceeded  the  supply.  Those  operators 
and  speculators  who  owned  multi-family  houses 
were  obliged  to  raise  rents  in  order  to  meet  the  in- 
creased cost  of  operation,  but,  unfortunately,  there 
were  some. who  took  advantage  of  the  situation  to 
increase  rentals  beyond  reason.  This  caused  the  pas- 
sage of  certain  restrictive  legislation  in  New  York 
State  and  in  some  other  states  throughout  the  coun- 
try, though  these  laws  have  a  time  limit,  when  it  is 
hoped  that  the  supply  will  be  more  nearly  equal  to 
the  demand  than  to-day. 

Students  of  real  estate  conditions  throughout  the 
country  are  all  of  the  opinion  that  we  are  working 
into  a  period  of  construction.  This  will  be  com- 
menced just  as  soon  as  the  building  material  prices 
recede  to  a  sufficiently  low  level  and  when  labor  be- 
comes more  plentiful.  The  trend  at  the  present  time 
is  toward  lower  prices  and  freer  labor  conditions, 
and  unless  something  unforeseen  occurs  the  building 
move  should  begin  within  the  next  few  months.  Once 
building  starts  the  market  will  assume  a  more 
healthy  tone. 

At  the  present  time  there  is  no  particular  shortage 
of  industrial  buildings,  because  many  of  the  war- 
time plants  have  been  built  to  a  far  larger  than 
peace-time  requirements,  but  this  additional  space 
will  soon  be  absorbed  by  other  concerns  which  will 
devote  their  energies  toward  making  products  pre- 
cluded by  war  needs. 

At  the  present  time  the  financial  interests  are  con- 
cerned with  general  business  conditions,  and  they 
are  only  willing  to  make  commitments  where  neces- 
sity is  shown.  The  country,  however,  is  so  big  and 
it  has  such  recuperative  powers  that  the  money  mar- 
ket should  soon  be  readjusted  and  normal  condi- 
tions again  obtain. 

"Booms"  in  real  estate  are  not  desirable.  Of 
course  money  is  made,  but  there  is  always  a  "throw- 
back" which  interferes  with  the  normal  conduct  of 
business  and  in  the  end  hampers  real  progress.  In 
the  case  of  vacant  lots,  I  look  to  see  a  forward  move- 
ment, which  will  last  for  some  time  to  come.  When 
the  builders  again  enter  the  field  thousands  and 
thousands  of  vacant  lots  will  be  absorbed,  with  the 
result  that  not  only  the  actual  land  improved  will 
enhance  in  value,  but  the  effect  will  be  felt  by  the 
property  in  the  vicinity. 

So  far  as  realty  in  the  cities  is  concerned,  those  sec- 
tions which  are  served  with  transit  lines  will  be  the 
first  to  feel  the  benefits,  and  then  later  those  more  re- 
mote will  come  in  for  their  proportionate  share. 
This  is  of  course  logical,  and  I  believe  that  history 
will  repeat  itself.  In  suburban  sections,  not  served 
with  real  transit,  those  tracts  which  are  accessible 
by  good  roads  will  be  developed  first  and  then  the 
outlying  sections  will  be  marketed. 

AVAST  number  of  people  have  made  money 
during  the  war,  and  I  look  to  see  an  active 
market  for  country  estates  in  all  sections  of  the 
country,  within  reasonable  distances  from  the  city. 
The  automobile  has,  of  course,  been  a  great  factor  in 
bringing  these  properties  into  the  market  and  has 
made  them  available  for  this  purpose,  where  hereto- 
fore farming  was  the  only  use  to  which  they  could 
be  put. 


I  look  to  -ee  the  auction  market  in  vacant  lots  more 
active  than  ever  before.  There  are  many  reasons 
why  thi^  should  be  the  case.  Let  us  say  that  a  large 
tract  of  lanil  i>  under  one  ownership  and  is  located 
near  transit  and  within  a  reasonable  distance  from  a 
city.  The  owner,  to  sell  this  property  at  private 
treaty,  must  have  a  large  selling  force,  do  a  great 
deal  of  advertising  over  a  long  period,  and  go 
through  a  large  amount  of  trouble  and  annoyance 
before  he  finally  get>  rid  of  his  holding. 

The  auction  market  provides  a  means  whereby  he 
can  di>po-e  of  all  his  property  at  one  time,  through 
one  advertising  campaign,  assuming,  of  course,  he 
engages  an  auctioneer  with  a  sufficiently  large  and 
well  equipped  organization  to  handle  his  property. 
On  the  day  set  his  property  is  offered  and  sold  and 
then  he  is  relieved  from  further  responsibility. 
Naturally  his  property  must  have  merit  and  the  sale 
must  be  held  at  a  time  when  there  is  a  demand  for 
that  particular  class  of  property,  but  my  experience 
is  that  in  a  properly  conducted  campaign  of  education 
the  advantages  of  buying  at  auction  can  be  shown 
to  those  residing  in  the  community  and  the  result 
should  be  that  the  seller  gets  a  fair  price  for  his 
property  and  the  buyer  obtains  a  plot  which  will 
meet  his  requirements. 

The  selling  of  property  at  auction  takes  it  out  of 
one  ownership  and  places  it  in  the  hands  of  many. 
This  means  enhancement,  because  it  is  frequently 

the  case  that  where  a  property  is  long  and  closely 
held  it  acts  as  a  detriment  to  the  neighborhood, 
rather  than  an  advantage. 

The  country  is  so  large  and  the  interests  of  the 
inhabitants  are  so  varied  that  it  is  hard  to  lay  down 
any  fast  and  set  rules  which  will  apply  universally. 
One  thing  is  certain,  however.  Real  estate  is  the  fin- 
est investment  in  the  world.  The  man  who  owns 
realty  is  his  own  "Board  of  Directors"  and  he  has 
no  one  to  account  to,  except  the  municipality.  So 
long  as  he  obeys  the  laws  on  the  statute  books  he  has 
nothing  to  fear,  and  it  is  only  right  that  this  should 
be  so.  If  in  certain  sections  there  are  unjust  laws, 
they  can  be  repealed  and  should  be  repealed.  It  is 
simply  up  to  the  citizens  of  that  locality. 

There  are  three  essentials  to  life  here  on  earth. 
The  first  is  food,  the  second  is  clothing  and  the  third 
is  housing.  So  long  as  there  are  humans  on  this 
globe  these  three  must  be  provided.  So  far  as  the 
third  named  is  concerned  the  architect  plays  a  most 
important  part.  He  is  a  specialist.  It  is  up  to  him 
to  see  that  proper  houses  of  all  types  are  designed. 
He  can  either  make  or  break  real  estate  values.  Too 
much  importance  cannot  be  placed  on  this  phase  of 
the  situation.  I  hope  that  architectural  schools  and 
colleges  will  be  encouraged  and  that  the  standard  of 
the  profession  will  always  be  kept  on  the  present  high 

Good  Workmanship  the  True  Craftsmanship 

Craftsmanship  as  Viewed  by  a  Man    Who  Believes  That  the  Designer  of 

Anything  Should  Be  as  Familiar  with  the  Best  Designing  That  Has  Been 

Done  in  the  Past  as  He  Is  with  His  Own  Collar  Button,  and  That 

the  Designer  of  Anything  at  All  Should  Be  a  Profound  Student 

Before  He  Is  Allowed  Any  Freedom  as  a  Craftsman 

By  "TRAVI/'  Craftsman 

IN  this  iconoclastic  age  when  little  is  held  sacred 
and  nearly  everything  prostituted,  words  are 
also  taken  liberties  with,  usually  through  ignor- 
ance, until  they  through  common  misuse  lose  their 
original  meaning.  As  craftsmen  now  are  makers  of 
pantaloons  and  "artists"  shavers  of  men's  faces,  it 
is  rather  foolish  and  misleading  to  use  either  of  these 
words  in  connection  with  this  very  much  in  earnest 
work.  Craftsmanship  is  just  Good  Workmanship, 
judged  from  the  standpoint  of  an  earlier  and  more 
capable  period  when  workmen's  ideals  were  higher 
and  their  work  as  much  a  matter  of  religion  as  their 
church ;  when  their  interest  had  more  to  do  with  the 
excellence  of  their  handicraft  and  was  not  entirely 
devoted  to  the  clock  and  the  pay  envelope. 

It  is  work  done  as  conscientiously,  as  carefully 
finished  and  in  the  same  reverential  spirit  as  the  work- 
done  in  the  past.  Consequently  it  is  of  no  commer- 
cial value  and  of  little  interest  to  anybody — from  a 
factory  standpoint — as  it  takes  too  long  to  do  and  is 
too  costly.  It  is  done  more  or  less  in  the  spirit  of 
the  work  done  in  the  seventeenth  century  and  earlier, 
with  a  striving  after  the  directness  and  simplicity  of 
methods  which  are  necessarily  brought  about  by 
working  entirely  by  hand  and  "feeling"  and  dis- 
pensing with  any  mechanical  shortcuts  to  results. 

Doing  this  usually  necessitates  the  going  back  to 
simple,  fundamental  types  of  tools  (many  of  which 
the  modern  workman  has  forgotten  the  use  of  and 
does  not  even  know  the  names  of)  and  which  are 
better  suited  for  fashioning  the  different  materials 
to  be  used,  and  to  bring  about  results  as  near  as  pos- 
sible to  those  achieved  when  the  workman  knew  of 
little  or  no  machinery  and  scorned  to  use  it  if  he  did. 

In  the  past,  during  the  periods  when  the  most 
beautiful  work  was  done,  the  tools  used  were  very 
few.  Now  there  has  never  in  the  history  of  the 
world  been  so  many  tools  or  such  an  infinite  variety 
of  them,  and  of  machinery,  and  yet  our  world  is  all 
"messed  up"  with  cheap  and  inferior  performances 
done  with  both,  with  the  exception  of  course  of  tools 
of  precision  for  scientific  purposes  and  instruments 

of  accuracy.    All  of  which  would  very  likely  better 
fulfill  their  missions  if  they  were  of  better  design. 

THE  primitive  (for  want  of  a  belter  word)  in 
man,  or  his  human  side,  seems  never  satisfied 
with  the  things  he  handles  in  everyday  life,  as  they 
have  little  appeal  to  his  imagination.  A  man  always 
likes  a  tool  which  he  thinks  he  could  have  made  him- 
self, and  sooner  or  later  he  usually  tries  and  does  do 
so.  Man  is  a  creative  animal  and  to  be  happy  must 
use  his  hands  to  fashion  things  with. 

So  it  seems  that  the  obvious  thing  lacking  in  mod- 
ern workmanship  is  the  human  note — a  slight  blem- 
ish on  a  thing  or  an  irregularity  gives  it  more  in- 
dividuality and  human  interest,  than  something 
turned  out  "standardized,"  "inspected,"  "O.  K'd" 
and  what  not.  Another  deplorable  thing  is  the  lack 
of  sense  of  proportion  generally  and  the  small  at- 
tention paid  to  design.  Most  things  in  the  arts, 
crafts,  industries  and  textiles  are  poorly  designed, 
not  well  or  strongly  made.  But  finished  to  the  last 
degree.  Always  finish  with  no  merit  beneath  the 
skin.  So  everything  is  more  or  less  covered  with 
glitter  of  some  kind — varnish,  plating  or  dressing — 
"dolled  up"  in  some  way,  to  catch  the  eye  of  ignor- 
ance. It  is  a  Jerry-built  world  we  are  living  in  at 
present  and  man's  performance  with  his  hands,  of 
every  kind,  make  a  sorry  showing  and  are  very  in- 
ferior to  the  best  which  has  been  done  in  art,  archi- 
tecture and  workmanship  of  the  past. 

To  go  back  to  our  work-bench : 

All  the  work  is  done,  in  whatever  material,  whether 
it  is  mural  painting  or  miniature,  sculpture  or  etch- 
ing in  metal  or  glass,  enamelling  metal,  inlaying 
amethyst  in  lead,  carving  alabaster  or  jade,  ivory, 
carved  wood  or  brick,  pargetry,  intarsia,  sgraffito, 
scagliola,  building  buttressed  stone  walls,  forging 
iron  work,  plaster  work,  brass,  adzing  wooden  tim- 
ber and  inlaying  them  with  lead  and  bone  and  harder 
and  more  precious  woods,  or  mosaic  or  tiling,  all  of 
it  and  any  of  it  is  done  with  practically  the  same  tools 
and  with  a  selection  from  not  more  than  twenty 


types.  The  material  is  of  only  incidental  interest, 
ft  is  the  beauty  and  character  of  the  design  and  true 
feeling  of  it,  and  tin-  "tooling"  of  the  material  that  is 
the  essence.  It  i-  equally  pos>ible  to  put  this  feeling 
in  any  of  the  materials  mentioned  ahove. 

Modern  jewelry,  for  instance,  is  designed  more 
like  left-over  designs  for  Victorian  ice  pitchers  than 
like  beautiful  trinkets.  The  spirit  of  jewelry  is  not 
there  and  only  the  value  of  the  material  is  consid- 
ered. In  other  words,  that  part  of  the  mind  which 
"cash  regi>ter>"  is  pleased  and  not  the  eye  or  the 
aesthetic  sense,  with  the  beauty  of  form  and  design. 

The  designer  of  anything  at  all  should  be  a  pro- 
found student  before  he  is  allowed  any  activity  and 
should  be  as  familiar  with  the  best  designing  that 
has  been  done  in  the  past  as  he  is  with  his  own  collar 
button.  But  most  of  them  do  not  read  enough,  many 
of  them  do  not  read  at  all.  Otherwise  the  libraries 
and  art  museums  would  not  have  the  atmosphere  of 
churches  or  have  to  advertise  for  visitors.  The  art 
museums  and  public  libraries,  particularly  the 
Museum  Library  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum 
of  Art,  are  looked  upon  by  the  public  as  sacred 
tombs  of  dead  achievements  (very  "highbrow"  and 
visited  and  entered  by  people  more  or  less  on  their 
"tip-toes")  instead  of  being  as  they  are,  like  banks 
with  untold  riches  in  them  to  be  drawn  upon  by  any- 
one, whenever  one  feels  like  doing  so.  Museums 
and  libraries  are  the  friendly  temples  of  modern 
times  and  have  much  of  the  maternal  atmosphere 
which  built  up  the  early  Christian  church  and  made 
it  the  mighty  institution  and  power  it  still  is.  Bless 
them,  and  all  of  the  kindly  folk  connected  with  them. 

People  are  apt  to  feel  that  all  of  the  works  in  the 
museums  are  exceptional  examples  of  past  work- 
manship when  really  nearly  everything  in  them  with 
the  exception  of  the  world  famous  examples  of 
paintings,  sculpture,  etc.,  by  known  masters,  are 
simply  the  average  work  which  every  skilled  work- 
man was  doing  at  that  time.  They  must  have  had  a 
jolly  time  in  the  doing  of  it — there  is  a  noticeable 
sense  of  humor  through  it  all. 

1AM  wholly  in  sympathy  with  the  modern  work- 
men and  1  am  for  them,  and  think  they  have 
been  cheated  out  of  all  the  fun  of  their  work.  I  be- 
lieve if  they  could  get  some  of  their  individuality 
"out  of  their  systems"  by  more  work  fashioned  by 
their  own  hands,  there  would  be  more  happiness  and 
pride  of  work,  and  less  unrest,  as  I  believe  every 
man  is  a  potential  artist  or  craftsman  of  sorts  if  he 
had  the  opportunity  to  develop,  and  we  are  mostly 
Cro-Magnon  cave-men. 

I  know  it  is  so  from  my  own  experience.  1  have 
had  men  who  were  "failures"  and  could  do  nothing 
in  particular  and  were  "Jacks  of  all  trades,"  (which 
last  by  the  way  are  the  most  intelligent  persons  one 
may  meet.)  They  were  usually  "fond  of  tools,"  how- 
ever, and  rarely  younger  than  fifty  years  old,  or 
older.  And  in  a  month  or  less  they  were  doing 
amazingly  beautiful  work.  Which  proves  the  over- 
estimation  of  technique.  To  me  one  of  the  most  im- 
pressive thingj  in  .nature  is  an  unusually  intelligent 
man.  He  can  almost  without  effort  or  any  previous 
knowledge,  do  anything  and  understand  almost  any- 
thing. It  is  such  men  who  like  this  work  and  the 
doing  of  it.  The  technical  end  of  the  work  is  usually 
only  a  matter  of  explanation,  after  which  he  finds 
his  own  way  and  individuality  and  becomes  a  master 
of  it  and  not  a  "hand." 

All  of  this  exemplifies  the  spirit  of  this  way  of 
working  and  it  is  no  "stunt"  nor  is  there  anything 
remarkable  about  it.  Nor  is  it  done  in  the  Green- 
wich Village  spirit  of  faddish  amateurism  and  af- 
fectation. It  is  a  man-size  job  done  by  real  he-men 
of  middle  age  who  have  a  great  time  doing  it  as  they 
know  it  is  good  and  they  are  proud  of  it  and  feel 
kindly  toward  everybody.  What  is  to  be  lamented 
is  that  it  is  so  costly  that  it  is  only  for  the  rich  in 
culture,  wealth  and  knowledge  as  it  is  done  regard- 
less of  time  or  expense,  and  for  that  reason  I  repeat 
what  I  said  in  the  beginning — "of  little  commercial 
value  and  of  small  interest  to  the  average  public." 

Although  as  "Lo  the  poor  Indian"  used  to  say,  "It 
is  good  medicine." 


What  Architects  May  Think  About  in  1921 

A  Summary  of  Numerous  Conversations  with  Many  Prominent  Members 

of  the  Profession  of  Architecture,  in  Which  the  Subjects 

Treated  in  This  Article  Stood  Out  Above  All  Else 

Editor's  Note: 

To  stand  as  a  sign-post  of  intellectual  activity  in  any 
profession  is  a  rather  dangerous  and  quite  often  a 
thankless  task.  Dangerous  because  the  men  who  com- 
pose any  of  the  professions,  and  especially  that  of  archi- 
tecture, are  not  the  sort,  naturally,  given  to  pliant  sub- 
mission in  matters  affecting  their  individual  processes 
of  thinking.  Thankless  because  professional  men 
rightly  resent  any  arbitrary  attempt  to  "direct  their 

This  article  has  been  written  with  these  factors  thor- 
oughly in  mind.  There  has  not  been  the  slightest  idea, 
in  its  writing,  of  assuming  a  "thou  shall  think  thus" 
attitude.  Rather,  it  is  an  honest  attempt  to  speak 
frankly  and  more  or  less  fully  of  certain  phases  of  the 
profession  of  architecture  which  appear  to  the  Editor 
of  this  journal  to  be  the  things  most  important  in 
architectural  thought  for  the  coming  year.  It  is  not  an 
editorial,  but  rather,  as  has  been  stated,  a  summary  of 
numerous  conversations  in  which  the  things  spoken  of 
throughout  the  article  seemed  to  dominate  the  intellec- 
tual activity  of  many  prominent  members  of  the  pro- 

WHAT  are  the  important  things  for  architects 
to  think  about  in  1921  ? 
This  is  a  broad  question.  To  answer  it 
fully  would  require  volume  upon  volume,  and  would 
really  get  one  nowhere.  A  better  approach  to  the 
subject,  and  a  more  satisfactory  one,  is  to  limit  what- 
ever discussion  there  is  upon  the  matter  to  a  few 
things  which  seem  to  be  significant  and  which  ap- 
pear to  be  the  things  which  architects  actually  will 
give  most  thought  to  during  the  year.  With  that 
view  in  mind,  prominent  architects  in  all  parts  of  the 
country  were  called  upon  by  this  journal,  either  per- 
sonally or  by  means  of  correspondence,  to  tell  what 
they  considered  the  big  things  for  1921.  In  order  to 
get  a  frank  expression  of  opinion,  it  was  necessary 
to  promise  that  no  individual  would  be  directly 
quoted.  That  promise  has  been  strictly  maintained. 

One  of  the  outstanding  facts  developed  in  this 
canvass  of  opinion  had  to  do  with  the  conservation 
of  architectural  resources.  There  was  not  a  single 
architect  who  did  not  speak  of  this  as  a  vital  affair. 
It  was  not  looked  upon  as  a  constantly  recurring 
and  therefore  hackneyed  subject.  One  architect  in 
speaking  of  it,  said  : 

"It  is  time  we  do  more  in  this  matter.  All  archi- 
tects realize  that  it  is  a  most  vital  affair.  We  have 
discussed  it  from  almost  every  conceivable  angle, 
but  what  have  we  actually  done?" 

Another  member  of  the  profession,  internationally 
famous,  spoke  of  the  conservation  of  architectural 
resources  as  it  applies  to  large  cities,  such  as  New 
York  or  Chicago.  What  he  said  was  both  interesting 
and  novel,  since  it  got  away  from  what  might  be 
termed  the  usual  architectural  viewpoint. 

"The  only  way  you  can  conserve  architectural  re- 
sources," he  said,  looking  down  upon  a  section  of 
New  York  which  distinctly  emphasized  the  necessity 
for  such  conservation,  "is  to  pass  a  constitutional 
amendment  defeated  some  years  ago  on  excess  con- 
demnation. The  law  provides  authority  for  state  or 
city  to  take  what  it  needs  for  highways  or  other  pub- 
lic uses  by  condemnation,  but  no  condemnation  in 
excess  of  actual  usage.  The  New  York  Times,  when 
that  paper  was  in  the  height  of  its  power,  editorially 
opposed  it  on  the  ground  that  it  was  likely  to  be  mis- 
used and  become  a  powerful  factor  for  graft.  That 
may  be  the  price  you  have  to  pay  for  improvement, 
in  a  public  democracy.  Central  Park  itself  was  built 
by  a  notorious  political  administration.  The  Speed- 
way similarly.  Other  public  improvements  have 
been  done  the  same  way.  But- the  Times  opposed  it. 
If  you  had  the  right  of  excess  condemnation  the 
scheme  suggested  could  have  the  right  of  resale 
under  restriction,  and  when  you  do  that,  under  re- 
striction, you  can  restrict  and  maintain  the  restric- 
tion. This  area  where  we  are  now  was  restricted. 
The  zoning  law  restricted  this  one.  By  combination 
of  condemnation  of  streets,  and  restriction  laws  and 
zoning  laws,  you  would  get  an  intelligent  scheme 
which  would  give  people  a  chance  to  live.  Develop 
also  convenient  lines  of  traffic.  In  Grand  Central, 
for  instance,  trains  pull  in  and  pull  out  by  the  same 
place.  Instead,  let  the  traffic  be  continuous  in  one 
direction.  Manufacturers  should  be  at  the  ends  of 
the  city,  shops  in  the  central  portions." 

There  are  architects  who  disagreed  with  this  very 
practical  viewpoint.  Not  so  much  with  the  sound- 
ness of  it,  as  with  its  philosophy  of  accepting  things 
as  they  actually  exist  and  of  making  the  best  of 
them.  Here  is  a  typical  opinion : 

"We  know  that  architectural  resources  are  not 
being  conserved,  and  we  know  that  by  accepting 
certain  facts  in  the  political  make-up  of  cities  .or 
towns  such  resources  could  well  be  conserved.  But 
why  should  we  accept  the  thing  that  way  ?  Why  not 
start  at  the  bottom  and  work  properly?  It  may  well 



be  said  that  ROCK!  comes  from  evil  practices,  but  it 
must  bi-  remembered  that  the  (lay  of  reckoning  must 
come.  1  believe  the  only  way  to  attack  the  problem 
is  m  start  at  the  bottom.  Clean  house  thoroughly  or 
don't  clean  it." 


Kt'lHTF.t  Tl'KAL    resources    naturally    give 

ri-c  in  some  thought  concerning  regional  types 

of  architecture.  This,  in  the  opinion  of  almost  every 
architect  whose  opinions  regarding  architectural 
prospects  for  1921  were  obtained  by  this  journal, 
is  one  of  the  big  things  to  think  about.  There  are 
those  who  believe  that  regional  types  can  be  more  or 
less  forced  upon  communities,  in  the  sense  that  ar- 
chitects can  definitely  give  a  certain  style  or  color  to 
the  architecture  of  those  communities.  Theirs  is  the 
"immediate"  view  which  holds  that  regional  types 
will  develop  only  when  architects  emphatically  insist 
ujjon  a  correlated  attempt  by  members  of  the  pro- 
fession to  put  into  certain  communities  a  definite 
scheme  of  treatment.  They  agree  with  one  of  the 
world's  must  prominent  architects  that  "the  thing 
cannot  be  done  by  anything  like  a  propaganda  or 
fiat,"  and  that  climatic  conditions  of  the  country 
"would  assert  themselves  in  time."  But  they  insist 
that  climatic  conditions  governing  such  matters  exist 
nou',  and  that  Nature  having  done  her  work,  it  is  up 
to  the  architect  to  contribute  his  share. 

Regional  types,  states  this  prominent  architect,  can- 
not be  attained  by  fiat.  In  that  part  of  the  thinking 
vorld  in  Italy,  when  people  lived  in  isolated  commun- 
ities, communication  was  to  some  extent  interrupted. 
Regional  development  then  took  place,  and  more 
particularly  when  the  regional  character  had  become 
more  or  less  crystallized.  In  the  early  days  when 
Rome  ruled  the  world  it  would  be  difficult  to  deter- 
mine whether  a  Roman  arch  built  in  Syria  or  a 
Roman  bath  in  England  or  a  Roman  theatre  in 
France  had  been  designed  for  the  location  in  which 
it  was  built  or  for  somewhere  in  the  environs  of 
Rome  itself.  But  when  the  Roman  Empire  had  dis- 
solved and  Italy  had  become  a  country  composed  of 
separate  states  each  protesting  its  individuality,  com- 
munication to  some  extent  having  been  interrupted, 
the  national  views  of  the  people  of  each  community 
began  to  express  itself  along  the  lines  of  precedent 
with  which  it  seems  to  develop  its  type,  in  accord- 
ance with  its  needs,  and  so  you  find'  in  Sienna  and 
Florence,  cities  not  farther  apart  than  an  easy  after- 
noon's automobile  ride,  a  very  good  development  of 
lonal  architecture.  So  one  thing  must  have  been 
lorence,  another  in  Sienna,  another  in  Rome  It 
was  the  expression  of  the  natural  instinct  of  the  peo- 
)  some  extent,  and  to  some  extent  the  reversion 
back  to  original  regional  ideas.  The  Lombard  built 
as  a  Lombard.  The  Etruscan  built  from  the  stand- 

point of  the  Etruscans,  although  the  race  had  disap- 
peared. The  Neapolitan  built  a  conglomerate  sort 
of  thing  that  indicated  the  conglomerate  population 
from  which  he  sprung — Greece,  Spain,  Arabia, 
Rome  and  all  the  mixed  races  of  the  world.  Hence 
the  mixed  and  conglomerate  sort  of  development. 

JT  will  be  so  in  America,  and  you  will  find  that  as 
time  goes  on  and  our  144  years  of  national  life 
has  developed  into  500  years  of  national  life  and, 
let  us  hope,  peaceful  development,  the  individual 
sections  of  the  country  will  come  to  self-conscious- 
ness and  self-expression,  and  that  new  needs  will 
create  new  types.  That  cannot  be  clone  in  a  month. 
There  are  so  many  analogies  in  nature  that  indicate 
that  nature  works  in  the  same  way.  A  pine  tree 
grows  on  a  high  altitude  where  a  palm  tree  would 
not  and  each  grows  to  its  own  needs.  The  branch 
of  the  pine  slopes  to  a  base  that  would  carry  the 
weight  of  snow  and  resist  wind  and  the  palm  does 
not.  Nature  works  in  the  same  way  whether  with 
inanimate  or  animate  things.  Architecture  shows  a 
growth  of  evolution.  There  may  be  a  powerful  in- 
telligence in  some  receptive  community  and  around 
him  will  be  a  group  that  will  accept  his  dicta  and 
from  him  develop  a  cult.  In  Hildesheim  a  bishop 
centuries  ago  developed  an  artistic  community  where 
the  neighboring  Huns  fell  back  into  barbarism.  In 
Spain  is  the  constant  recurrence  to  two  great  factors 
in  civilization :  one  the  Roman,  the  other  the  Ara- 
bian, neither  Iberian  in  character,  neither  indigenous 
lo  the  soil,  but  both  the  result  of  a  powerful  and 
dominating  intelligence  that  had  at  one  time  occu- 
pied that  area  and  familiarized  the  people  with  types 
that  best  seemed  to  meet  their  needs. 

Therefore  no  artificial  development  of  a  national 
style  can  be  looked  for.  I  look  for  it  just  when  the 
national  need  requires  it,  and  that  we  are  accomplish- 
ing such  a  development  at  the  present  time  can  be 
perceived.  The  English  at  a  certain  period  tried  their 
best  to  import  the  Italian  Renaissance  architecture 
and  made  wonderful  successes  in  Renaissance,  but 
no  one  for  a  moment  would  contend  that  Wrenn's 
churches  had  anything  of  the  aspect  of  an  Italian 
church.  They  are  English  and  always  will  be.  Cli- 
mate influences  a  country's  sense  of  design.  Certain 
details  are  obtrusive,  but  it  is  necessary  that  they 
should  be  so  if  they  are  to  be  seen  at  all  in  an  atmos- 
phere which  so  large  a  part  of  the  time  is  dull  and 
colorless.  The  English  country  house  with  mullioned 
windows  results  from  the  same  climatic  conditions 
Our  own  country  houses  developed  from  climatic 
conditions.  Southern  California,  for  example  Cli- 
matic conditions,  and  regional  construction.  It  is  a 
happy  thing  that  types  of  this  sort  are  being  de- 



WE  are  evolving  a  regional  type  and  regional 
characteristics  and  it  is  not  at  all  difficult  to 
perceive  it.    But  it  will  not  develop  into  definite  sty- 
listic forms  for  a  long  time. 

How  can  you  expect  a  regional  type  to  develop 
when  the  country  absorbs  at  least  from  one  to  ten 
per  cent,  of  its  population  from  foreign  countries? 

But  was  not  the  whole  country  at  first  "foreign"? 
arises  immediately  in  a  listener's  mind. 
Here  is  the  answer  to  that : 

"The  Colonists  built  towns  but  did  not  intermingle. 
They  were  isolated.  Those  that  were  close  together 
were  very  largely  from  the  same  Anglo-Saxon  root, 
so  there  was  not  a  material  difference  between  the 
influence  of  the  Dutch  in  New  Amsterdam  and  New 
Jersey,  the  Swedes  in  Delaware  and  the  Germans  in 
Pennsylvania,  and  especially  was  that  true  because 
those  countries  were  themselves  very  closely  related. 
Did  not  the  Puritans  in  England  go  first  to  Holland 
before  they  came  to  America  ?  This  had  no  influence 
on  architecture,  but  shows  the  interrelation  between 
England  and  the  Netherlands." 

A  man  who  is  unquestionably  one  of  the  world's 
great  architects  gives  the  practical  application  in  the 
following  comment : 

The  development  of  regional  types  in  architecture 
naturally  implies  a  building  program.  "But  when?" 
is  the  big  question  of  the  day.  The  answer  to  this 
question  was  almost  unanimous,  and  is  very  well 
expressed  in  the  one  quoted  below.  There  is  quite 
a  bit  in  that  answer  regarding  paternal  legislation  in 
building  activities.  That,  in  the  opinion  of  a  great 
number  of  architects  questioned  by  this  journal,  is 
a  big  thing  to  think  about  in  1921. 

THERE  will  not  be  a  quick  resumption  of  build- 
ing,'' this  architect  holds.  "The  weight  is  too 
great  to  move  quickly.  But  it  is  bound  to  come.  I 
am  very  optimistic  about  it.  But  it  will  not  come  if 
we  have  excessive  labor  prices  or  combinations  of 
material  supplies.  You  have  got  to  normalize  condi- 
tions and  I  am  optimistic  that  we  will  be  able  to  do 
so.  I  do  not  think  the  banks  have  retarded  resump- 
tion. The  chief  source  of  retardance  is  high  prices.  It 
is  fundamental  that  no  one  wants  to  pay  more  than 
a  thing  is  worth.  Only  extreme  necessity  drives  him 
to  do  it.  Any  one  who  invests  in  a  building  for  rent, 
no  matter  what  type  of  building  it  is,  has  to  keep  his 
average  income  for  a  period  of  years.  He  cannot  af- 
ford to  build  on  a  high  market  unless  he  is  sure  to 
have  high  rents  for  sufficient  time  to  amortize  what 
he  pays  and  what  competitors  will  pay  in  ten  years. 
Renting  is  a  business.  It  invites  investment  by  rea- 
son of  opportunity  for  reasonable  profit.  Laws  that 
obstruct  reasonable  profit  and  discourage  men  from 
taking  risks  are  not  going  to  produce  more  buildings. 

As  a  general  proposition  it  is  a  debatable  one  that  the 
attempt  to  legislate  in  a  paternal  way  is  contrary  to 
the  interests  of  democracy.  The  large  portion  of  the 
distresses  that  communities  suffer  is  from  excessive 
legislation.  Think  of  the  old  independent  spirit  of 
the  American  people,  who  scorned  to  take  refuge 
under  legislative  action  and  built  up  a  spirit  of  per- 
sonal independence.  1  do  not  believe  at  all  in  pater- 
nalistic legislation.  You  cannot  legislate  the  law  of 
supply  and  demand  out  of  existence. 

WHEN  communities  come  together  the  condi- 
tions of  human  life  vary  from  when  individuals 
live  apart.  The  more  there  are,  and  the  closer  to- 
gether, the  more  necessity  there  is  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  rights  of  individuals  one  against  the 
other.  Only  for  that  would  I  legislate. 

The  moment  you  begin  to  fix  values,  of  farm  prod- 
ucts for  example,  you  have  interfered  with  the  bene- 
fits of  the  farmers.  You  have  not  done  any  good. 
He  was  induced  to  plant  wheat  to  meet  a  great  neces- 
sity, not  on  the  basis  of  supply  and  demand,  but  be- 
cause the  government  guaranteed  $2.35  for  wheat. 
When  the  price  of  wheat  went  up  the  cost  of  bread 
went  up.  Then  everybody  thought  they  would  get 
what  was  coming  to  them  because  they  thought  they 
could  get  it,  and  also  because  they  needed  it.  Then 
the  farmers  had  to  pay  more  for  labor.  The  efficiency 
decreased.  The  farmers  found  the  price  of  wheat 
falling.  The  supply  was  met.  For  a  time  he  could 
not  get  his  product  to  the  market  because  no  rail- 
roads were  available.  Over-legislation  attacking 
railroads  caused  confusion  to  transportation.  Hill 
said  ten  years  ago  that  to  put  railroads  back  would 
cost  $50,000,000.  The  government  took  the  railroads 
for  the  war.  The  government  broke  the  railroads 
down  by  congestion.  Ten  yards  of  ten  shipways  each 
would  have  been  better  than  one  yard  with  100  ship- 
ways.  The  farmer  sees  that  while  he  thought  that 
at  $2.35  he  was  going  to  make  money,  he  has  to  pay 
$10  a  day  to  harvest  his  wheat,  so  he  does  not  make 
so  much  as  he  did  when  he  got  only  $1  a  bushel 
for  it. 

Such  comment  brings  to  mind  the  oft  repeated 
question :  "Is  architecture  a  business?"  A  very 
prominent  architect  recently  termed  this  a  "banal" 
question,  but  he  gave  an  answer  to  it  which  in  itself 
is  something  to  think  about  every  day  of  the  year. 

He  referred  to  the  subways  of  New  York,  and  to 
the  insistent  demand  that  new  subways  are  sorely 
needed.  The  present  interest  paid  by  the  city,  he  said, 
is  about  $45,000,000  a  year.  A  little  over  four  hun- 
dred millions  more  is  contemplated  for  subway  con- 

"Four  hundred  million  is  spent  on  rapid  transit, 
to  say  nothing  of  the  interruption  to  business  during 

(Continued   on  page   15) 



Old  Shop,  Litchfield,  Conn. 

(See  reproduction  of  original  drawing  by  0.  R.  Eggers  on  opposite  page) 

T  ITCHFIELD'S  history  dates  from  its  settlement  in 

/     1720.  //  grew  as  all  New  England  towns  of  earlier 

J-^ settlement  grew  with  winding  streets  and  shaded  lanes 

which   truly    typified   the   simple    characters   of   the   early 


Its  builders  built  as  did  all  the  early  New  Engenders 
with  a  fine  regard  for  the  basic  elements  of  good  architecture 
and  even  the  humble  shop  was  not  too  insignificant  to  receive 
the  careful  thought  of  its  designer.  There  is  a  most  satis- 
factory indication  of  good  design  and  honest  building  in 
the  present  subject  so  well  presented  by  Mr.  Eggers,  who 
found  many  equally  satisfactory  subjects  for  his  book  of 
sketches  during  a  visit  to  old  Litchfield.  Litchfield  pre- 
serves its  traditions,  which  teem  in  historic  association,  and 
it  is  equally  proud  of  its  record  as  the  birthplace  of  many 
illustrious  men. 

The  first  law  school  founded  in  the  United  States  was  at 
Litchfield,  as  was  also  the  first  "woman's  seminary,"  the  fore- 
runner of  the  woman's  college.  Lyman  Beecher,  the  father 
of  Henry  Ward  Beecher  and  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe,  was 
a  much  respected  pastor  of  a  Litchfield  church,  and  it  was 
in  Litchfield  that  Henry  Ward  Beecher  and  Harriet  Beecher 
Stowe  were  born.  Ethan  Allen  was  also  born  in  Litchfield. 

When  the  murmurings  that  marked  the  days  before  "the 
shot  heard  round  the  world"  was  fired  at  Lexington,  and  the 
Revolutionary  struggle  was  begun,  Litchfield  had  rounded 
out  a  half  century  of  growth.  Many  old  buildings  stand 
today  that  stood  then  as  silent  witnesses  to  the  part  this 
quaint  New  England  town  played  when  it  sent  its  manhood 
forth  to  join  the  Continental  armies. 


X.V/EJJ/CXA'  ARCHITECT  Siries  of  Earl,  Ameritan  Arthiticturi 


(Continued    from    page    13) 

construction,  also  a  cost.  The  interest  on  that  at  4 
per  cent,  would  be  $16,000,000  per  annum.  If  you 
took  only  half  of  that,  namely  $8,000,000  a  year, 
and  spent  it  in  building  a  series  of  diagonal  avenues 
linking  up  east  and  west  sides  of  the  city  with  facili- 
ties for  playgrounds,  short  cuts  across  town,  con- 
venience in  traffic  to  the  business  section,  you  would 
open  up  a  section  now  in  bad  condition  and  do  it  at 
least  as  well  as  Naples  thirty  years  ago,  when  they 
re-zoned  that  city ;  and  for  $6,000,000  to  $10,000,000 
a  year  you  could  have  a  permanent  investment  that 
would  amortize,  that  provides  a  convenient  living 
place,  that  would  do  away  with  a  large  portion  of 
your  subways  and  save  original  cost  to  a  considerable 
extent.  With  diagonal  avenues  you  would  not  have 
the  north  side  of  the  street  with  all  the  sun  and  the 
south  side  with  no  sun  at  all.  You  could  have  both 
sides  of  these  dwellings  exposed  to  the  sunlight. 
You  would  have  broad  avenues ;  you  would  have 
places  where  people  might  promenade  and  for  streets 
carrying  traffic  and  would  assume  at  minimum  cost 
that  instead  of  carrying  the  live  human  people  in 
holes  in  the  ground  our  of  the  sunlight  like  a  lot  of 
moles,  and  the  freight  or  traffic  in  the  sunlight,  you 
could  have  some  traffic  subways  to  take  freight  and 
let  the  people  occupy  the  surface  where  they  belong." 
Now,  that  opinion  is  extremely  valuable,  and  most 
certainly  furnishes  something  to  think  about,  when 
it  is  remembered  that  the  man  who  gave  it  to  this 
journal  is  an  Immortal,  a  member  of  the  Legion  of 
Honor,  has  won  the  Medal  of  Honor  for  Architec- 
ture, and  has  >achieved  distinction  and  fame  as  one  of 

the  finest  artists,  in  every  sense  of  the  word,  in  the 
profession  of  architecture.  If  he  can  give  time  and 
thought,  as  he  undoubtedly  has,  to  matters  as  com- 
mercial and  material  as  taxation  and  subway  con- 
struction, as  well  as  to  the  more  aesthetic  side  of 
life,  it  would  seem  that  the  consideration  of  the  time- 
worn  and  timely  "Is  Architecture  a  business?"  ques- 
tion would  well  merit  very  serious  thought  this  year. 

Last,  but  not  least,  is  the  matter  of  the  registration 
of  architects.  Full  comment  on  this  would  require 
many  issues  of  this  journal.  We  print  the  following 
comment,  because  it  is  rather  new  and  seems  to  us 
to  be  a  thought-provoking  statement : 

"Registration  does  not  make  for  any  better  archi- 
tects or  any  better  service  to  the  people.  It  adds  to 
taxation.  It  would  not  keep  out  incompetents.  You 
cannot  pass  a  law  stopping  the  country  carpenter 
from  building  a  barn.  I  believe  that  branches  also  on 
paternalistic  legislation.  The  best  protection  for  the 
public  and  the  architect  both  is  the  establishment  of 
high  standards  of  public  information  in  regard  to 
what  constitutes  good  design  and  good  building.  The 
survival  of  the  fittest  does  not  necessarily  hold  good 
because  a  man  may  make  up  in  activity  of  solicita- 
tion, like  any  other  quack,  what  he  lacks  in  genuine 
ability,  and  get  the  business." 

These  are  some  big  things  to  think  about  in  1921. 
They  are  not  the  only  things  worthy  of  serious  con- 
sideration, but  most  certainly  they  are  the  big  ones, 
if  opinions  gathered  from  all  over  the  country  can  be 
taken  as  an  accurate  gauge  of  worthwhileness.  This 
journal  believes  it  is  an  accurate  gauge  —  an  ex- 
tremelv  accurate  one. 


The  Building  Outlook  in  the  Middle  West 
and  on  the  Pacific  Coast 

Corrcspoiuicnfc  to  THE  A.MKKK  AN  ARCHITECT) 

(.'ill  CAGO. 

Tl  I K  building  fraternity  in  Chicago  is  welcom- 
ing the  new  year  with  much  more  than  the 
usual  acclaim  because  of  the  potential  prog- 
ress in  the  industry  which  the  incoming  year  seems 
certain  to  possess.     Everything  points  to  an  early 
and  comprehensive  resumption  of  building  activity, 
which  will  keep  all  hands  busy  during  the  year  and 

Practically  no  one  who  is  in  a  position  to  gauge 
present  indications  dissents  from  the  general  tone  of 
optimism.  Real  estate  men,  contractors,  builders, 
architects — everybody  who  touches  the  building  in- 
dustry seems  well  assured  that  the  long-needed  ex- 
pansion is  certain  to  begin  early  in  1921  and  to  con- 
tinue without  interruption  for  an  indefinite  period. 

The  psychology  of  the  situation  favors  this  expan- 
sion; the  labor  problems  are  becoming  simplified; 
material  costs  are  being  reduced ;  the  need  of  build- 
ings is  growing  more  acute  and  the  financial  aid  ne- 
cessary to  make  the  building  program  possible  now 
seems  more  easily  available.  With  all  of  these  con- 
comitants so  favorably  disposed,  there  is  really  noth- 
ing in  the  way  of  the  forward  march.  Even  the  mild 
weather  now  prevailing  seems  auspicious  and  may 
mean  the  opening  of  many  important  projects  much 
earlier  than  could  be  usually  expected. 

A  very  optimistic  expression  comes  from  Henry 
K.  Holsman,  president  of  the  Illinois  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  who  believes  that 
the  approaching  season  will  be  marked  by  great  build- 
ing activity. 

"I  am  constantly  in  touch  with  a  great  many  archi- 
tects," says  Mr.  Holsman,  "and  my  information  is 
that  the  architects  are  going  to  have  all  the  work  they 
can  possibly  do.  A  great  deal  of  work  is  already  on 
the  boards,  with  many  plans  already  completed  and 
merely  awaiting  the  word  for  actual  work  to  begin." 

Charles  M.  Bostrom,  Chicago  commissioner  of 
buildings,  is  another  who  predicts  record-breaking 
activity.  Chicago's  greatest  building  boom  will  short- 
ly begin,  according  to  Mr.  Bostrom,  and  before  it  is 
finished  living  quarters  for  the  present  unaccommo- 
dated 100,000  families  will  have  been  built.  He  es- 
timates that  at  least  ten  square  miles  of  property 
now  vacant  in  and  around  Chicago  will  be  covered 
with  homes  and  apartments  during  the  building  re- 

Mr.  Bo-trom's  records  show  that  the  first  eleven 

months  of  1920  saw  the  issuance  of  permits  for 
buildings  valued  at  $74,000,000  as  compared  with  a 
valuation  of  more  than  $95,000,000  for  the  same 
period  in  1919.  Permit  valuations  for  December  of 
this  year  are  estimated  at  $3,000,000. 

Chicago's  record  building  year  thus  far  was  1916 
when  permits  representing  a  value  of  $113,000,000 
were  issued,  but  it  is  Mr.  Bostrom's  belief  that  the 
building  in  1921  will  set  a  new  mark  for  progress  in 

A  word  of  very  great  encouragement  comes  also 
from  S.  W.  Straus,  head  of  an  important  Chicago 
financial  house.  He  points  out  that  there  has  been 
great  improvement  in  the  conditions  which  have  pre- 
viously hindered  building  and  he  expects  an  imme- 
diate resumption  of  building  activity  as  soon  as 
weather  conditions  become  more  settled  and  favor- 

"While  construction  is  at  a  low  ebb  at  this  time," 
said  Mr.  Straus,  "conditions  are  favorable  for  the 
resumption  of  building  on  a  large  scale." 

Even  "more  emphatic  emphasis  of  the  encouraging 
outlook  than  that  given  expression  in  mere  individual 
views  may  be  found  in  the  news  of  the  actual  build- 
ing improvements  under  consideration  at  this  time. 
Most  of  these  projects  have  passed  •  through  the 
nebulous  stage  and  are  definitely  under  way. 

It  is  reported  that  the  building  program  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago  which  was  held  up  by  the  war 
is  about  to  be  resumed.  Very  vast  expenditures  are 
contemplated,  among  them  the  erection  of  the  im- 
portant medical  group  of  buildings  at  the  university. 
Northwestern  University  on  the  north  of  Chicago 
also  has  some  very  important  building  plans  which 
are  shortly  to  be  revived. 

Announcement  has  recently  been  made  of  plans 
to  raise  $1,000,000  for  a  new  hospital  on  the  Chi- 
cago Southside.  The  site  is  that  now  occupied  by 
the  Woman's  Hospital  at  460  East  32nd  street.  This 
property  has  been  sold  to  a  new  corporation  known  as 
the  Illinois  General  Hospital  which  will  be  the  name 
of  the  new  and  larger  institution.  Clubwomen  in 
Chicago  are  behind  plans  to  start  an  early  drive  to 
raise  funds  for  this  new  project. 

News  of  a  21  story  hotel  project  to  cost  $5,000,- 
000  is  also  current  in  Chicago.  The  site  of  the  pro- 
posed new  hostelry  is  the  now  popular  Union  Station 
district,  the  exact  location  being  at  Canal  and  Clinton 
streets.  Property  has  already  been  secured  by  the 






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VOL.   CXIX,   No.  2350 


JANUARY    5,    1921 

^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^"        »^M.-KS^  v' 



VOL.   CXIX,  No.  2350 


JANUARY   5,    1921 




VOL.   CXIX,  No.  2350 


JANUARY  5,    1921 





VOL.   CXIX,   No.  2350 


JANUARY   5,    1921 



Arthur  R.  Jones  Syndicate  which  has  the  project  in 
hand.  The  buildings  on  the  property  will  be  the  hotel 
already  mentioned  and  an  office  building  to  supply 
the  needs  of  this  important  business  section.  The 
hotel  will  be  connected  by  means  of  a  boulevard  sub- 
way with  the  station,  after  the  fashion  of  the  Grand 
Central  station  in  New  York  with  its  hotels  adjoin- 

The  Union  Station  improvement  will  give  new  im- 
petus to  building  in  this  part  of  the  city  and  a  gradual 
upgrowth  of  the  entire  wholesale  section  in  that  vicin- 
ity is  anticipated.  Rents,  in  fact,  are  already  feeling 
the  pull  of  the  improved  situation  and  new  leases 
are  being  made  on  a  higher  rate. 

Chicago's  greatly  needed  new  postoffice  building 
is  also  to  grace  this  same  general  locality.  The  exact 
location  is  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Jefferson  and 
Quincy  streets,  a  half  block  west  of  the  Union  Sta- 
tion. The  building  will  cost  in  the  neighborhood  of 
$1,500,000.  It  will  not  displace  the  general  post- 
office  in  the  Federal  Building  at  Dearborn,  Clark 
and  Adams  streets  but  will  be  utilized  to  relieve 
the  mail  congestion  which  results  from  the  inadequate 
size  of  the  present  building.  Alfred  L.  Alschuler  is 
the  architect  of  the  new  postal  station,  upon  which 
work  will  begin  in  early  spring. 

Theatrical  progress  is  to  add  its  share  to  the  build- 
ing boom.  Three  new  theatres  in  the  downtown  dis- 
trict are  said  to  be  in  contemplation  by  the  Shubert 
interests,  though  nothing  very  definite  has  been  given 
out  as  to  plans.  More  tangible  is  the  proposal  of  an 
unnamed  eastern  syndicate  to  erect  in  Chicago  a  chain 
of  outlying  vaudeville  houses  at  a  cost  of  approx- 
imately $4,000,000.  The  first  of  the  chain  will  be  a 
$300,000  building  on  West  Roosevelt  Road  near 
Ashland  avenue. 

Definite  plans  for  the  new  Federal  Reserve  Bank 
building,  for  which  excavation  is  practically  com- 
plete have  lately  been  made  public.  This  building  to 
be  located  at  La  Salle  Street  and  Jackson  Boulevard 
will  be  fourteen  stories  in  height,  with  provisions 
made  for  the  addition  of  four  stories  should  the 
first  limit  prove  inadequate.  Architecturally,  the 
building  will  be  a  free  interpretation  of  Greek  and 
Roman  classic  style,  the  outstanding  feature  being  a 
front  colonnade,  sixty-five  feet  high. 

The  cost  of  lumber  and  other  building  materials 
has  taken  no  important  decline  during  the  past  week 
or  so.  The  feeling  is  general  in  the  lumber  industry 
that  the  building  boom  will  drive  prices  upward  and 
this  hope  is  doing  a  great  deal  to  firm  the  market. 

Following  recent  revisions,  the  materials  manufac- 
turers are  also  holding  firm,  with  no  change  of  im- 
portance in  the  list  of  prices. 

A  general  summary  of  building  and  materials  quo- 
tations follows : 

Yellow  pine:— B.  &  B.  1  in.,  $95  to  $130;  13-16, 

3y4  flat  flooring,  $85  to  $90 ;  2  by  4,  10  to  16  feet, 
No.  1  long  leaf,  $51 ;  2  x  6,  $48  to  $49;  2  x  8,  $49 
to  $50;  2  by  10,  $52  to  $54;  2  by  12,  $54  and  $56. 

Northern  Hardwoods,  carload  lots,  Chicago : 

Birch,  four  y4  No.  1  and  2,  $155;  select,  $130  to 
$138;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No.  2  common, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $35  to  $40. 

Hard  Maple,  four  %  No.  1-2,  $135  to  $140;  select, 
$115  to  $120;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No.  2, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $32  to  $50. 

Red  gum  four  ]A,  No.  1  and  2,  $148  to  $152; 
No.  1  common,  $88  to  $92 ;  No.  2,  $43  to  $47. 

Birch,  four  Y^  No.  1  and  2,  $155  to  $160;  select, 
$130  to  $139;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No. 
2,  $60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $35  to  $40. 

Douglas  fir,  12  by  12,  No.  1  up  to  32  feet,  $65  to 
$75 ;  14  by  14,  $68  to  $75 ;  16  by  16,  $70  to  $75 ; 
18  by  18,  $75  to  $80. 

Cement : — Universal,  $3  ;  Lehigh,  $3.00  ;  Portland, 

Bulk  lime,  $1.70  to  $1.90;  face  brick,  octagons, 
$68  to  $75 ;  fire  brick,  $32  to  $40 ;  12  in.  .24  to  .27, 
18  in.  .46  to  .54. 

Crushed  stone  gravel  $3.40  to  $4 ;  lake  and  bank 
sand-torpedo,  $3.40  to  $4. 


NOT  until  an  American  dollar  will  buy  100 
cents'  worth  of  steel  and  hardware  will 
building  over  the  Pacific  Coast  be  resumed  in  the 
proportion  hoped  for,  and  American  business  go  on 
a  basis  that  will  be  safe,  sane  and  profitable.  This 
was  the  tone  in  which  large  hardware,  sheet,  pipe 
and  nail  operators  defined  the  situation  for  1921 
this  week.  It  is  contended  that  the  steel  mills  have 
not  responded  to  the  demands  of  the  hour,  and  that 
other  marketing  avenues,  in  guaranteeing  prices  on 
building  essentials  as  they  are  offering  to  do  to- 
day to  jobbing  houses  are  outside  their  rights  if  they 
propose  to  aid  the  country  in  getting  back  to  norma' 
The  general  tendency  of  jobbing  houses  on  the 
coast,  which  include  all  steel  and  shelf  hardware, 
sheets,  roofing,  cement  and  wall  board  is  to  refuse  to 
buy,  taking  on  only  what  can  meet  the  narrowed  re- 
quirements of  the  year-end.  In  this  way,  with  indi- 
vidual action  prolonged,  it  is  felt  that  stocks  will 
accumulate  in  the  hands  of  manufacturers  and  that 
a  price  tumble  will  be  inevitable.  Corroboration  of 
this  position  is  shown  in  the  fact  that  salesmen  have 
increased  in  number,  eastern  steel  mills  have  found 
it  necessary  to  personally  scan,  cultivate  and  tactfully 
view  the  field  in  person.  However,  the  minds  of  job- 
bers seem  to  have  been  made  up,  particularly  since 
it  is  known  that  gross  margins  in  the  North  Pacific 
jobbing  trade  were  not  moved  upward  during  the 
war  as  in  other  sections,  and  the  jobbing  trade  pro- 
tected its  customers  by  keeping  as  close  to  reasonable 



proth-.  U  WW  p08fi2>l«  at  that  time.  Jobber,  claim 
tliat  il  i-  impossible  lor  any  one  of  the  many  lines  ot 
construction  material  to  yuarantee  prices  to-day  until 
March  .>!.  a-  i>  proposed,  or  for  twenty-four  hours. 
and  the  point  has  been  raised  as  to  whether  it  can  be 
done  in  conformity  with  law.  This  attitude  of  inanu- 
irers  has  -lined  jobbers  into  a  belligerent  mood, 
and  Inning  will  be  limited  in  the  Pacific  coast  terri- 
tory until  the  future  basis  is  modified. 

There  is  an  ample  supply  of  nails,  pipe,  all  but 
halves  and  three-quarters  galvanized,  and  nails. 
Stocks  of  roofing,  cement,  fire  brick  and  plaster  wall- 
board  are  ample  to  take  care  of  the  estimated  need 
for  i he  next  ninety  days.  Jobbers  in  steel  products 
announce  that  they  will  follow  all  declines  in  the 
market  regardless  of  cost. 

\\  henever  steel  mills  more  thoroughly  reflect  the 
national  temper  in  their  price  list,  at  that  time  the 
reconstruction  period  will  begin.  This  is  the  crystal- 
lized sentiment  of  nine  out  of  ten  of  the  heads  of 
corporations  engaged  in  distributing  these  products 
over  the  Pacific  coast  territory. 

It  is  believed  that  fir  lumber  has  struck  bottom. 
A  good  many  price  lists  are  going  to  eastern  com- 
mission houses,  but  save  in  the  case  of  financial  pres- 
sure prices  are  being  held  taut.  The  larger  mills  are 
refusing  to  accept  business  on  the  market  of  to-day 
and  wages  have  fallen  $1  to  $1.25  per  day,  to  $3.75. 

Production  for  the  week  was  38J/2  per  cent,  below 

normal,  and  fir  mills  of  the  west  coast  territory  sold 
only  769  carloads,  30,000  feet  to  the  car,  in  the  rail 
or  eastern  building  trade.  The  mills  hold  orders  for 
2.736  carloads,  still  unshipped.  The  cut  at  the  mills 
and  the  shipments  were  only  1.50  per  cent,  apart,  a 
.situation  that  has  not  been  paralleled  in  months. 

Negotiations  for  moving  fir  lumber  and  shingles  to 
New  York,  Boston  and  Baltimore  intercostal  are 
going  forward  rapidly.  Association  authorities  took 
up  with  the  steamship  lines  the  subject  of  low  rates 
immediately  after  the  railroads  instituted  what  has 
become  a  prohibitive  transcontinental  rate,  and  com- 
parison shows  that  the  water  haul  to  New  York  har- 
bor will  save  shippers  $14.60  per  1,000  feet  on  lum- 
ber alone. 

Lightering  rates  in  New  York  harbor  and  to  Bos- 
ton and  other  ports  that  have  yardage  space  for  lum- 
ber cargoes  have  been  filed  here,  and  a  rate  of  17 
cents  per  hundred  pounds  from  New  York  to  Buffalo 
via  the  Erie  Canal  has  been  named.  The  railways 
stand  to  lose  the  lumber  as  they  have  lost  the  steel 
tonnage  west  bound,  as  well  as  the  backhaul  to  in- 
terior points. 

The  fir  mills  this  week  sold  mill  base  at  $51  to 
$57  for  vertical  grain  flooring,  $29  to  $31  for  slash 
grain,  $63  for  finish,  $27  to  $29  for  ceiling,  $28  to 
$30  for  drop  siding,  $18  to  $20  for  boards  and 
shiplap,  and  $13.50  to  $16  for  common  dimension. 


The  Outlook  as  to  Building  Material  Costs 

in  1921 

By  A.  R.  KRIECHBAUM,  Eastern  Editor,  Lumber 

THE  fundamental  soundness  of  America  is  a 
guarantee  for  better  business  in  1921.  This 
applies  more  particularly  to  the  building  indus- 
try than  to  many  other  lines  of  industry  because  the 
nation  is  at  least  four  years  behind  in  its  building  con- 
struction. The  war  taught  the*  people  of  America 
many  things,  the  most  important  of  which  was  econ- 
omy. Economy  in  housing  space  as  now  practiced 
would  have  been  considered  intolerable  a  few  years 
ago,  but  this  very  thing  has  created  business  in  the 
building  material  industry  at  a  time  when  retrench- 
ment in  all  lines  has  been  general.  The  remodeling 
of  buildings  to  provide  more  space  for  housing  ac- 
commodations has  furnished  the  principal  demand 
for  building  materials  during  the  past  several 
months.  This  remodeling  work,  creating  two  apart- 
ments where  there  had  been  but  one,  is  purely  an 
emergency  measure,  and  while  it  answers  the  pur- 
pose just  now,  it  does  not  lessen  in  the  slightest  de- 
gree the  potential  demand  for  housing  in  this  country. 
This  demand  must  be  met  sooner  or  later.  It  remain  , 
for  someone  to  start.  Under  existing  business  con- 
ditions the  large  investor  has  not  been  anxious  to  put 
his  money  in  the  building  field  when  he  could  lay  it 
away  in  tax-free  securities.  That  this  chief  adverse 
element  even  now  shows  signs  of  improvement,  how- 
ever, is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  the  larger  insurance 
companies,  building  and  loan  associations  and  bank- 
ing institutions  are  displaying  a  much  more  liberal  at- 
titude towards  the  building  industry,  particularly  with 
reference  to  loans  on  individual  housing  projects. 

Following  as  it  did  the  artificial  boom  which  be- 
gan immediately  after  the  signing  of  the  Armistice, 
the  period  of  depression  of  the  past  few  months  was 
fully  expected,  and,  in  fact,  did  not  reach  the  propor- 
tions anticipated.  It  resulted  largely  from  public 
sentiment.  The  public  was  sick  and  tired  of  high 
prices  and  it  simply  "struck."  That  the  "strike"  wa 
won  is  easily  attested  by  the  present  prices  of  all 
commodities,  including  building  materials.  Lumber, 
steel,  brick  and  cement,  the  four  basic  building  ma- 
terials, are  wholesaling  cheaper  today  than  at  any 
time  in  1920,  and  in  many  instances  this  is  true  of  re- 
tail prices  as  well,  but  as  a  general  rule  the  retailer 
has  not  taken  his  loss  in  proportion  to  other  branches 
of  the  building  industry,  except,  of  course,  the  la- 
borer. He  is  taking  his  loss  jnst  now  in  non-em- 

Building    construction    will    begin    during    1921. 

Whether  it  starts  in  early  Spring  or  later,  it  is  bound 
to  start,  and  when  it  is  finally  under  way  it  will  con- 
tinue for  at  least  three  years  to  come.  There  are 
several  important,  elements  which  bear  on  the  situa- 
tion, the  foremost  of  which  is  legislation,  both  ex- 
isting and  prospective.  The  "anti-landlord"  rent 
laws  enacted  by  the  last  New  York  Legislature  vir- 
tually placed  all  rented  property  in  the  hands  of  the 
courts,  and  landlords  as  a  general  rule  prefer  to  have 
supervision  over  their  own  property.  Such  legislation 
offers  little  inducement  to  the  prospective  apartment 
builder.  On  the  other  hand,  the  law-making  body 
passed  another  law  giving  cities  the  power  to  exempt 
from  taxation  for  a  period  of  five  years  all  new  con- 
struction, and  the  City  of  New  York  is  now  working 
on  an  ordinance  to  this  effect  which  may  become  a 
law  in  the  Spring.  This  undoubtedly  will  encourage 

The  sensational  disclosures  of  the  Legislative  Com- 
mittees, which  have  been  investigating  the  building 
industry  for  several  months,  have  proven  a  revela- 
tion and  have  undoubtedly  resulted  in  breaking  up 
several  "rings"  which  in  the  past  have  exacted  great 
toll  from  the  public.  Prospective  builders  this  year 
can  proceed  with  the  assurance  that  they  will  get  a 
dollar's  worth  of  building  for  every  dollar  they  spend. 
This,  again,  will  encourage  building. 

In  the  matter  of  material  supply,  there  is  every- 
thing in  favor  of  the  builder,  at  least  for  the  one  who 
builds  early  in  1921.  The  retail  lumber  yards  as  a 
rule  are  well  stocked  with  lumber,  the  cement  plants 
have  a  goodly  supply  of  cement  to  start  with  and 
there  is  enough  brick  to  keep  things  moving  until 
summer  when  the  brick  plants  resume  operation. 
Material  prices  (the  big  factor)  are  very  much  in 
favor  of  the  prospective  builder.  The  basic  mate- 
rials are  cheaper  today  then  they  were  at  any  time 
during  1920  and  the  market  will  probably  remain 
around  its  present  level  until  Spring.  The  trend  of 
the  market  during  the  last  half  of  1921,  however,  will 
undoubtedly  be  upward,  but  prices  will  never  reach 
the  peak  of  last  year,  at  least,  not  for  some  years  to 
come.  And  it  is  well  that  they  will  not.  Any  at- 
tempt to  force  prices  up  to  last  year's  peak  would 
be  immediately  followed  by  a  stoppage  of  building. 
The  labor  situation  will  be  favorable  to  the  resump- 
tion of  building  by  Spring.  Labor  is  getting  more 
plentiful  every  day  and  it  is  merely  a  matter  of  a 
short  time  until  wage  scales  will  be  reduced  in  the 



building  track-  ju-t  a-  they  are  being  reduced  at 
manufacturing  center-  throughout  the  country. 
And  another  imjiortant  factor  is  the  change  in  the  at- 
titude of  labor.  The  individual  is  growing  more  effi- 
cient and  k-s,  dictatorial.  He  is  more  willing  to  per- 
form a  lull  day'-  work  for  a  full  day's  pay,  which  ne- 
ci---arily  mean-  a  reduction  in  labor  costs,  even  if 
wage-  ;ue  not  actually  reduced. 

Trans]xjrtation.  another  factor  in  the  building  in- 
dustry, is  almost  100  per  cent,  better  now  than  it  was 
at  the  beginning  of  1920  and  railroad  officials  promise 
continued  improvement  throughout  this  year.  Ship- 
ments of  building  materials  from  producing  points 
are  moving  smoothly.  There  are  plenty  of  cars  and 
the  terminals  are  cleared  of  traffic,  a  condition  which 
is  just  the  reverse  of  that  of  last  January.  For 
the  first  half  of  this  year  the  big  trunk  lines  will 
undertake  only  improvements  which  are  absolutely- 
essential  and  the  roads  will  be  operated  with  as  few 
men  and  at  as  little  cost  as  possible.  Their  retrench- 
ment policy,  however,  will  not  be  taken  to  the  point 
where  it  will  interfere  with  service  to  the  public. 

In  all  branches  of  the  building  industry  there  is  a 
better  feeling  of  confidence  than  there  has  been  at 
any  time  since  the  close  of  the  war.  Everyone  knew 
that  the  boom  which  followed  the  signing  of  the  Ar- 
mistice was  artificial  and  could  not  continue.  They 
knew  that  the  prices  which  prevailed  last  winter 
were  entirely  too  high  for  the  best  interests  of  the 
industry.  For  the  most  part,  they  welcomed  the  turn 
downward,  for  while  many  of  them  lost  money  by 
the  break  in  the  market,  they  were  able  to  take  their 
loss  because  they  realized  a  good  profit  during  the 
months  preceding. 

During  1920  more  buildings  were  planned  than 
ever  before  in  history  and  yet  actual  construction 
fell  considerably  short  of  that  of  the  previous  year. 
Millions  of  dollars  in  new  construction,  represented 
by  plans  and  blue  prints,  are  now  held  in  "cold  stor- 
age" by  architects.  They  have  all  been  approved  and 
in  most  instances  the  money  appropriated.  The  archi- 
tects are  waiting  until  they  think  prices  have  reached 
the  bottom  before  they  ask  for  bids.  A  survey  of 
architects'  offices  reveals  the  fact  that  housing  proj- 
ects and  educational  and  religious  institutions  pre- 
dominate, although  there  are  quite  a  number  of  com- 
mercial and  office  buildings  in  the  list.  The  general 

curtailment  of  produciion  in  all  lines  indicates  there 
will  not  be  such  a  great  volume  of  industrial  build- 
ing this  year.  The  building  now  under  way  is  con- 
fined largely  to  the  completion  of  structures  started 
many  months  ago  and  to  repairing  and  remodeling. 

Manufacturers  of  building  materials  are  very,  op- 
timistic as  to  the  outlook  for  this  year.  Both  the 
cement  and  the  brick  manufacturers  declare  there  will 
be  a  shortage  of  materials.  One  cement  manufac- 
turer pointed  out  that  more  than  31,000,000  barrels 
of  cement  will  be  used  in  highway  construction  this 
year,  or  about  one-third  of  the  nation's  production. 
Cement  producers  are  refusing  to  accept  orders  on 
•  present  prices  for  spring  delivery.  In  a  good  build- 
ing year  approximately  1,200,000,000  bricks  are 
used.  Last  year  the  consumption  was  only  350,000,- 
000.  At  present  there  are  only  300,000,000  brick  on 
hand  at  producing  points  and  this  supply  would  be 
exhausted  in  60  days'  time  if  building  was  resumed  in 
any  volume.  The  brick  plants  are  closed  down  for 
the  winter  and  will  not  resume  operation  until  after 
May  1,  the  exact  date  depending  upon  weather  con- 
ditions. Brick  manufacturers  will  not  accept  orders 
for  future  delivery  on  the  present  market  values. 

In  the  lumber  industry  the  producers  have  re- 
sponded more  readily  to  the  downward  price  ten- 
dency than  probably  any  other  branch  of  the  build- 
ing material  industry.  Most  low  grade  lumber  to- 
day is  wholesaling  at  less  than  cost  of  production.  The 
mills  are  making  some  profit  on  the  better  grades,  but 
not  enough  to  offset  this  loss.  This  means  that  lum- 
ber prices,  as  a  whole,  must  be  higher  after  spring 
buying  begins  than  they  now  are.  A  great  majority 
of  the  lumber,  shingle  and  lath  mills  on  the  West 
Coast  and  in  the  South  have  been  closed  down  since 
the  middle  of  November  and  most  of  them  will  not 
resume  operation  until  buying  begins  in  some  volume. 
Stocks  of  lumber  at  the  mills  are  not  up  to  pre-war 
normal,  but  are  considerably  larger  than  those  of 
last  January.  This  surplus  will  be  exhausted,  how- 
ever, with  sixty  days  of  active  buying. 

No  one  looks  for  a  great  boom  year  or  the  sky- 
rocketing of  prices,  but  for  the  last  nine  months  in 
1921  is  generally  predicted  a  period  of  good,  sub- 
stantial business,  and  from  then  on  business  generally 
will  continue  prosperous  for  the  next  five  years. 



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The  Cleveland  Auditorium 

A  Notable  Example  of  Architectural  and  Engineering  Skill 

ONLY  the  ordinary   palls.    And  because  the 
world  is  largely  composed  of  ordinary  peo- 
ple, ordinary  buildings  and  many  other  ordi- 
nary things,  they  fail  to  excite  interest.    But  the  big 
men,  the  unusual  things,  are  those  that  never  fail  to 
arouse  our  interest,  our  curiositv  and  often  our  ad- 

investing  money,  part  of  which  has  been  raised  by  a 
bond  issue,  in  a  structure  which  its  citizens  firmly 
believe  is  a  most  excellent  investment  and  which  will 
pay  handsome  dividends  in  the  form  of  increased" 
business  for  Cleveland  citizens.  Although  it  is  not 
here  desired  to  discuss  the  economics  of  the  question,. 


miration.     We  look  on  with  awe  and  wish  that  we 
also  might  do  big  things. 

The  city  of  Cleveland,  while  not  ranking  with  the 
largest  cities,  is  yet  a  most  progressive  one.  Just  now 
Cleveland  is  doing  something  big  in  the  building 
business.  While  private  building  lags  behind  and 
business  in  many  lines  is  unusually  dull,  this  city  is 

a  consideration  of  the  structure  itself  is  worthy  of 

The  accompanying  illustrations  will  more  readily 
convey  an  idea  of  the  magnitude  of  this  structure 
than  any  lengthy  description. 

The  Auditorium,  now  under  construction,  is  the 
fourth  building  to  be  erected  in  what  is  known  as  the 




Cleveland  Group  Plan.  It  occupies  a  site  on  the  east 
side  of  the  proposed  Mall  and  is  bounded  by  Lake- 
side Avenue  on  the  north,  St.  Clair  Avenue  on  the 
south  and  East  6th  Street  on  the  east.  This  build- 
ing is  230  by  430  ft.,  while  the  arena  or  public  hall 
proper  is  to  be  220  ft.  wide  and  370  ft.  long.  In  this 
vast  auditorium  there  will  not  be  a  single  pillar  to 
obstruct  the  view  of  the  army  of  spectators  it  will 
seat.  The  whole  auditorium  will  be  lighted  from  the 
ceiling,  where  the  use  of  incandescents  with  a  total 
wattage  equivalent  to  218,000  ordinary  lamps  is  be- 
ing planned. 

Modern  fireproof  steel  construction  is  used 
throughout.  The  exterior  is  faced  with  granite  and 
limestone,  while  the  interior  k  finished  in  marble,  tile 
and  decorative  plaster.  The  requirements  to  be  met  in 
the  auditorium  were  such  that  the  plan  could  not  be 
well  expressed  on  the  exterior  by  the  type  of  classi- 

cal Roman  architecture  that  prevails  in  the  other 
public  buildings  of  this  group.  It  was  found  how- 
ever that  facades  designed  in  the  spirit  of  the  Italian 
Renaissance  were  applicable  to  a  true  expression  of 
the  plan,  and  this  type  of  architecture  was  therefore 
adopted,  although  the  exterior  details  are  classical 
and  harmonize  with  the  other  buildings  of  the  Group 


The  Auditorium  is  an  exceedingly  interesting 
building  because  of  the  many  varied  functions  that  it 
is  intended  to  serve.  Many  special  features  are  in- 
corporated in  plan  and  equipment  in  order  to  fulfill 
these  functions.  The  purposes  for  which  the  Audi- 
torium is  designed  and  equipped  to  be  used  may  be 
classified  as  follows : 







(e)  Political. 

(f)  Religious. 

(g)  Sales  and  business, 
(h)  Scientific. 



Musical      Conce  r  t  s. 
Grand  Opera. 


(a)  Athletic, 
(b)  Balls. 
(c)   Carnivals, 
(d)   Circus, 
(e)   Motion  pictures. 


(a)  Aeronautical. 

(b)  Animal  shows. 

(c)  Automotive. 

(d)  Machinery. 

(e)  Electrical. 

(f)  Chemical. 

(g)  Flower  shows, 

(i)   Farm  products  (raw) 

(j)   Building  materials. 

(k)  Textile. 

(1)  Industrial  methods  & 
and  Special  process. 

(m)  Plumbing  and  heat- 

(n)  Forestry. 


Food  products 


The  seating  capacity  of  the  Auditorium  for  con- 
certs and  operas  is  12,000 ;  during  conventions,  how- 
ever, this  capacity  may  be  increased  to  13,500  by 



placing  1,500  additional  seats  on  the  stage.  The  main 
floor  and  basement  combined  offer  61,000  square  feet 
of  exhibition  space,  32,000  on  the  main  floor  and 
29,000  in  the  basement.  Steam,  gas,  compressed  air, 
vacuum  and  electric  current  (A.  C.  and  D.  C.  110 
volt  and  220  volt)  are  among  the  services  available 
to  exhibitors. 

One  of  the  primary  functions  of  the  building  is  the 

72  ft.  ice  skating  rink  or  swimming  tank  from  the 
basement  to  the  stage  level.  The  stage  wings  are 
provided  with  28  private  dressing  rooms  and  chorus 
rooms  with  a  total  capacity  of  200.  One  of  the  finest 
pipe  organs  in  the  country  is  to  be  installed.  Special 
care  is  being  taken  to  design  the  interior  acoustically 

South  of  the  arena  will  be  a  unit  housing  a  com- 


Note   the   two  traveling  derrick  towers  in  foreground 

housing  of  national  conventions.  Every  dependency 
required  by  such  conventions  is  provided.  These 
include  suites  of  large  committee  rooms  with  sepa- 
rate entrance  foyers,  scores  of  telephones  with  a  pri- 
vate exchange,  taxicab  service,  lunch  room,  flower 
shop,  barber  shop,  shower  baths,  and  numerous  other 
accommodations  for  the  convenience  of  the  busy  con- 
vention delegates. 

The  stage  is  equipped  in  accordance  with  the  best 
modern  theatre  practice.  It  is  one  of  the  largest  in 
the  world  and  provision  r  /nade  for  raising  a  30  by 

plete  theatre  capable  of  seating  an  audience  of  2,700 
and  with  facilities  for  a  company  of  200  players. 
The  stage  of  the  theatre  unit  will  also  be  the  stage 
of  the  main  auditorium  and  has  a  proscenium  arch 
of  72  ft.  span,  a  depth  of  48  ft.  and  an  overall  width 
of  108  ft.  Fly  galleries  are  to  be  done  away  with, 
and  nothing  but  modern  stage-setting  machinery 

To  the  north  of  the  arena  will  be  located  another 
complete  unit  of  the  same  approximate  size  as  the 
theatre  unit  on  the  south.  The  northern  unit  will  be 



-:ir»i«  • 

:Wj  - 




six  stories  in  height  and  will  include  the  formal 
lobby  and  some  twenty  convention  halls,  with  seating 
capacities  ranging  from  300  to  1,200. 

Curving  runways  will  be  built  from  the  basement 
to  the  arena  floor  to  take  care  of  circus  parades  and 
pageants.  It  is  stated  that  the  Cleveland  public  hall 
will  be  able  to  take  care  of  a  much  bigger  circus  audi- 
ence than  Madison  Square  Garden  in  New  York 

Two  great  steel  derrick  towers,  movable  on  wood- 
en trestles,  played  an  important  part  in  erecting  the 
framework  of  this  structure.  The  four  trestles,  two 
for  each  tower  >  were  built  within  the  side  walls,  and 
parallel  with  the  longitudinal  center  line  of  the  build- 
ing. Upon  these  trestles  the  towers  were  built.  On 
top  of  each  tower  was  erected  a  large  derrick,  oper- 
ated by  a  hoist  at  the  tower  base.  The  most  difficult 
task  handled  by  the  towers  was  the  placing  of  the 
roof  trusses,  each  over  200  ft.  long  and  weighing 
200  tons  a  piece.  They  were  put  in  place  without 
trouble,  however.  As  riveters  went  to  work  on  one, 

the  cables  were  removed  from  the  derricks  and 
anchored  to  the  ground.  The  hoists  then  pulled  them- 
selves and  the  towers  rearward,  into  position  for  lift- 
ing j:he  next  truss.  The  bottom  chord  of  each  truss 
came  in  seven  sections.  In  placing  these  the  center 
section  was  laid  first,  after  which  the  other  sections 
were  connected  and  wedged  up  to  proper  elevation. 
When  the  complete  chord  had  been  bolted  up  and 
connected  to  the  wall  columns,  all  web  members  were 
set  and  finally  the  top  chord  (shipped  in  four  sec- 
tions) was  set  in  place.  The  truss  was  then  riveted 
complete  and  swung  by  cutting  loose  the  blocking. 

It  is  planned  to  complete  the  building  by  October 
1,  1921.  The  total  cost  will  be  aproximately  $5,- 
000,000.  The  building  was  started  during  the  ad- 
ministration of  Mayor  Davis  and  will  be  finished 
under  the  administration  of  Mayor  Fitzgerald.  Floyd 
E.  Waite  has  served  as  Director  of  Parks  and  Pub- 
lic Property  during  these  administrations.  F.  H. 
Betz  has  been  succeeded  by  J.  H.  MacDowell  as 
architect.  F.  R.  Walker  is  the  consulting  architect. 



An  Improvement  in  Hollow  Tile  Floor 


Bv  ALLAN  F.  OWEN,  M.W.S.E  * 

THE  use  of  hollow  tile  floor  arches  was  com- 
ci.U-nt   with   the  erection  of  the  first  steel 
franu-   l,uil.linKs  and   until   the  introduction 
of  reinforced  concrete  it  was  universally  used 
first  arches  to  be  used  were  of  the  segmental  type_ 
The  fireproofing  of  the  tie  rods  was  an  item  c 
considerable  expense  and  rather  uns.ghtly  in  ap- 
pearance, the  plastering  of  the  ceiling  was  costly  and 

voussoirs  are  standard  for  each  depth  of  arch  the 
skewbacks  vary  with  each  depth  of  supporting  floor 
beam  and  the  keys  vary  with  the  length  of  the  spans 
The  function  of  the  key  is  to  close  the  arch  winch 
is  built  towards  the  center  from  each  supporting 
beam  It  will  be  seen  that  in  a  building  m  which 
several  depths  of  floor  beams  are  used  and  several 
span  lengths  occur,  there  are  quite  a  number  of  spe- 


Note  ceiling,   showing  an  excellent   surface   for  plastering,   also   small   amount  of   debris 

the  finished  appearance  unsatisfactory.  In  buildings 
of  the  better  character  a  suspended  ceiling  was  used 
in  order  to  secure  a  flat  ceiling,  thus  entailing  a  con- 
siderable added  cost.  The  rise  of  these  segmented 
arches  was  generally  one  inch  per  foot  of  span. 

A  later  development  was  the  flat  arch,  the  first  of 
which  were  of  the  side  construction  type,  succeeded 
by  the  better  end  construction  type.  A  flat  arch  is 
made  up  of  skewbacks,  voussoirs  and  a  key.  The 

•Structural  Engineer,  Marquette  Building,  Chicago. 

cial  tiles  which  are  expensive  to  manufacture  and 
are  conducive  to  confusion  in  sorting,  distributing 
and  placing.  Every  tile' in  this  type  of  construction 
has  some  feature  which  adds  to  the  cost  of  its  pro- 
duction. These  arches  range  from  ten  to  sixteen 
inches  in  depth  and  are  generally  set  with  a  three- 
quarter  inch  camber.  On  striking  the  centering  the 
mortar  joints  adjust  themselves  in  such  a  way  that 
the  ceiling  becomes  practically  level.  This  type  of 
arch  is  very  satisfactory  for  steel  frame  buildings. 



Economy  in  construction  is  secured  by  decreasing 
the  cost  of  materials  and  labor.  In  making  a  study 
to  develop  a  less  expensive  type  of  flat  arch  con- 
struction attention  was  first  given  to  the  materials. 
The  cheapest  hollow  tile  material  is  that  known 
as  partition  tile  which  have  rectangular  sides  and 
square  ends  as  opposed  to  the  radial  joint  ends  of  the 
voussoir  tiles.  Partition  tiles  are  made  in  full  and 
half  lengths,  twelve  and  six  inches  long  respectively. 
It  is  obvious  that  a  floor  constructed  with  standard 
partition  tile,  soffit  and  channel  tiles  would  be  eco- 
nomical as  to  the  tile  material.  The  next  element  to 
be  considered  was  labor.  If  the  arch  could  be  con- 
structed of  medium  weight  pieces  and  placed  with- 
out the  necessity  of  making  accurate  closures  in  each 
arch,  a  labor  saving  would  be  effected.  The  elimina- 
tion of  the  usual  three-quarter  inch  tie  rods  would 
also  make  a  saving  of  steel  and  in  the  labor  of  fitting 
the  tile  about  them.  The  cost  of  centering  would  be 
the  same  in  both  cases. 

These  factors  were  embodied  in  the  design  of  the 
floor  arches  installed  in  the  Old  Colony  Life  Insur- 
ance Company  building  now  being  erected  in  Chicago. 
This  building  is  located  at  168  West  Jackson  Boule- 
vard and  extends  through  the  block  to  Quincy  street. 
The  building  was  designed  by  C.  A.  Eckstorm,  archi- 
tect, the  fireproofing  erected  by  the  T.  G.  Nicholson 
Company  and  the  writer  was  structural  engineer  for 
the  floor  construction. 

In  constructing  these  floors  an  8  x  12  x  12  in.  par- 
tition tile  was  used  in  full  and  half  lengths.  The  tile 
was  laid  on  its  eight  inch  face  making  the  depth  of 
the  arch  twelve  inches.  Two  rows  of  tile  were  laid 
from  beam  to  beam  with  cement  mortar  joints  be- 


tween  all  adjoining  surfaces.  Between  these  two 
rows  of  tile  was  placed  a  four  inch  channel  tile  and 
the  space  between  the  partition  tiles  filled  with  con^ 
crete  in  which  was  embedded  a  3^-inch  steel  rod  as 
shown  in  the  design.  The  partition  tiles  were  laid 
from  the  center  of  the  span  to  the  supporting  floor 
beams  and  the  skewback  closure  made  with  con- 
crete, poured  with  the  concrete  joists  and  thus  sur- 
rounding the  tile  construction  with  monolithic  con- 
crete on  ends  and  sides.  No  provision  was  made  to 
prevent  the  slight  inflow  of  concrete  into  the  tiles 
at  the  skewbacks.  This  was  inconsiderable  owing 
to  the  size  and  shape  of  the  cells  but  is  an  appre- 

ciable element  of  strength.  The  soffit  tile  under  steel 
floor  beams  had  a  metal  fabric  under  it  and  extend- 
ing up  into  the  concrete  skewback  as  shown.  This 
provided  a  most  effective  anchorage  for  the  soffit 

The  four  inch  concrete  joists  and  the  ^-inch  steel 
rods  were  largely  a  concession  to  the  Chicago  Build- 


ing  Department  requirements.  Some  few  panels  have 
been  constructed  with  two  inch  concrete  joists  with 
no  apparent  differences  in  strength.  When  tested 
under  the  supervision  of  the  Chicago  Building  De- 
partment with  an  applied  load  of  900  pounds  per 
square  foot,  no  deflection  was  indicated  by  the  gauge. 
The  first  arches  were  laid  with  a  three-quarter  inch 
camber  but  no  settlement  took  place  when  the  cen- 
tering was  struck  twenty-four  hours  after  the  arch 
was  laid.  The  balance  of  the  arches  were  laid  with 
an  one-eighth  inch  camber. 

The  fine  level  ceiling  surface  secured  for  plaster- 
ing is  indicated  in  the  illustration  on  the  opposite 
page.  The  installation  was  made  with  unusual  speed, 
the  contractor  being  compelled  to  stop  work  two 
times  to  enable  the  steel  erector  to  get  ahead  of  him. 

An  interesting  comparison  of  cost  was  made  re- 
cently between  a  long  span  combination  tile  and  con- 
crete system  of  floor  arches  and  this  new  short  span 
system  is  a  sixteen  story  steel  frame  building  now 
under  construction.  Three  steel  floor  beams  were 
added  in  each  bay  for  the  short  span  system  and  this 
cost  of  steel  was  more  than  compensated  for  by  the 
cheaper  erection  cost  of  tile  and  its  erection,  less 
reinforcing  steel  and  yardage  of  concrete.  The  total 
dead  load  was  slightly  less  for  this  system. 

The  advantages  of  this  system  are  those  relating 
to  cost  and  speed  of  construction.  The  elimination 
of  the  radial  jointed  voussoirs,  special  skewbacks  and 


key-,  re-ulting  in  tlie  use  of  from  seven  to  fourteen 
different  shape-,  and  the  substitution  of  Standard 
full  and  half  length  partition  tile,  standard  one-size 
and  channel  tilt-  reduces  the  cost  of  manufac- 
turing, tran-i>ortation  and  handling  and  obviate-  the 
delay-  due  to  the  \vn.nn  distribution  of  the  sizes  at 


the  building  and  simplifies  the  work  of  the  tile  setter. 
Patents  have  been  applied  for  covering  several  fea- 
tures of  this  system  of  construction. 

[Among  the  several  departures  from  the  usual  types 
of  building  construction  made  necessary  by  the  cost  or 
scarcity  of  materials  and  labor,  the  above  article  describes 
an  interesting  improvement  in  methods.  It  also  is  one 

tore  indication  of  the  facility  with  which  plastic  concrete 

can  be  used  in  connection  with  materials  difficult  to  alter 

after  manufacture.    It  is  evident  that  the  use  of  concrete 

mbination   with    other   materials   offers   a    field   for 

'her   investigation   and    invention.     In    this   case,   Mr. 

Uwen,  who  has  had  an  extensive  experience  in  the  manu- 

<eture  and  use  of  hollow  tile  wares,  has  made  a  notable 

%**"*?***,  '"  "'f'liods  of  hollow  tile  construction.- 
The  Editors.] 

Not  Educated  Up  to  Sprayer 

That  architects  may  oftentimes  be  shortsighted 
is  indicated  by  the  following  instance,  which  came 
under  our  observation : 

A  local  painting-contractor  had  a  contract  for  the 
painting  of  the  large  steel  trusses  of  an  auditorium, 
[n  this  work  he  contemplated  the  use  of  an  air 
sprayer  as  being  more  efficient  for  that  type  of  work 
than  brush  work.  The  architect,  learning  of  that 
intention,  notified  the  general  contractor  that  since 
the  specifications  did  not  state  that  a  sprayer  might 
be  used,  forbid  that  method,  claiming  that  it  was 
impossible  to  get  the  paint  into  the  cracks  and 
crevices. — December  Bulletin,  Associated  General 
Contractors  of  America. 

[Editor's  Note:— The  subject  of  Spray  Painting  was 
treated  very  fully  in  the  June  23,  1920,  issue  of  THE 

A  Correction 

Reference  is  made  to  a  photograph  of  the  Plaza 
Hotel  on  page  713  of  our  issue  of  December  1,  1920. 
This  was  in  error  attributed  to  Warren  &  Wetmore 
as  the  architects.  Mr.  H.  J.  Hardenburgh  was  the 
architect  of  the  original  building,  while  the  addition 
is  the  work  of  Warren  &  Wetmore. 

Publications  Received 

The  Atlas  Portland  Cement  Company  has  just 
published  "The  Atlas  Handbook  on  Concrete  Con- 
struction." This  book  is  bound  in  cloth,  and  con- 
tains 144  pages,  4"  x  6l/2",  of  solid  information  on 
concrete  mixing,  reinforced  concrete,  concrete  forms, 
concrete  building  construction.  The  information 
contained  in  this  booklet  is  well  illustrated  by  135 
pictures  and  40  tables.  It  is  classified  for  ready 
reference  in  both  a  Table  of  Contents  as  well  as  an 
alphabetical  index. 

The  chapter  on  concrete  mixing  gives  valuable 
tables,  information  on  methods  and  tests,  etc.  This 
is  followed  by  a  discussion  of  reinforcements,  taking 
up  beams,  girders,  floor  slabs,  etc.  Bending  steel 
reinforcements  receive  considerable  attention.  The 
discussion  of  the  building  of  typical  concrete  forms 
is  good. 


Current    News 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Field  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

Small    House    Competition    for 

Mr.  Henry  K.  Holsman,  president  of  the  Illinois 
Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects  and 
architectural  adviser  to  the  "Own  Your  Home"  Ex- 
positions to  be  held  in  New  York  City  and  Chicago 
early  next  year,  is  sending  to  architects  the  general 
program  for  a  "Small  House  Competition"  which  is 
to  be  conducted  in  connection  with  these  two  events. 
The  Chicago  exposition,  as  previously  announced, 
will  be  held  March  26  to  April  2,  1921,  while  the  New 
York  City  exposition  opens  April  16  and  closes  April 
30.  In  explaining  the  purpose  of  this  "Small  House 
Competition"  Mr.  Holsman,  in  a  letter  to  architects, 

"The  American  Institute  of  Architects  realizes 
that  the  architectural  profession  and  the  services  it 
•can  render  to  society  are  not  properly  appreciated 
by  the  people,  greatly  to  the  detriment  of  the  pro- 
fession and  the  community. 

"The  architectural  profession  has  not  received  as 
much  public  recognition  as  other  professions  because 
it  has  not  hitherto  performed  as  much  public  service. 
The  logical  way  to  keep  the  value  of  architectural 
services  in  the  minds  of  the  people  is  to  do  some  con- 
spicuous public  good. 

"The  country  is  now  confronted  with  a  lack  of 
private  initiative  in  home  building  and  home  owner- 
ship. The  government  is  beginning  to  realize  that 
homeless  citizens  and  families,  whether  rich  or  poor, 
are  not  potentially  the  best  citizens — that  every  addi- 
tional home  owner  makes  an  additional  credit  pos- 
sibility, an  additional  property  security  to  the  nation's 
wealth,  and  an  additional  urge  for  all  other  forms 
of  permanent  construction. 

With  a  view  to  stimulating  home  building  and 
home  ownership,  "Own  Your  Home"  expositions 
have  been  inaugurated  to  be  held  in  various  large 
centers  to  show  the  people  the  value  of  a  good  home 
and  how  to  obtain  it.  Realizing  that  the  majority 
of  homes  are  not  designed  by  the  most  competent 
architects,  and  that  small  house  plans  are  not  usually 
profitable  work  for  the  established  architect,  the 
architects  will  make  their  contribution  to  this  move- 
ment at  present  in  the  form  of  a  Small  House  Com- 
petition, program  of  which  is  herewith  enclosed. 

"You.  are  invited  to  participate  in  this  movement 

and  send  in  the  best  solution  of  the  small  house  prob- 
lem that  can  be  devised  for  your  particular  locality. 

You  will  notice  that  the  cash  prizes  to  be  awarded 
are  considerable,  and  that  the  other  prize  conditions 
are  more  important  to  the  architectural  profession. 
The  plans  securing  the  prizes  will  be  widely  pub- 
lished, will  be  made  available,  complete  with  spe- 
cifications ready  for  execution,  at  small  cost  to  home 
owners,  architects  and  builders.  These  plans  will 
bear  the  architect's  name  and  address  so  that  he  may 
receive  not  only  compensation  for  every  reproduc- 
tion of  his  plan,  but  may  be  placed  in  contact  with 
the  builder.  Furthermore,  arrangements  are  being 
made  to  reproduce  the  first-prize  designs  in  the  ex- 
position in  facsimile  and  other  prize  designs  in 
small  models.  One  large  house-furnishing  store  has 
offered  to  reproduce  the  prize  designs  in  full  size, 
furnished  and  decorated,  in  their  store  and  it  is  ex- 
pected that  other  stores  throughout  the  country  will 
do  similar  service. 

"We  trust  that  you  will  consider  this  matter  of 
enough  value  to  yourself,  the  profession  and  the  pub- 
lic to  prepare  and  send  a  design  which  will  be  the  best 
that  your  combined  office  force  can  produce.  If 
you  cannot  participate,  will  you  be  kind  enough  to 
hand  this  program  to  some  draftsman  who  would 
be  competent  to  participate." 

The  program  may  be  had  by  addressing  Hr.  Hols- 
man at  175  West  Jackson  boulevard,  Chicago. 

New  York  Society  of  Architects 

This  society  held  its  regular  monthly  meeting 
Tuesday  evening,  Dec.  21,  at  the  United  Engineer- 
ing Societies  Building,  West  Thirty-ninth  street, 
New  York  City,  President  James  Riely  Gordon  in 
the  chair.  A  full  quota  of  members  was  present,  and 
great  interest  manifested  in  the  various  important 
topics  discussed. 

A  communication  was  read  from  the  chairman  of 
the  Board  of  Standards  and  Appeals,  in  regard  to 
the  proposed  rules  requiring  rat-proofing  of  build- 
ings along  the  river  fronts.  After  somewhat  ex- 
tended discussion,  in  which  the  element  of  humor 
was  not  lacking,  the  meeting,  on  motion  by  Mr.  H. 
Holder,  passed  a  resolution  that  "the  society  is  op- 
posed to  the  structural  requirements  under  consid- 
eration before  the  Board  of  Standards  and  Appeals, 



in<l  that  this  matter  can  be  more  effectually  dealt 
of  Health,  each  indmdua  1  hou*- 

that  .In-  good 

buildings,  would  not  warrant  the 
ed,  and  ,  ha,  .her.  arc  stapte  and  more  eco- 
I1(,mk,,l  expedients,  such  as  wire  netting  applied.  to 
«  which  are  largely  infested  by  rats;  the  hlling 
i,-,  with  broken  glass  or  concrete  between  studs  of 
partitions,  and  closing  up  runways  of  these  vermin. 
which  would  suffice  to  meet  the  emergency.  At  the 
same  .inn-,  as  regards  new  buildings,  the  proposed 
additional  precautions  might,  if  only  in  a  mod 
form,  be  adopted. 

In  response  to  an  inquiry  from  a  member  as  to 
whether  a  corporation  can  practice  architecture  under 
the  title  of  Registered  Architect,  the  information 
was  elicited  that  such  practice  is  illegal,  since  the 
title  of  R.  A.  is  conferred  only  upon  individuals,  and 
a  corporation,  even  though  employing  registered  ar- 
chitects, may  not  assume  such  title. 

President  Gordon  asked  for  suggestions  from 
members  which  might  assist  Senator  Dunnigan's 
Housing  Committee,  and  the  discussion  brought  out 
the  general  opinion  of  members  that  reforms  are 
necessary  in  the  practice  of  dealers  and  manufactur- 
ers refusing  to  give  price  quotations  to  architects  or 
their  clients.  It  was  pointed  out  that  corporations 
doing  business  in  the  state  owe  a  duty  to  the  public, 
by  whose  sufferance  they  are  permitted  to  do  busi- 
ness as  such,  and  such  corporations  should  be  placed 
under  a  legal  obligation  to  sell  to  any  bona  fide  cus- 
tomer at  a  fair  market  price.  Material  men  and 
dealers  at  present  will  not  quote  prices  to  anyone  ex- 
cept contractors  in  their  particular  or  affiliated  line. 
This  ignorance  of  costs  prohibits  the  architect  from 
giving  a  comprehensive  estimate  to  prospective  in- 
vestors, entailing  a  loss  of  prestige  and  confidence  in 
the  architect.  Another  point  brought  out  was  the 
wasteful  methods  encouraged  by  the  rules  of  the 
labor  unions,  which  make  necessary  a  great  deal  of 
work  in  the  field  which  could  be  done  in  the  shop  at 
half  the  cost. 

The  idea  of  the  open  shop  was  strongly  favored  by 
the  meeting,  as  being  thoroughly  American,  and  in 
accord  with  the  principle  that  the  fight  to  work  shall 
not  be  denied  to  any  man. 

The  Society  deplored  the  fact  that  there  does  not 
appear  to  be  a  man  in  public  life  who  has  courage 
to  uphold  the  right  of  the  individual  as  against  com- 
binations, whether  of  capital  or  labor.  This  same 
principle  of  class  interest  appears  to  dominate  the 
commercial  life  of  the  community,  to  the  grievous 
limitation  of  individual  liberty. 

Severe  comment  was  also  made  upon  the  fact  that 
architects  as  a  class  have  been  the  chief  sufferers 
from  the  conditions  which  have  prevailed  for 

term  architect  in  its  original  and 
nS;  signifies  Master  Builder, 
such  the  man  who  bears  that  title  ought  to  be 
to  control  all  classes  and  interests  included  m 
domain  of  building  construction  ^f*^ 
f  fact  however,  the  architect  is  held  to  be  of  little 
account  in  these  days,  and  as  to  compensation  for  his 
^  ces-essential  to  the  welfare  of  the  commun.  y 
as  those  services  are-he  is  probably  the  most  poorly 
paid  of  all  professional  men:  the  average  emp  oyee 
in  an  architect's  office  receiving  perhaps  about  the 
same  pay  as  a  common  laborer  on  the  building  he 
designs  and  superintends. 

A  2,000-Year  Old  Definition  of  an 

In  a  recent  address  before  the  Western  Society 
of  Engineers,  Mr.  John  W.  Alvord,  past  president 
of  the  society,  gave  a  definition  of  an  engineer 
made  by  Marcus  Vitruvius,  who  wrote  150  years 

B.  C. 

"He  should  be  a  good  writer,  a  skillful 
draughtsman,  versed  in  geometry  and  optics,  expert 
at  figures,  acquainted  with  history,  informed  on  the 
principles  of  natural  and  moral  philosophy,  some- 
what of  a  musician,  not  ignorant  of  the  sciences, 
both  law  and  physics,  nor  of  the  motions,  laws  and 
relations  to  each  other  of  the  heavenly  bodies. 
*  *  *  Moral  philosophy  "will  teach  him  to  be 
above  meanness  in  his  dealings  and.  to  avoid  arro- 
gance. It  will  make  him  just,  compliant  and  faith- 
ful to  his  employer,  and  what  is  of  highest  import- 
ance, it  will  prevent  avarice  gaining  an  ascendency 
over  him,  for  he  should  not  be  occupied  with 
thoughts  of  filling  his  coffers,  nor  with  the  desire 
of  grasping  everything  in  the  shape  of  gain,  but  by 
the  gravity  of  his  manners  and  a  good  character, 
should  be  careful  to  preserve  his  dignity." 

The    Architectural    League    of 

The  Architectural  League  of  Indianapolis  is  a  new 
organization  based  upon  that  of  the  Architectural 
League  of  New  York  City,  with  some  changes  that 
were  considered  necessary  to  adapt  it  to  local  con- 

Charter  membership  is  still  open  as  it  is  hoped 
to  reach  everyone  personally  who  might  be  inter- 
ested or  benefited  by  an  organization  of  this  charac- 

It  is  the  purpose  to  bring  about  a  closer  associa- 
tion and  co-operation  of  the  architects,  sculptors, 
landscape  architects,  draftsmen,  painters,  decorators, 
and  all  the  allied  artisans.  • 



Arrangements  have  been  made  whereby  the 
League  will  have  use  of  lecture  and  class  rooms  at 
the  John  Herron  Art  Institute.  The  League  is  re- 
sponsible for  the  local  atelier  of  the  Beaux-Arts  In- 
stitute of  Design,  which  has  a  following  of  about 
thirty-five  students.  Courses  have  been  arranged 
in  Architecture  and  Interior  Decoration.  Beginners 
will  have  a  special  class  to  train  them  in  the  elements 
of  design  to  prepare  for  Beaux-Arts  problems. 

An  interesting  course  of  lectures  is  planned  for 
the  winter.  Several  small  exhibitions  will  be  held 
and  later  it  is  hoped  that  some  large  exhibition  of 
local  work  may  be  arranged  for  and  advantage  taken 
of  some  of  the  large  traveling  exhibits. 

The  League  is  a  post-war  effort  to  revive  interest 
in  artistic  organization  and  to  increase  public  appre- 
ciation of  the  arts.  All  lectures  are  open  to  the  pub- 
lic. The  secretary  of  the  League  would  be  glad  to 
correspond  with  other  organizations,  for  the  purpose 
of  exchanging  ideas  which  would  be  of  mutual  bene- 
fit, and  to  learn  of  possible  lectures  and  exhibits. 

Billions  for  Construction  in  1921 

Early  resumption  of  home  building  and  other 
forms  of  construction  is  assured  if  reports  of  con- 
templated building  projects  may  be  taken  as  a  cri- 
terion for  the  coming  year. 

These  reports  show  that  contemplated  building 
projects  for  the  territory  north  of  the  Ohio  River 
and  east  of  the  Missouri  will  probably  reach  the  tre- 
mendous amount  of  $4,800,000,000,  which  under 
normal  conditions  would  indicate  actual  construction 
during  1921  of  approximately  $3,200,000,000. 

The  low  lumber  market  now  prevailing  paves  the 
way  for  a  big  reduction  in  building  costs.  Thou- 
sands upon  thousands  of  homes,  so  badly  needed,  will 
be  built  under  these  conditions.  This  will  neces- 
sarily call  upon  thousands  of  men  from  all  trades  for 
the  production  of  building  materials. 

Such  demands  will  naturally  lead  to  steady  pro- 
duction and  universal  employment  which  in  turn 
will  make  for  better  business  activity  and  general 

Largest  Concrete  Building 

The  largest  concrete  building  yet  erected  on  Man- 
hattan Island  is  now  being  built  at  395  Hudson 
street.  New  York.  The  building,  partly  an  11 -story 
office  building  and  warehouse  and  partly  a  five-story 
and  basement  warehouse,  will  occupy  the  entire  block 
surrounded  by  Hudson,  West  Houston,  Greenwich 
and  Clarkson  streets.  The  construction  will  cover 
an  area  338  by  200  feet  and  will  be  throughout  of 
reinforced  concrete  with  the  exception  of  a  veneer 
of  brick  on  the  exterior  walls.  McKenzie,  Voorhees 

&  Gmelin  are  the  architects.  The  work  is  being  done 
by  the  Turner  Construction  Company. 

This  operation  furnishes  a  most  interesting  side 
light  on  the  trend  of  building  design  in  the  greater 
city.  For  many  years  it  has  been  an  accepted  fact 
that  reinforced  concrete  was  an  ideal  building  mate- 
rial for  industrial  buildings,  but  loft  buildings,  apart- 
ment houses,  office  buildings  and  institutional  build- 
ings have  still  been  built  almost  exclusively  of  struc- 
tural steel,  brick,  stone  and  terra  cotta.  With  the 
present  labor  and  material  price  situation,  the  econ- 
omy in  favor  of  reinforced  concrete  is  so  big  that 
many  people,  who  through  prejudice  or  inertia,  had 
refused  to  consider  reinforced  concrete,  are  now 
turning  to  this  material  as  the  only  way  out  of  their 

The  building  is  of  a  type  which  up  to  a  year  or  so 
ago,  would  have  been  built  of  structural  steel.  To- 
day it  is  going  ahead,  the  largest  building  of  its  kind, 
or  reinforced  concrete  without  any  structural  steel  in- 
volved at  all.  There  are  many  office  and  loft  build- 
ings, twelve  stories  or  less  in  height,  which  could 
be  efficiently,  economically  and  expeditiously  built 
of  reinforced  concrete  at  this  time.  This  building 
will  be  occupied  by  the  Western  Electric  Co.  and  the 
New  York  Telephone  Co. 

The  American  Standard  of  Living 

Much  is  said  about  an  American  standard  of  liv- 
ing, remarks  the  Boston  Transcript  editorially.  Much 
is  said  of  the  necessity  of  minimum  wage  scales  in 
industry.  It  is  time  that  there  should  be  some  well- 
formulated  ideas  as  to  what  constitute  an  American 
standard  of  housing,  especially  in  the  congested  dis- 
tricts of  the  great  cities.  Of  what  avail  is  it  to  erect 
hospitals  and  maintain  clinics  for  the  treatment  of 
the  sick  if  disease  is  to  spread  and  multiplied  in  its 
extent  by  the  overcrowding  of  tenements  ?  How 
much  permanent  good  will  follow  efforts  at  combat- 
ing vicious  tendencies  in  city  life,  if  many  thousands 
of  city  dwellers  are  deprived  of  any  semblance  of 
decent  privacy  in  their  living  quarters,  and  if  the 
lure  of  the  streets  is  enhanced  by  the  lessening  of 
home  accommodations,  already,  in  many  cases,  piti- 
fully inadequate? 

It  is  questions  such  as  these  that  are  evidently  mak- 
ing strong  impression  upon  the  minds  of  judges  who 
hear  cases  involving  the  meaning  or  the  validity  of 
laws  passed  during  the  present  crisis.  These  laws 
are  emergency  measures.  But  back  of  them  is  the 
fact  that,  while  there  may  be  only  temporary  need  of 
drastic  measures  such  as  have  recently  been  enacted, 
there  is  urgent  and  permanent  need  of  the  mainte- 
nance of  an  American  standard  of  housing,  in  accom- 
plishing which  a  well-considered  and  reasonable  body 
of  law,  of  course,  will  be  essential. 




Charles  K.  Cummings,  architect,  is  located  at  8 
Beacon  street,  Boston,  Mass.,  formerly  of  6  Joy 
street,  that  city. 

W.  D.  Johnson  &  Co.,  architects,  have  changed 
their  firm  name  from  Johnson  &  Burns  to  the 
above.  They  are  situated  at  174  Bond  street,  Hart- 
ford. Conn. 

Bruno  Wozny,  architect,  formerly  located  at  381 
Main  street,  Springfield,  Mass.,  has  moved  to  94 
State  street,  that  city. 

Marshall  J.  Smith,  architect,  has  opened  new 
offices  at  411-412  Oxford  Building,  Washington, 
D.  C. 

William  C.  Noland,  architect,  has  become  located 
at  the  Old  Dominion  Trust  Building,  Ninth  and 
Main  streets,  Richmond,  Va.  Mr.  Noland  formerly 
was  a  member  of  Noland  &  Baskerville,  architects, 
of  the  same  city. 

Simpson  &  Githens,  architects,  moved  from  room 
833,  Reibold  Building,  Dayton,  O.,  to  room  869  of 
the  same  building,  for  the  larger  quarters  the  latter 

News  from  Various  Sources 

Of  the  110,000,000  citizens  of  this  country,  45,- 
000,000  are  physically  imperfect,  15,000,000  die  an- 
nually, 3,000,000  are  in  bed  all  the  time,  and  1,000,- 
000  have  tuberculosis.  Only  37,500,000  are  fairly 
healthy,  and  only  19,500,000  are  in  full  vigor.  There 
are  more  persons  in  the  insane  asylums  in  this  coun- 
try than  in  the  colleges  and  universities,  and  it  costs 
more  to  maintain  the  former  than  the  latter. 

*  *     * 

The  Illinois  Legislature  will  be  asked  to  provide  a 
total  of  $8,000,000  for  the  new  state  hospital  in  Chi- 
cago. A  million  dollars  have  already  been  appropri- 
ated, the  foundations  have  been  laid  and  bids  are  be- 
ing received  for  the  construction.  Frank  I.  Bennett, 
director  of  public  works  for  the  state,  has  the  matter 
in  charge. 

*  *     * 

The  new  Ambassador  Hotel,  at  North  State  and 


Interest  in  the  "Own  Your  Home  Expostiion,"  to 
be  held  at  the  Coliseum,  March  26  to  April  2,  is  in- 
creasing. Practically  all  exhibition  space  has  been 

sold,  it  is  announced. 

*  *     * 

Addressing  itself  to  the  proposition,  "Is  Chicago 
a  Jay  Town,"  the  Chicago  Tribune  says  editorially : 
"Architecturally  we  are  anarchy,  lacking  the  unity 
and  harmony  and  high  standards  which  stamp  with 
character  all  the  great  cities  of  the  world— even  nou- 

veau  New  York." 

*  *     * 

Sweden  may  spend  $2,500,000  to  establish  wire- 
less communication  with  the  outside  world,  espe- 
cially with  the  United  States. 

*  *     * 

The  largest  industrial  eating  place  in  the  world, 
capable  of  feeding  3,100  persons  at  one  time,  is 
operated  at  the  Westinghouse  plant  in  Pittsburgh. 

*  *     * 

President  Wilson's  annual  message,  transmitted 
to  Congress  Dec.  7,  recommends  revision  of  tax 
laws,  economy  in  Government,  a  "workable"  budget 
system,  a  loan  to  Armenia,  independence  of  the 
Philippines,  rehabilitation  and  training  of  disabled 

soldiers  and  efforts  to  reduce  cost  of  living. 

*  *     * 

Senate,  Dec.  7,  received  and  referred  approxi- 
mately 17,000  nominations,  chiefly  those  made  dur- 
ing recess  of  Congress.  They  included  officials  of 

all  ranks  and  about  15,000  army  nominations. 

*  *     * 

Senator  Knox,  for  Senator  McCormick  (R.)., 
Dec.  7,  introduced  a  bill  reorganizing  the  executive 
departments  and  various  Federal  agencies. 

Senator  Kenyon   (R.),  Dec.  7  introduced  a 
to  create  a  department  of  public  welfare. 


Representative  Rogers  (R.)  introduced  a  bill, 
Dec.  7,  providing  for  co-ordination  of  functions  of 
War  Risk  Insurance  Bureau,  Public  Health  Ser- 
vice and  Federal  Board  for  Vocational  Training  to 
be  combined  in  a  bureau  of  veteran  re-establish- 
ment of  Interior  Department. 

A  Correction 

In  the  article  on  Post- War  Housing  in  our  issue  of 
December  22,  page  817,  it  was  stated  that  only  about 
three  per  cent,  of  all  building  in  this  country  is  de- 
signed by  architects.  This  is  a  typographical  error, 

dispute  is  now  bang  waged  as  to  the     as  the  correct  amount  in  value  should  be  73  per  cent 
the  name  "Ambassador."  The  Hotel  Sherman          In  our  issue  of  Dec.  15    page  787    the  President 
my  owns  the  new  Chicago  hotel,  and  the  Am-      of  the  Cleveland  Cliffs  Iron 
ssador  Hotel  organization  objects  to  the  local  use     noted  as  W  G  Mather 

consulting  architect. 

Mr.  George  W.  Maher  was 










War  Memorials 

Impressions  of  an  Interview  with  Cass  Gilbert,  Jr.  (Who  Served  As  Second 

Lieutenant,  17th  Field  Artillery,  2d  Division,  A.E.F.),  in  Which 

Mr.  Gilbert  Comments  on  War  Memorials  Generally  and  the 

Proposed  New  York  State  Memorial  Particularly 

WHAT  form  should  a  war  memorial  take? 
In  that  question  is  summed  up  a  vast 
amount  of  contention  which  has  seriously 
affected  a  substantial  portion  of  our  population  since 
the  signing  of  the  Armistice  and  which  remains  to- 
day as  far  from  a  satisfactory  solution  as  it  was  at 
the  very  beginning  of  that  period  when  war  memo- 
rials came  seriously  to  mind  with  so  large  a  part  of 
the  nation's  population.  There  appear  to  be  two 
schools,  the  one  believing  purely  in  beauty  which 
will  inspire  the  ideals  for  which  the  Army  and  Navy 
fought,  as  opposed  to  utility;  the  other  in  a  com- 
bination of  the  two.  Both  schools  have  in  mind  the 
commemoration  of  an  ideal  or  ideals.  Those  who 
speak  for  utility  do  so  in  relation  to  the  community 
as  a  whole,  and  usually  have  in  mind  such  ideals 
as  citizenship  (Americanization  programs,  for  ex- 
ample), fraternity,  democracy  and  the  benefits 
which  are  offered  the  living  through  such  a  medium 
as  the  proposed  Victory  Hall  or  similar  types  of 
community  centers.  They  believe  that  the  com- 
memoration of  ideals  can  go  hand  in  hand  with  any 
sort  of  memorial  designed  primarily  with  a  view  to 
utility,  and  that  the  spirit  with  which  the  men  fought 
and  died  can  be  most  appropriately  remembered  and 
cherished  through  the  medium  of  utility  which  seeks 
to  benefit,  and  materially  .better,  the  citizenship  of 
any  community,  large  or  small. 

To  these  contentions  serious  objections  were 

"A  war  memorial,"  Mr.  Gilbert  explained,  "should 
be  so  designed  and  executed  that  it  gives  one  impres- 
sion only,  and  that  impression  should  be  one  of  sheer 
beauty,  strongly  suggestive  of  the  ideals  for  which 
the  memorial  stands;  namely,  Courage,  Bravery, 
Liberty  and  Victory.  It  should  be  thought  of  only 
in  relation  to  those  who  were  most  actively  and  in- 
timately engaged  in  the  war.  I  am  speaking  of 
those  who  not  only  gave  their  lives  on  the  field  of 
battle,  but  of  the  men  and  women  alike  who  gave 

themselves  entirely  to  the  aid  of  the  Government  in 
helping  the  men  on  the  battle  line. 

"With  those  basic  principles  in  mind,  it  is  difficult 
to  understand  how  anything  other  than  the  strictest 
interpretation  of  a  memorial  would  suffice.  The  so- 
called  utility  which  has  been  spoken  of  is  not  at  all 
fair  to  the  men  who  fought.  Think  of  a  so-called 
Community  Center,  Public  Hall  or  other  utility 
which  should  perhaps,  on  its  own  merits,  be  pro- 
vided by  the  community  in  the  normal  progress  of 
its  development  as  opposed  to  a  magnificent  monu- 
mental memorial,  and  analyze  the  value  of  the  two. 
The  community  idea,  expressed  by  such  a  structure, 
would  not  be  used  to  any  great  degree  by  the  men 
most  concerned  with  it.  It  would  not  be  enough 
merely  to  provide  some  sort  of  'forum'  where 
people  could  meet  to  further  citizenship.  Supposing 
even  that  the  scheme  worked  as  contemplated,  and 
that  the  'forum'  proved  its  worth  as  anticipated. 
What  of  it  ?  What  would  there  be  in  that  to  remind 
people  in  future  years  of  the  ideals  for  which  men 
fought  and  for  which  men  and  women  alike  gave 
their  all? 

"Practically  nothing.  A  public  gathering  place  in 
New  York,  regardless  of  its  beauty,  does  not  inspire 
much  reverence,  or  idealism,  or  thoughts  of  the  past 
as  related  to  the  future.  The  city  is  too  huge.  There 
are  too  many  other  buildings.  Such  a  memorial 
would  not  stand  out ;  it  could  hardly  make  itself  felt 
so  effectively  as  a  detached  memorial. 

"That,  in  a  general  way,  is  true  of  all  cities.  There 
is  only  this  difference,  that  in  New  York  it  loses  its 
purpose  because  of  the  city's  hugeness,  and  in  smaller 
cities  or  towns  it  becomes  commonplace,  regardless 
of  its  beauty.  Commonplace  because  it  is,  after  all, 
merely  another  building,  another  public  gathering 
place.  Sheer  beauty  of  the  structure  cannot  take 
away  from  the  fact  that  it  is  designed  primarily  as 
a  common  meeting  ground  for  the  community ;  and 
there  are  few  persons  idealistic  enough  to  detach 

Copyright,   1921,    The  Architectural  &   Building  Press   (Inc.) 


where  ii   '^  ' /v- *•  *t>  •  ••-•—  — 

ideal.    And  if  they  cannot  do  so,  the 

failure,  hcrai^i-  any  memorial  should  be 


i  ,  if  anv  societv  or  group  of  citizens  sets  out 

h.  ,n,m  a  gathering  and  ihink  of  the  place      rue  tha    if  any    oaet y  org^  p  ^  ^  ^ 

„   fa,  being  held  a.  a  a.mmeiuorat.on  of  an      ^  buy^M  ^  ^  ^  ^  ^  F^  ^^  ^  ^ 

An<1  '  with  which  to  carry  out  their  intention? 

pour  in  upon  them  with  a  mere  mention 
n?     Not  at  all.     They  must  campaign 
for  it,  even  if  the  home  to  be  bought  was  once  that 
of  a  well-known  and  very  much  loved  public  figure, 
"There  is  another  objection  to  the  community  o                  ^  ,Monticello>.  the  home  of  Jefferson, 
scheme  which  seems  to  me  a  very  serious                  ^^    ^  much  more  difficu]t  wom(1  it  be  to 
i:,,          _,,.,!]>•  flip  nallhearer  of  idealism.     It  is  .  ,   ,  j. .    i  , 

OI     IIIC    SUICIIUIU    ell  I  lit-  vv-i»ivni.  "-    i  ---- 

to  the  actions  of  the  present  or  future.    Its  purpose 

is  retroactive. 

—  (Vnw 

Utility  is  usually  the  P^^^f^J^     maintain  a  war  memorial  dedicated  to  no  one  in  par- 

ticular,  but  to  an  ideal  ?    What  chance  would  it  stand 
of  being  saved  from  sale  for  commercial  purposes,  if 

necessarily  a  fact  that  utility  in  itself  implies  the 

subordination  of  sheer  idealistic  beauty,  else  such 

beauty  would  be  considered  alone  in  the  first  place      ^"comn^unhV'foIlnd'it  to"  be  a  matter 'related  de- 

I  do  not  mean  that  beauty  and  utility  cannot  exist      ^.^  ^  ^  of  tQ  assessments  of  some  form  or 

_  m  tQ  assessments  o    some    orm  or 

side  by  side,  but  I  do  mean  most  emphatically,  tha  9  Memorial  Hall  were  endowed. 

if  a  memorial  is  considered  from  the  utihtanan  pom  m      ^ndowed  funds  have  come  down  to  us 

of  view  every  other  element  of  the  scheme  must 
necessarily  be  thought  of  ,n  Us  proper  relation  t, 
utility,  and  not  to  beauty  or  to  the  interpretation  of  an 

of  view    every  other  element  of  the  scheme  must  ,  We    are  ti         this 

necessarily  be  thought  of  **********     memorial  not  for  the  present    (the  present   knows 

remember),  but  for  the  future  so  that  our 


"Such  a  viewpoint  holds  true  for  all  who  enjoy     descendants  may  know  what  this  generation  did  for 

•  i     T-U    tu-         the  country  in  the  Great  War. 
the  privileges  of  any  utihtanan  memorial.    The  thing         „  '        Q{  memorial    th        would 

begins  as  a  building  consecrated,  so  far  as  it  is  pos-  .„ 

il          i       vr     hr       °    ' 

sible  to  consecrate  it,  to  an  ideal ;  but  in  a  very  short 
while  it  becomes  a  building  and  nothing  more.  What- 
ever idealism  may  have  existed  at  the  beginning 
gives  way  to  thinking  of  that  memorial  as  a  building 
where  one  may  go,  precisely  as  one  goes  to  a  hotel 
or  theatre  or  other  public  place. 

"Idealism,  or  the  commemoration  of  idealism 
through  the  medium  of  any  community  scheme, 
which  is  after  all  merely  a  gathering  place  for  peo- 
ple, inevitably  gives  way  to  thinking  of  that  scheme 
of  commemoration  primarily  as  a  gathering  place, 
and  nothing  more.  Consider  Carnegie  Hall  as  an 
example.  People  go  to  Carnegie  Hall  with  no 
thought  of  Andrew  Carnegie,  and  the  name  has 
become  merely  an  address  rather  than  a  memorial." 

"There  are  purely  material  objections  as  well,  are 
there  not?"  the  writer  asked  Mr.  Gilbert. 

"One  particularly  suggests  itself  at  the  moment," 
he  replied.  "Death  will  reduce  the  ranks  of  the 
American  Legion  or  other  patriotic  organizations  to 
whom  a  memorial  is  built.  As  they  become  fewer 
and  fewer,  it  becomes  a  harder  matter  to  support  the 
memorial,  to  furnish  funds  for  its  continued  exist- 
ence. It  falls  into  a  slow  and  gradual  decay.  It  is 
sometimes  lost  entirely  and  goes  its  way  under  the 
auctioneer's  hammer. 

"Now,  this  is  not  a  guess  or  a  prophecy.  It  is 
•ased  on  fact.  Precisely  that  has  happened  to  cer- 

rnemorials'  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,     beauty  and  i 
ilso  based  upon  observation.     Consider  for  a 
moment  how   difficultt  it  is  to  raise   money 

urmr»n     *•*-»     K<i.,.  J 

The  idealistic  sort,  the  purely  beautiful  sort, 
which  would  most  certainly  serve  the  community  with 
its  idealism  and  its  beauty,  but  which  could  not  pos- 
sibly be  confused  with  a  public  gathering  place  in  the 
sense  that  a  building  would  be  so  confused. 

"There  are  innumerable  sorts  of  such  memorials. 
Arches,  monuments,  symbolic  statues,  and  so  forth. 
In  its  planning  and  execution  I  would  like  to  see 
a  close  co-operation  between  the  architect  and  the 
sculptor.  If  it  were  to  be  set  by  itself,  apart  from 
any  but  a  natural  background,  and  not  as  a  part  of 
a  structure,  it  may  become  then  a  matter  more  for 
the  sculptor  alone;  but  this  is  dependent  upon  its 
extent  and  importance;  and  where  planning  is 
required  the  services  of  the  architect  are  essential. 
If  it  is  to  be  a  structure — arch,  monument  or  the 
like  — in  which  the  sculptor  will  contribute  his 
share,  I  believe  the  architect  should  have  complete 
supervision  of  every  detail,  so  that  whatever  the 
sculptor  produces  will  fit'  into  the  structure  and  not 
the  structure  into  the  sculptor's  work. 

"As  an  example  of  a  very  appropriate  memorial, 
let  me  cite  a  proposal  for  New  York.  A  splendid 
memorial  for  the  state  could  be  erected  at  Fort 
Wadsworth,  facing  the  Lower  Bay.  It  is  very 
nearly  the  last  bit  of  land  one  sees  in  leaving  these 
shores  and  the  first  on  coming  in.  There  an  impres- 
sive memorial  could  be  erected  that  would  express 

Kfi.-,,,4-,,     „„.  J      I  J  _        1  •  j  .. 

would  inspire  our  fighting  forces  to 
stronger  efforts  as  they  sailed  out  to  war.    It  would 

which  to  buy  or  support  the  homes  of  our  great     be  < 
men  in  this  country.     Isn't  that  a  fact?  Y        tnousands  who  go  in  and  out  the  bay, 

s  >t  not     whether  to  or  from  foreign  ports  or  to  the  recrea 



tion  centers  along  the  neighboring  coasts ;  and,  in 
fact,  its  environment  could  be  made  a  park  of  great 
beauty,  available  to  the  people.  So  situated  it  would 
not  rival  the  Statue  of  Liberty  further  up  the  bay, 
but  would  reinforce  the  ideal  for  which  it  stands. 
In  some  appropriate  place  it  would  have  the  name 
of  every  New  York  man  who  took  part  in  the  war 
as  a  soldier  or  sailor." 

"But  why  not  place  it  somewhere  on  Fifth  Ave- 

"There  are  various  reasons  why  that  could  not  be 
done,  on  Fifth  Avenue  itself.  One  of  the  most  per- 
tinent, I  believe,  is  that  there  are  only  a  very  few 
streets  in  all  the  world  along  which  troops  may 
march  properly,  and  Fifth  Avenue  is  one  of  them. 
Anything,  however  small,  placed  in  the  Avenue 
would  naturally  break  that  wonderful  straight 
stretch  for  marching.  Troops  would  have  to  go 
around  a  column  of  any  sort,  and  that  would  spoil 
the  effect  of  any  magnificent  parade. 

"The  traffic  signal  towers  to  some  extent  already 
constitute  obstacles  to  effective  marching  of  troops 
on  parade.  These  towers  can  readily  be  removed, 
however,  for  such  parades  as  would  march  up  Fifth 
Avenue.  This  was  done  in  1919.  A  permanent 
monument  could  not  be  removed  for  a  parade,  nor 
would  it  be  desirable  to  remove  a  memorial  to 
Victory  for  a  Victory  Parade. 

"Secondarily,  the  matter  of  scale  must  be  taken 
into  consideration.  A  monument  for  such  a  pur- 
pose should  be  the  dominant  and  unrivalled  feature 
of  the  location  in  which  it  is  placed.  Where  on  the 
Avenue  do  you  find  any  considerable  number  of 
buildings  less  than  five  stories  in  height?  Where, 
except  at  its  upper  end,  could  you  put  up  a  suitable 
monument  or  arch  which  would  not  necessitate  the 
tearing  down  of  expensive  improvements? 

"At  Madison  Square.  Yes,  the  space  exists,  but 
what  would  the  proportions  of  any  monument  there 
have  to  be  in  order  to  dominate  the  place?  The 
Metropolitan  Tower  would  dwarf  anything  less  than 
700  feet  high,  and  even  at  that  height,  the  eye  would 
be  taken  up  too  much  with  the  surrounding  build- 

"It  may  be  urged  that  an  arch  would  not  obstruct 
marching  troops.  That  is  true,  but  it  presupposes 
either  that  the  arch  should  span  a  sufficient  width  to 
permit  of  'columns  of  platoons'  as  wide  as  those  in 
the  parades  of  1919,  when  the  marching  troops 
filled  the  full  width  of  the  avenue  from  curb  to 
curb ;  or  that  the  column  formation  should  be 
changed  to  permit  it  to  pass  through  an  arch  of 
smaller  width.  The  narrower  the  columns  of  troops 
the  longer  it  takes  for  the  march  past.  The  old 
Roman  arches  are  far  too  small  for  a  modern 
column  to  pass  through.  Moreover,  there  must  be 
sufficient  width  for  the  piers  and  sufficient  height 

for  good  proportion.  In  any  event  the  modern 
towers  and  skyscrapers  would  form  an  unrelated  and 
unsympathetic  environment  for  such  a  monument." 

"Are  there  no  other  locations?" 

"Yes,  there  are  other  fine  locations.  At  59th 
Street  and  Fifth  Avenue,  at  the  entrance  to  Central 
Park,  for  an  example.  Another  fine  site  would  be 
Mt.  Morris  Park,  which  is  at  the  north  end  of  Fifth 
Avenue.  Here  property  could  be  restricted  and 
building  height  limited  at  the  present  time  so  that  a 
memorial  situated  on  the  rocky  knoll  would  be  the 
dominant  feature  of  the  section.  Troops  would 
march  up  to  it  and  disburse  around  its  base.  It 
could  be  seen  from  way  down  the  Avenue.  The 
Washington  Arch  is  at  the  south  end  of  the  Avenue, 
and  what  would  be  more  appropriate  than  to  have  a 
memorial  to  valor  at  the  north  end  of  the  Avenue? 
Other  sites  may  be  found,  as,  for  instance,  the 
heights  at  the  northern  end  of  Manhattan  Island, 
where  a  memorial  of  sufficient  size  could  be  seen 
from  way  up  the  Hudson  and  from  Long  Island 

"But  the  finest  you  believe  to  be  the  site  near 
Fort  Wadsworth?" 

"I  do.  And  incidentally,  let  me  say  that  the  theory 
that  a  memorial  to  a  present  achievement  should  go 
where  the  greatest  number  of  persons  can  see  it  is 
not  always  correct.  A  monument  should  be  as  con- 
veniently located  to  the  center  of  population  as  pos- 
sible, but  it  should  always  be  located  in  a  completely 
proper  setting,  with  the  right  kind  of  background. 
There  are  very  few  places  in  New  York  City  where  a 
fitting  memorial  can  be  put  up.  Rather  than  risk  a 
poor  background,  I  believe  in  the  more  or  less  iso- 
lated location,  so  far  as  the  center  of  population  or 
the  heaviest  circulation  is  concerned. 

"Grant's  Tomb  is  an  example  of  a  memorial  which 
is  not  at  all  centrally  located,  but  which  is  most  cer- 
tainly visited  by  thousands  of  people  who  find  it  con- 
venient to  get  there. 

"I  believe  in  people  seeking  the  memorial,  and  not 
the  memorial  seeking  the  people." 

Mr.  Gilbert  was  then  asked  by  the  writer  whether 
he  believed  it  advisable  to  postpone  the  building  of 
memorials  for  either  definite  or  indefinite  periods, 
until,  as  has  been  suggested  by  the  advocates  of  post- 
ponement, "crystallization  of  thought  takes  place." 

"Not  at  all,"  was  his  answer.  "An  ideal  will 
not  be  more  apparent  nor  finer  ten  years  from  today 
than  it  is  at  the  present  moment,  because  it  is  a 
basic  and  fundamental  ideal :  the  maintenance  of 
common  justice.  There  is  nothing  about  it  which 
requires  perspective,  as  the  character  and  achieve- 
ments of  a  man  require  perspective ;  and  it  is  prob- 
able, if  anything,  that  we  could  build  a  much  finer 
and  more  fitting  memorial  at  present  than  we  could 
when  enthusiasm  has  cooled. 



•The  fundamental  ideals  of  civilization  need  no 
inquiry  into  the  motives  which  prompted  them,  and 
tlK.-n.-fon-  it  is  not  necessary  to  wait  for  any  'crystal- 
lization of  thought,'  as  there  usually  is  in  regard  to 
the  character  or  public  services  of  an  individual. 

"The  achievements  of  the  present  should  be  com- 
memorated in  the  present.  What  the  good  men  do 
is  too  soon  forgotten.  We  are  too  much  given  to 
criticism  of  things  present  and  praise  of  things  past. 

"There  is  one  thing  I  wish  to  add,"  Mr.  Gilbert 

concluded.  "Too  much  emphasis  cannot  be  given 
it  Such  a  monument  as  we  have  been  discussing 
is'  to  memorialize  a  great  event,  and  it  is  to  honor 
those  men  and  women  who  gave  themselves  and 
their  substance  to  service.  Is  it  not  fitting,  then,  for 
those  who  served  and  who  came  through  to  deter- 
mine the  form,  character  and  location  of  the 
memorial  which  shall  be  erected?  The  best  is  none 
too  good,  nor  in  the  ranks  of  those  who  served  is 
there  lack  of  talent  to  create  a  fitting  memorial." 

A  New  Attempt  by  Labor  to  Organize 
Architectural  Draftsmen 

A  Review  of  the  Recent  Newark,  N.J.,  Controversy,  with  Impressions  of  a 
Conversation  with  One  of  the  Most  Prominent  Architects  of  the 
Metropolitan  District  and  Opinions  of  the  Situation 
from  Various  Sections  of  the  Country 

EDITOR'S  NOTE  :  The  architect  quoted  in  this  ar- 
ticle, u>ho  requested  that  his  name  be  withheld,  is  very 
well  knozvn  to  the  profession  throughout  the  country 
and  in  the  Metropolitan  District  in  particular.  It  was 
thought  best  by  the  Editor  that  no  personal  aspect  be 
given  to  opinions  quoted  herein,  and  for  that  reason 
no  names  have  been  printed.  A  free  and  frank  opin- 
ion of  the  situation  has  thus  been  obtained. 

THE  recent  attempt  on  the  part  of  the  Build- 
ing Trade  Council  of  Newark  to  unionize 
the  architectural  draftsmen  of  that  city  marks 
what  might  be  termed  a  new  policy  on  the  part  of 
organized  labor. 

There  would  appear  to  be  three  vital  points  at  is- 
sue. First,  what  would  be  done  in  the  case  of  archi- 
tects who  draw  their  own  plans  ?  Secondly,  is  there 
precedent  for  the  formation  of  such  a  union  ?  Third- 
ly, do  the  draftsmen  themselves  desire  it  ? 

As  to  the  first  point,  one  of  the  prominent 
architects  of  the  country  admits  frankly  'that  he 
does  not  know,  nor  does  he  believe  the  labor  leaders 
of  Newark  know,  what  would  be  done  about  the 
small  architect  who  draws  his  plans,  and  is  there- 
fore a  draftsman. 

"To  intelligently  grasp  the  situation  it  is  necessary 
to  review  its  brief  history.  Some  time  ago  I  re- 
ceived the  following  letter : 

"To    All    Architects,    Engineers    and     Contractors    of 

Newark  and  Vicinity. 
"Gentlemen : 

"This  is  to  inform  you  that  Local  No.  34  of  the  Inter- 
national Federation  of  Technical  Engineers',  Architects' 
and  Draftsmen's  Unions  affiliated  with  the  Building 
Trades  Council  of  Newark  and  vicinity  is  actively 
engaged  trying  to  better  the  material  and  social  con- 
ditions of  technical  men.  We  are  aware  of  the  fact 
that  all  fair-minded  employers  of  draftsmen  and  engi- 
neers are  welcoming  the  advent  of  our  union,  which, 
it  is  hoped,  will  prevent  further  depletion  of  the  ranks 
of  technical  men. 

"Due  to  the  unorganized  state  of  the  drafting  depart- 
ments, many  employers,  regardless  of  their  desire  to 
increase  the  wages  and  salaries  of  their  technical  staff, 
can  not  possibly  do  so  without  running  into  com- 
petition with  employers  who  do  not  take  the  same  view. 

"To  ameloriate  this  condition,  Local  No.  34  has  been 
prosecuting  for  some  time  a  vigorous  campaign  of 
organization  among  the  draftsmen  and  architects  in 
the  building  industry,  finding  full  support  in  the  Build- 
ing Trades  Council  of  Newark  and  vicinity,  which  at 
its  session  of  May  14,  1920,  passed  a  resolution,  setting 
November  1  of  this  year  as  the  date  on  which  all  the 
plans  and  drawings  to  be  acceptable  in  the  field,  must 
be  made  by  union  architects  and  draftsmen,  belonging 
to  the  International  Federation  of  Technical  Engineers', 
Architects'  and  Draftsmen's  Unions. 

"Trusting  this   information   will   obviate   all   possible 
misunderstanding  in  the  future,  and  bring  about  mutual 
co-operation  of  all  concerned,  we  are, 
"Sincerely  yours, 

"President  Building  Trades  Council." 

"Now,  you  will  note  that  the  letter  is  headed 



"Technical  Men  of  Newark  and  Vicinity  (Local  No. 
34)  International  Federation  of  Technical  Engi- 
neers', Architects'  and  Draftsmen's  Unions.'  That 
is  a  very  important  point,  because  the  existence  of 
the  International  Federation  of  Technical  Engi- 
neers', Architects'  and  Draftsmen's  Unions  might 
be  taken  as  precedent  for  the  formation  of  a  drafts- 
men's union  here. 

"The  fact  of  the  matter  is  this:  On  July  1,  1918, 
upon  application  of  six  local  unions,  which  had  been 
operating  as  units  for  some  time,  the  American  Fed- 
eration of  Labor  granted  an  International  Charter, 
under  the  title  of  'International  Federation  of 
Draftsmen's  Unions.'  Subsequently,  this  name  was 
changed  to  the  present  one.  The  reasons  that 
brought  about  the  formation  of  this  International  at 
that  time  were  as  follows : 

"The  marine  draftsmen,  then  organized  in  several 
independent  Unions,  made  an  attempt  to  appear  be- 
fore the  Shipbuilding  Labor  Adjustment  Board  (al- 
so known  as  the  Macy  Board)  and  to  present  a  pro- 
posed classification  for  the  marine  draftsmen 
throughout  the  shipbuilding  industry.  Their  appear- 
ance before  this  board  was  prevented  on  the  ground 
that  the  Board  could  consider  such  matters  only 
when  presented  by  organizations  that  were  represen- 
tative national  or  international  bodies. 

"These  several  unions,  realizing  this  fundamental 
weakness  in  their  position,  made  immediate  applica- 
tion to  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  for  a  char- 
ter. This  application  was  tentatively  approved  about 
the  28th  day  of  May,  1918,  and  recognized  them  as 
an  international  body,  pending  the  granting  of  a  for- 
mal charter  on  the  date  first  above  state.  As  an  In- 
ternational of  the  A.  F.  of  L.,  a  hearing  was  prompt- 
ly granted  by  the  Macy  Board.  Sitting  on  this  board 
of  three  was  A.  J.  Berres,  Secretary-Treasurer  of 
the  Metal  Trades  Department  of  the  A.  F.  of  L. 
The  result  of  this  hearing  was  that  all  marine  drafts- 
men in  Government,  as  well  as  in  private  employ, 
were  granted  a  wage  increase  of  about  36  per  cent. 

"Those  facts  are  taken  from  a  pamphlet  issued  by 
this  particular  Federation,  entitled  'A  Practical  Or- 
ganization :  What  It  Is,  What  It  Has  Done.' 

"Now,  let  me  emphasize  the  fact  that  I  believe  the 
unionization  of  marine  draftsmen  in  the  Govern- 
ment employ  or  in  private  employ,  or  of  drafts- 
men in  terra  cotta  works,  pipe  factories,  or  the  like, 
is  a  legitimate  procedure.  Everyone  knows  well 
enough  that  draftsmen  in  the  Government  employ 
could  not  get  a  hearing  without  organization  of  some 
sort.  That  is  due  to  a  multiplicity  of  reasons.  Every 
one  knows  that  draftsmen  in  terra  cotta  factories,  or 
in  factories  of  any  sort  where  one  finds  about  three 
draftsmen  to  three  hundred  union  workers,  are  hope- 
lessly out  of  everything  unless  they  are  affiliated  with 

some   organization   through   which   they   can   make 
themselves  felt. 

"Apart  from  that  fact,  however,  is  the  very  ap- 
parent one  that  the  architectural  draftsman  is  dis- 
tinctly apart  from  the  marine  or  even  the  architectu- 
ral draftsman  in  the  Government  employ  under  civil 
service  regulations.  The  architectural  draftsman  in 
private  life  has  something  ahead  of  him,  for  he  looks 
forward  to  the  time  when  he  will  become  an  archi- 
tect himself  and  go  into  the  open  market  in  compe- 
tition with  other  architects.  The  government  em- 
ployee, on  the  other  hand  (and  this  Federation  of 
Technical  Engineers,  Architects  and  Draftsmen  is 
composed  principally  of  Government  employees) 
looks  forward  to  practically  nothing.  He  usually  re- 
mains a  Government  employee  for  the  greater  part 
of  his  life.  He  has  little,  if  any,  desire  to  get  into  the 
open  market  in  competition  with  other  draftsmen  or 
architects.  Hence  he  has  need  of  some  sort  of  or- 
ganization through  which  he  can  make  himself  felt, 
or  through  which  he  can  secure  an  audience  with 
the  powers  that  be." 

The  speaker  paused  for  a  moment  and  searched  in 
his  files  for  a  letter,  which  he  handed  to  the  writer  a 
moment  later.  It  was  an  application  for  a  position 
as  draftsman  by  a  man  duly  registered  in  New  Jer- 
sey as  an  architect. 

"There  you  have  quite  a  problem,"  the  speaker 
continued.  "What  is  that  man?  Is  he  a  draftsman 
or  an  architect  ?  I  look  upon  him  as  a  draftsman  be- 
cause he  makes  application  for  a  position  as  such  and 
because  architects  as  a  whole  regard  him  as  such. 
But  what  does  this  proposed  draftsmen's  union  term 
him?  Supposing  they  did  call  him  a  draftsman?  He 
comes  into  my  office  today,  and  is  admitted  into  the 
union.  Six  months  from  today  he  leaves  my  employ, 
becomes  an  architect  himself,  and  employs  a  drafts- 
man. He  then  becomes  an  employer.  What  happens 
to  his  union  membership?  Unions  dori't  want  em- 
ployers in  their  organizations,  do  they?" 

"It's  not  the  usual  procedure." 

"I  should  say  it  is  not.  Yet,  that  architect 
who  draws  his  own  plans  is  actually  a  draftsman, 
so  far  as  the  union  is  concerned,  and  the  union  seal 
would  necessarily  be  placed  upon  all  his  works. 
Now,  there  must  be  some  sort  of  fee  for  the  use 
and  privilege  of  the  seal,  and  the  small  architect 
would  be  obliged  to  pay  that  fee  precisely  as  would 
the  draftsman  employed  by  any  architect.  What 
would  he  be  given  in  return?  If  he  could  not  belong 
to  the  union  he  would  gain  none  of  its  privileges.  Is 
it  exactly  fair  to  ask  a  man  to  contribute  something 
to  a  union  without  the  slightest  advantage  to  himself 
for  that  contribution? 

"But  above  all  these  facts  there  is  a  very  vital  point 
which  seems  to  have  been  overlooked  by  the  Build- 
ing Trades  Council,"  the  speaker  emphasized.  "I 



want  KI  cmpha-i/f  it,  because  I  believe  it  to  be  the -tan. ling  factor  in  the  whole  situation. 

••The  draftsman  in  our  offices  is  the  architect  of 
the  future.  I  le  is  closely  affiliated  with  the  architect 
in  all  his  dealings.  Draftsmen  are  often  delegated  to 
in-pivt  work,  interpret  drawings,  and  make  decisions 
on  Miaif  of  the  architect.  It  is  therefore  vital  that 
the  draftsman,  if  he  is  to  render  impartial  service, 
shall  not  be  affiliated  with  a  labor  organization. 

"I'.y  the  forming  of  a  draftsmen's  union,  the  em- 
ploying architect  is  driven  into  an  employers'  asso- 
ciation and  the  draftsman  is  enlisted  on  the  side  of 
labor.  Under  such  circumstances,  how  is  it  possible 
for  either  party  to  make  just  and  equitable  decisions  ? 

"It  is  important  for  the  proper  conduct  of  the 
building  industry  that  there  be  one  set  of  men  who 
are  neutral,  to  whom  both  the  owner  and  contractor 
can  look  for  just  decisions.  This  body  of  men  should 
be  the  architects  and  their  draftsmen. 

"If  the  organizers  of  labor  would  think  for  a  mo- 
ment they  could  readily  see  our  point  of  view.  It  i-> 
for  their  advantage,  and  the  advantage  of  society 
in  general,  that  the  architects  and  their  draftsmen 
should  not  be  affiliated  in  any  way  with  either  the 
owners,  contractors,  or  labor,  but  be  free  to  render 
just  and  impartial  service  in  the  future  as  they  al- 
ways have  in  the  past. 

"Furthermore,  an  organization  of  draftsmen  and 
architects  along  labor  union  lines  is  wholly  unsuited 
to  a  profession,  and  a  fine  art  like  architecture.  We 
already  have  two  societies  in  New  Jersey,  the  New 
Jersey  Chapter  of  the  Institute  and  the  State  Society 
of  Architects.  Architects  are  admitted  to  both,  and 
draftsmen  to  the  latter.  How  much  better  it  would 
be  if  all  the  architects  and  draftsmen  in  New  Jersey 
joined  the  same  society.  We  could  then  get  together 
and  discuss  any  problem  and  settle  it  to  the  satis- 
faction of  all  concerned.  If  the  draftsmen  cared  to 
have  an  association  as  a  side  issue  of  the  society, 
they  could  do  so  after  they  became  members,  and 
they  would  receive  the  fullest  co-operation  from  the 

"Do  the  draftsmen  care  to  become  members  of  a 
union  ?" 

"The  best  answer  to  that  is  summed  up  in  the 
meeting  of  all  architects  and  draftsmen  of  Newark 
and  vicinity,  held  October  16,  for  the  purpose  of 
discussing  this  union,  at  which  not  a  single  drafts- 
man could  be  found  who  in  any  way  desired  to  be- 
come affiliated  with  such  a  union.  This  is  a  resolu- 
tion unanimously  passed  at  that  meeting: 

Whereas,  The  Building  Trades  Council  of  Essex  County 
has  notified  architects,  engineers  and  contractors  that 
after  November  1,  1920,  "all  plans  and  drawings  to  be 
acceptable  in  the  field  must  be  made  by  union  archi- 
s  and  draftsmen  belonging  to  the  International 
Engineers,  Architects'  and  Draftsmen's  Unions" 

Whereas,  The  draftsman  is  the  future  architect  in 
training  for  his  profession,  he  being  a  part  of  the 
architect's  organization,  representing  him  in  inter- 
preting the  drawings  and  specifications  as  a  part  of 
each  contract,  as  such  the  draftsman  necessarily 
being  in  the  same  position  of  neutrality  in  his 
decisions  as  the  architect  himself.  Even  the  inde- 
pendent architect  not  being  in  a  neutral  position  if 
his  men  were  allied  with  the  draftsmen's  unions 
and  he  (the  architect)  allied  with  the  employers,  the 
contractors  whose  work  he  has  to  judge  and  control, 
be  it 

Resolved,  That  the  architects  and  draftsmen  here 
assembled  do  hereby  agree  to  ally  themselves 
with  the  New  Jersey  Society  of  Architects  (if  not 
allied  thereto  already)  for  the  purpose  of  having  a 
truly  representative  organization  in  which  all  ques- 
tions affecting  the  interests  of  architects  and 
draftsmen  alike  may  be  fully  considered  and  equit- 
ably and  fairly  adjudicated. 

"Have  you  ever  attempted  any  inquiry  into  vari- 
ous sections  of  the  country  regarding  this  matter  ?" 
"I  have.  These  letters" — handing  a  thick  batch  of 
correspondence  to  the  writer — "are  answers  to  a  cir- 
cular I  sent  to  leading  architects  in  representative 
sections  of  the  country.  Not  one  of  these  answers  in- 
dicates in  any  way  that  similar  attempts  at  unioni- 
zation of  architectural  draftsmen  in  private  offices 
has  been  successfully  attempted  in  any  of  the  sections 
of  the  country  to  which  the  answers  have  reference. 
In  other  words,  there  has  been  no  other  such  attempt. 
"What  is  even  more  important,  you  will  notice  that 
the  sentiment  of  draftsmen  in  the  various  sections 
of  the  country  represented  in  those  letters  not  at 
all  interested  in  unionization,  much  less  desirous  of 
becoming  members  of  a  draftsmen's  union." 

Glancing  through  the  letters,  the  writer  noticed 
that  from  practically  all  sections  of  the  country  this 
sentiment  seemed  to  prevail : 

First,  that  no  known  effort  (except  in  one  or  two 
unusual  instances)  has  been  made  to  organize 
draftsmen's  unions  in  the  states  represented  in  the 
answers.  Draftsmen  in  various  states  have  been 
questioned  regarding  their  desire  to  become  union- 
ized, and  expressed  themselves  as  against  any  sucE 

Second,  where  any  effort  has  actually  been  at- 
tempted to  unionize  the  draftsmen,  the  movement 
has  failed  almost  completely,  so  far  as  the  archi- 
tectural draftsmen  in  private  offices  are  concerned. 
As  one  draftsman  in  a  large  western  office  expressed 
it :  "I  look  forward  to  the  time  when  I  will  practice 
for  myself  and,  if  for  no  other  reason  than  this,  I 
would  not  wish  to  affiliate  with  any  labor 

Third,  the  draftsmen  in  a  number  of  cities  have 
expressed  themselves  emphatically  satisfied  with 
things  as  they  are. 

"Such  is  the  sentiment  in  almost  every  section 
of  the  country.  That  being  the  case,  I  cannot 
see  how  the  Building  Trades  Council  can  advocate 



a  draftsmen's  union  on  any  sort  of  precedent  what- 
soever.    It  does  not  exist." 

that  I  do  not  know  of  a  single  Newark  architect  or 
draftsman   who  is  a  member.     That   alone   should 

'But  there  is  a  local  of  the  International  Federa-     indicate  the  feasibility  or  advisability  of  a  drafts- 

tion  of  Technical  Engineers,  Architects  and  Drafts- 
men's Unions  in  Newark,  is  there  not?" 

"Well,  if  the  local  exists,  I  can  say  pretty  definitely 

men's  union  in  Newark.  The  letters  I  have  showed 
you  indicate  its  feasibility  in  other  sections  of  the 
country.  It  is  a  local  and  national  impossibility. 

An  Insight  into  Japanese  Life 

A  JAPANESE  house   is   one   of   the   simplest 
things  ever  built  for  it  consists  of  little  more 
than  four  posts  and  a  roof.    But  such  imper- 
manence,  says  the  New  York  Herald,  which  is  also 
seen  in  other  things,  is  a  part  of  the  strength  of 
the  nation,  for  no  people  in  the  world  have  so  few- 

The  Japanese  have  no  bread,  no  beds,  no  fires,  no 
boots  or  shoes,  no  trousers  for  the  men,  no  petti- 
coats for  the  women — for  both  sexes  wear  several 
dressing  growns,  one  over  the  other.  In  their 
houses  they  have  no  windows,  no  doors,  no  walls 
but  paper  shutters  fixed  in  grooves,  no  ceilings,  no 
chests  of  drawers,  not  even  a  washstand. 

In  the  kitchen  they  have  no  range,  no  pots,  no 
pans,  no  flour  bins,  no  kitchen  tables.  But  then 
they  have  no  tables  or  chairs  in  the  drawing  room, 
and  in  the  real  native  house  the  drawing  room  itself 
is  only  a  lot  of  bed  rooms  with  the  paper  shutters 
taken  down.  There  is  no  reason  why  you  should 
find  anything  in  a  Japanese  house  except  mats  and 
a  charcoal  stove  for  warming  your  fingers  and-mak- 
ing  tea. 

These  and  a  cushion  or  two  and  a  quilt  to  sleep 
on,  with  an  elaborate  conventional  politeness,  con- 
stitute the  furniture  of  a  Japanese  house,  except 
the  guest  chamber.  And  the  articles  in  the  guest 
.chamber  consist  of  a  screen,  a  kakemono  and  a 
flower  vase. 

Along  with  his  magnificent  want  of  wants,  so  to 
speak,  the  Japanese  combines  a  capacity  to  get  huge 
pleasure  out  of  what  we  would  regard  as  trifles  and 
after  labors  and  sacrifices  that  we  should  think  in- 
tolerable. This  extraordinary  patience  and  whole 
hearted  enjoyment  under  all  the  niggardliness  of  his 
lot  marks  the  Japanese  as  unique  among  the  peoples 
of  the  world. 

He  lives  on  next  to  nothing  and  thrives  on  it.  He 
always  has  a  smile.  He  works  whenever  he  can  get 
any  work  to  do.  They  are  all  week  days  to  him. 
Instead  of  a  seventh  day,  Sunday,  he  has  his  festa, 
a  national  holiday  or  a  temple  festival.  In  either 
case  he  goes  a-faring  to  some  temple  and  takes  his 

children  or  a  friend.  He  is  never  too  poor  to  have 
money  to  treat  them. 

He  gives  himself  a  holiday  only  when  he  is  out 
of  work,  and  his  holidays  are  inexpensive.  He 
just  walks  a  hundred  miles  to  see  some  famous  gar- 
den in  its  glory.  He  carries  his  baggage  in  a  box, 
wrapped  in  oil  paper,  and  gets  a  bed  at  an  inn  for  a 
sum  equivalent  to  a  cent  of  our  money.  His  food 
is  almost  as  cheap,  and  when  the  last  turn  in  the 
road  shows  him  the  irises  of  Horikai  or  the  house 
and  cherry  trees  of  Yoshino  on  the  day  of  all  the 
year  he  would  not  change  places  with  the  King 
of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 

Judging  by  Western  ideas,  Japanese  babies  have 
a  hard  time,  yet  there  are  no  healthier  children  in 
the  world.  The  Japanese  baby  is  dressed  and  un- 
dresed  in  a  frigid  temperature  in  winter,  and  in 
summer  no  care  is  taken  to  protect  its  tender  little 
eyes  from  the  full  glare  of  the  sun.  In  winter 
the  small  head  is  covered  with  a  worsted  cap  of  the 
brightest  and  gayest  design  and  color.  The  black 
hair  is  cut  in  all  sorts  of  fantastic  ways,  just  like 
the  hair  of  the  Japanese  dolls  imported  into  this 

The  babies  of  the  lower  classes  are  generally 
carried  on  the  back  of  the  mother  or-  little  sister ; 
sometimes  the  small  brother  is  obliged  to  be  the 
nurse  maid.  The  kimono  is  made  extra  large  at  the 
back,  with  a  pocket  of  sufficient  size  to  hold  the 
baby,  whose  round  head  reaches  the  back  of  the 
neck  of  the  person  who  is  carrying  it. 

It  is  not  an  uncommon  sight  to  see  children  who 
are  barely  old  enough  to  toddle  burdened  with  a 
small  brother  or  sister  sleeping  peacefully  on  their 
backs.  At  first  one  expects  to  see  the  child  stagger 
and  fall  beneath  the  weight,  but  apparently  none  of 
its  movements  are  impeded  and  it  plays  with  the 
other  children  as  unconcernedly  as  if  it  were  not 
loaded  down  with  another  member  of  the  family. 

At  Nagasaki  among  the  women  coalers  who  coal 
the  ships  one  sees  many  who  carry  babies  on  their 
backs  in  this  way.  The  mothers  work  all  day  in 
the  rain  or  the  sun  or  the  snow,  and  the  baby  seems 
indifferent  to  everything. 


THE    ROMAN    CATHOLIC   CHURCH    OK    ST    r, 



The  Roman  Catholic  Church  of  St.Clare 

Great  Kills,  Staten  Island,  New  York 

EGGERS  &  HIGGINS,  Architects 

IN  a  western  city  there  is  now  being  brought  to 
conclusion,  under  the  direction  of  a  large  church 
organization,  a  scheme  for  an  educational  group 
of  buildings.  The  promoters  of  this  undertaking 
contemplate  the  adoption  of  a  Georgian  Colonial 
type  of  architecture  and  further  propose  to  include 
in  the  group  replicas  of  many  of  the  structures  that 
are  to-day  landmarks  of  our  Colonial  history.  The 
idea  is  based  on  the  complete  Americanization  of 
every  student  and  incidentally  to  serve  to  inculcate 
a  viewpoint  of  patriotism. 

Methods  of  Americanization  in  this  country  have 
been  carefully  studied  and  important  work  is  being 
done.  The  Catholic  Church  in  the  United  States  has 
undoubtedly  largely  aided  in  seeking  to  inculcate  a 
correct  attitude  on  the  part  of  its  members  towards 
their  duties  as  citizens.  The  small  church  now  being 
erected  at  Great  Kills  on  Staten  Island  shows  on 
the  part  of  its  clergy  and  congregation  a  fine  sense 
of  the  fitness  of  things,  of  the  duty  of  the  Church  in 
the  promotion  of  every  patriotic  impulse,  and  in  a 
much  to  be  commented  appreciation  of  its  neighbor- 

We  do  not  recall,  and  we  doubt  if  ever  before  there 
has  been  built  in  this  country  a  Roman  Catholic 
church  of  any  size  that  took  for  its  architectural 
expression  a  style  so  purely  American.  And  we  are 
sure  that  now  so  excellent  an  example  has  been  set 
that  there  will  follow  a  further  building  of  Roman 
Catholic  Churches  that  will  express  in  the  finest  way 
the  high  ideals  of  the  Church  in  the  United  States, 
both  religious  and  civil.  These  things  are  the  well 
placed  milestones  on  our  path  as  a  nation  toward  our 
highest  ideals. 

Great  Kills,  on  Staten  Island,  formerly  known  as 
Gififords-by-the-Sea,  was  for  many  years  a  quaint 
old  fishing  village.  The  lives  of  the  people  were  the 
lives  of  others  in  similar  towns  the  length  of  our 
North  Atlantic  Coast.  Its  men  were  the  sturdy  ele- 
ment-braving type  that  fared  forth  at  all  seasons  and 
at  all  hours.  Its  women,  equally  sturdy  as  a  type,  were 
of  the  quiet,  reserved  character  that  is  bred  in  women 
who  daily  wait  the  uncertain  return  of  their  men 
folks  from  their  fishing.  The  houses  were  the  typical 
fishermen's  cottages,  with  a  sprinkling  of  the  better 
type  that  showed  the  material  prosperity  of  the  vil- 
lage. The  whole  amosphere  of  the  town  was  purely 
American,  the  growth  of  American  customs  and  the 
establishment  of  American  ideals. 

While  no  reasonable  person  will  question  those 

matters  of  tradition  that  have  for  centuries  caused 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church  to  avail  of  a  purely 
Roman  type  of  architecture  as  an  expression  of  its 
church  edifices,  yet,  like  all  precedent  it  is  but  the  ac- 
quirement of  a  habit  based  on  a  custom  that  no  one 
has  been  disposed  to  question. 


A  church  in  this  typically  American  town  would 
naturally  need  to  be  of  the  town  itself.  It  is  there- 
fore something  worthy  of  mention  when  a  commun- 

(Continved  on  page  51) 



Door  of  a  Dutch  Farm  House, 
North  Paterson,  N.  J. 

(See  reproduction   of  drawing  by    O.    R.   Eggers  on   opposite  page} 

/A  a  preceding  issue  there  was  illustrated  a  gambrel-roof 
louse,  located  on  Staten  Island  in  New  York  Harbor. 
While,  as  stated,  this  type  of  house  was  typical  of  the 
earlier  form  built  by  the  Dutch  when  they  settled  along  the 
Hudson  River  Valley,  the  later  coming  of  the  English  and 
the  intermingling  of  settlers  from  two  countries  so  widely 
differing    in    their    architectural    traditions    undoubtedly 
exerted  certain  influences,  one  on  the  other. 

While  the  doorway  which  Mr.  Eggers  has  drawn  for  the: 
present  illustration  is  strongly  influenced  by  the  later 
Georgian  motives  as  developed  in  this  country,  it  appears 
to  be  an  original  part  of  an  otherwise  typically  Dutch  house. 
The  door  is  divided  after  the  Dutch  fashion  into  two 
separately  movable  leaves  and  the  stone  door  sill  un- 
doubtedly has  its  placement  as  part  of  the  Dutch  custom 
But  the  general  detail  of  the  frame  of  the  door  is  equally 
and  unmistakably  a  relic  of  our  early  English  Colonial 

The  paneling  at  the  sides  of  this  doorway  is  apparently 
hinged  so  as  to  close  and  form  an  outer  door,  a  wise  precau- 
tion in  a  section  where  the  winters  were  often  extremely 
rigorous  It  becomes  interesting  in  studying  a  detail  of  this 
character  to  note  the  effect  of  social  conditions  on  the 
development  of  architectural  details 



THE    AMERICAS  ARCHITECT  Serin  of  Earl,  Araeritan  Arifiilidur, 

Confidence,    Commonsense    and 

EVERYONE,  without  exception,  of  the  authori- 
ties who  contributed  articles  to  the  preceding 
issue  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  on  the  present 
and  future  of  architecture  and  building,  optimistical- 
ly feels  that  conditions  are  daily  becoming  better. 

Each  one  conservatively  states  the  belief  that  ow- 
ing to  the  enormous  shortage  that  now  prevails,  there 
will  be  no  sudden  advance,  the  bulk  being  too  large. 
But  the  feeling  is  generally  expressed  that  within  a 
few  months  building  in  this  country  will  be  generally 
resumed  and  will  gather  momentum  to  an  extent  that 
there  will  be  a  revival  and  activity  greater  than  we 
have  ever  before  experienced. 

As  to  the  profession  of  architecture,  it  is,  as  C.  H. 
Blackall  states,  more  nearly  on  a  business  basis  than 
ever  before,  and  has  cast  away  a  very  considerable 
proportion  of  the  purely  professional  attitude  that 
has  so  long  hampered  it.  This  makes  for  a  closer 
and  more  efficient  relation  with  the  engineer  and 
builder,  and  will  go  a  long  way  toward  the  restora- 
tion of  architects  to  their  erstwhile  proper  relation  as 
master  builders.  These  things  mean  better  archi- 
tecture, better  satisfaction  of  clients  and  a  more  har- 
monious relation  throughout. 

Basically  economic  conditions  in  the  United  States 
are  financially  sound,  states  Francis  H.  Sisson,  vice- 
president  of  the  Guaranty  Trust  Co.  of  New  York. 
Further,  he  offers  the  very  sound  advice  that  it  is  es- 
sential that  to  preserve  our  prosperity  we  practice 
just  common  sense,  give  the  best  constructive  co- 
operation to  Congress  and  the  progressive  business 
interests  of  the  country.  Co-operation  in  its  highest 
sense  is  the  keynote  of  future  prosperity  in  the  con- 
struction field.  It  has  been  lacking  in  the  past,  and 
its  performance  should  be  the  duty  of  all  in  the  fu- 

Not  the  least  important  element  of  this  co-opera- 
tion, so  far  as  architects  are  concerned,  will  be  the 
promotion  of  a  better  relation  between  their  own 
profession  and  that  of  engineering.  Each  profes- 
sion, as  Kort  Berle  emphasizes  in  the  interview  pub- 
lished in  the  preceding  issue,  must  recognize  the 

members  of  the  other  as  fellow  professional  men 
and  not  as  subordinates. 

Louis  J.  Horowitz,  president  of  the  Thompson- 
Starrett  Co.,  expressed  the  opinion  that  most  of  the 
drastic  processes  of  post-war  readjustment  should  be 
over  in  the  early  part  of  1921,  and  that  we  may  rea- 
sonably look  for  a  gradual  recrudescence  of  confi- 
dence from  that  time  on,  is  something  that  may  be 
accepted  with  confidence. 

The  keynote  of  our  future  course  should  be  con- 
fidence, common-sense  and  co-operation.  With  these 
basic  things  always  in  mind,  the  future  presents 
only  the  most  hopeful  prospect. 

A  Fund  to  Assist  Young  Architects 

IN  order  to  add  encouragement  to  young  archi- 
tects in  pursuing  the  long  and  arduous  train- 
ing necessary  to  prepare  them  for  successful  prac- 
tice, an  unknown  donor  has  announced  to  the  Board 
of  Directors  of  The  American  Institute  of  Archi- 
tects, through  Mr.  D.  E.  Waid,  treasurer,  that  he 
will  give  to  the  Institute  a  sum  amounting  to  $25,000. 

This  amount  is  to  create  an  education  fund,  the 
income  from  which  is  to  be  used  at  the  will  of  the 
Institute  for  the  benefit  of  the  profession  of  archi- 
tecture. The  donor  has  suggested  that  the  Board 
of  Directors  of  the  Institute  appoint  a  committee  to 
act  in  co-operation  with  the  American  School  at 
Rome,  to  establish  and  administer  one  or  more  trav- 
eling scholarships,  for  which  $1,500  per  year  will  be- 
come immediately  available. 

A  condition  of  the  gift  is  that  when  once  the  use 
of  the  income  of  the  foundation  is  determined,  such 
use  can  be  changed  in  future  only  by  a  two-thirds 
vote  of  the  delegates  at  two  successive  conventions 
of  the  Institute. 

Every  architect  will  learn  of  this  new  foundation 
with  much  satisfaction  and  will  feel  grateful  to  the 
man  who  has  so  liberally  established  it. 

There  are  many  men  of  large  means  in  this  coun- 
try seeking  to  pose  as  patrons  of  the  Fine  Arts.  The 
accumulation  of  large  collections,  bought  with  the  ut- 
most commercial  sense  of  values,  and  often  dispersed 



at  large  profit,  while  accomplishing  a  certain  end  has 
not  that  permanent  value  that  a  fund  affords. 

Let  us  hope  that  so  good  an  example  as  is  shown 
in  this  gift  of  $25,000  will  result  in  additions  to  this 
fund  which  will  afford  the  most  practical  encourage- 
ment to  young  men  of  demonstrated  talent  in  the 
field  of  architecture. 

Congress  and  the  Housing  Shortage 

IN  an  address  delivered  by  Senator  William  M. 
Calder  of  New  York  before  the  Marquette  Club 
at  the  Hotel  Commodore,  he  stated  that  Congress 
might  find  it  necessary  to  appropriate  millions  of 
dollars  to  build  houses  and  apartments  to  relieve  the 
present  shortage. 

Senator  Calder  on  his  own  part  and  that  of  the 
committee  of  the  Senate  of  which  he  is  chairman, 
has  performed  a  valuable  service  in  the  investigation 
of  the  causes  that  have  produced  the  stoppage  in 
building  operations.  The  facts  this  committee  has 
developed  will  be  of  the  utmost  service  to  the  build- 
ing industry  throughout  the  country.  It  is  believed 
that  the  early  resumption  of  construction  may  very 
well  be  left  in  the  hands  of  those  who  are  most  di- 
rectly interested.  The  appropriation  by  Congress 
•of  money  to  provide  housing  takes  the  whole  matter 
into  the  field  of  politics  and  that  is  just  exactly  where 
it  should  not  go. 

If  the  government  will  continue  in  the  future  as  it 
has  in  the  past,  and  is  now  doing,  to  use  its  adminis- 
trative and  legislative  authority  in  searching  out 
causes,  detecting  dishonest  combinations,  and  those 
activities  that  are  in  restraint  of  building  progress,  it 
will  render  a  most  valuable  service. 

The  conduct  of  building  now  and  in  the  future 
may  safely  rest  in  the  hands  of  the  architect  and  the 
builder,  whose  work  in  the  past  has  been  of  the  most 
practical  and  efficient  character  and  on  whom  not 
«ven  the  slightest  responsibility  rests  for  present  con- 

The  organization  of  the  offices  of  architects  and 
builders  has  always  been  based  on  the  highest  effi- 
ciency, and  it  is  certain  that  that  efficiency  continues. 
If  Congress  will  disperse  the  illegal  combinations 
now  known  to  exist,  if  the  banks  will  make  available 
•mortgage  money,  if  labor  will  recede  from  its  profi- 

teering, nothing  can  stem  the  wave  of  building  con- 
struction that  will  sweep  over  the  United  States. 
Congress  may  very  valuably  act  in  stabilizing  all  the 
conditions  that  affect  building  and  leave  the  result  in 
the  competent  hands  of  the  building  industry. 

How  Much  Will  It  Cost? 

AFTER  the  prospective  client  has  outlined  his  re- 
quirements to  his  architect,  the  first  question  he 
asks,  nine  times  out  of  ten,  is  :  "About  how  much  will 
such  a  building  cost?"  Before  the  war,  when  prices 
were  somewhat  stable,  it  was  not  impossible  to  give 
a  fairly  accurate  answer  to  this  question,  even  before 
sketches  or  plans  were  made.  Since  the  armistice, 
however,  price  changes  have  been  so  great  and  sud- 
den that  the  problem  of  determining  with  a  fair  de- 
gree of  accuracy  the  probable  cost  of  a  contemplated 
building  before  plans  and  specifications  have  been 
drawn  has  been  a  difficult  one.  The  editors  of  THE 
AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  have  had  the  subject  under 
consideration  for  some  months,  and  have  even  had 
typical  plans  and  outline  specifications  drawn  for 
various  classes  of  buildings  with  the  idea  of  having 
them  priced  in  various  sections  of  the  country,  and 
these  prices  revised  from  time  to  time  to  show 
changes  and  trend.  However,  after  doing  some 
work  on  this  plan  it  was  found  to  be  impractical  and 
abandoned  for  the  simpler  one  of  showing  actual  cu- 
bic foot  costs  of  buildings  of  various  types  in  differ- 
ent sections  of  the  country.  The  first  and  rather 
meagre  installment  of  these  figures  is  given  in  the 
table  on  page  58. 

It  is  hoped  that  future  tables  will  be  more  compre- 
hensive, and  show  better  distribution.  This  will  de- 
pend, however,  upon  the  co-operation  given  by  mem- 
bers of  the  profession.  Without  that  it  will  be  im- 
possible to  furnish  the  required  data,  but  with  it  there 
should  be  no  difficulty  in  making  this  service  feature 
of  very  real  value  to  practicing  architects.  Inciden- 
tally, it  will  enable  them  to  overcome  the  impression 
that  is  all  too  general,  to  the  effect  that  architects  are 
unreliable  in  the  matter  of  preliminary  estimates. 

To  assist  in  making  this  feature  of  value,  readers 
are  requested  to  send  in  the  information  shown  on 
the  table  printed  on  another  page  in  connection  with 
any  buildings  upon  which  they  have  taken  figures 
within  recent  months. 









VOL.  CXIX,  No.  2351 


JANUARY   12,   1921 





VOL.  CXIX,   \o.  2351 


JANUARY   12,   1921 



VOL.  CXIX,  No.  2351 


JANUARY  12,   1921 



VOL.   CXIX,   No.  2351 


JANUARY  12,   1921 





















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The  Fate  of  High  Bridge 

Do  the  Facts  in  the  Case  Warrant  Its  Reconstruction  or  Demolition 

SPANNING    the    Harlem    River    at    approxi- 
mately a  continuation  of  West  174th  Street, 
New  York  City,  is  High  Bridge,  a  multiple 
arch  masonry  structure,  over  which  a  controversy  is 
now  in  progress.    The  issue  is,  whether  this  bridge 
shall  be  altered  or  demolished.     In  considering  the 
subject,  it  might  be  well  to  sketch  briefly  its  history. 
High  Bridge  was  built  as  a  part  of  the  old  Croton 
Aqueduct  system  constructed  between  1837  and  1843, 
the  new  supply  being  first  introduced  on  July  4,  1842. 

hazardous  for  self-propelled  vessels  and  very  diffi- 
cult for  tows. 

The  aqueduct  supported  by  this  structure  was  in 
use  until  a  short  time  prior  to  this  country's  declar- 
ing war  with  the  Central  Powers.  Various  reasons 
have  been  given  as  the  cause  for  its  present  disuse. 
The  statement  that  it  is  no  longer  of  any  value  does 
not  hold  in  view  of  a  statement  made  by  Merritt 
H.  Smith,  Chief  Engineer  of  the  Department  of 
Water  Supply,  who,  at  a  recent  meeting  of  the 


The  outlines  of  Washington  Bridge  are  visible  just  behind  High  Bridge 

The  original  plans  appear  to  call  for  15  circular 
arches,  8  of  which  had  a  span  of  80  feet  and  the  re- 
maining 7  of  50  feet,  with  a  clear  height  of  100  feet 
above  mean  high  water.  As  the  current  is  very  swift 
at  certain  elevations  of  the  tides  owing  to  the  dif- 
ference in  the  elevation  of  the  waters  of  the  Hud- 
son and  East  Rivers,  the  threading  of  the  arches  is 

American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  at  which 
the  subject  of  High  Bridge  was  under  discussion, 
made  the  following  statement : 

"Let  me  tell  you  when  it  (the  High  Bridge  Aque- 
duct) was  shut  down,  and  why  it  was  shut  down.  On 
February  3,  1917 — do  any  of  you  remember  it? — we 
sent  back  the  German  Ambassador.  We  had  four 




aqueducts  bringing  water  into  New  York  City,  three 
aqueducts  and  a  pipe  line.  It  was  easier  and  safer 
to  patrol  two  aqueducts  than  it  was  four ;  and  if  any 
devil  had  tried  to  destroy  any  part  of  any  one  of 
those  aqueducts,  the  principal  damage  would  have 
been  done  by  the  rush  of  water,  not  by  the  bomb ; 
and  for  that  reason,  and  that  reason  only,  on  Febru- 
ary 3,  1917,  the  old  aqueduct  was  closed  down  by  my 
orders.  The  Kensico  pipe  line,  which  was  also  run- 
ning at  that  time,  brings  Catskill  water  from  the 
Kensico  Reservoir.  On  the  following  day.  the  4th 
of  February,  that  was  closed  down,  and  for  the  same 
reason.  That  meant  that  we  had  two  lines  that  could 
carry  water  to  New  York  City  and  which  would  not 
be  seriously  damaged  by  bombs  placed  in  the  cul- 
verts, or  at  any  other  vulnerable  points,  because  the 
damage  would  not  be  done  by  the  rush  of  water,  but 
would  be  done  locally  by  the  explosive." 

According  to  Mr.  Smith,  in  case  the  bridge  was  re- 
moved, it  would  be  necessary  at  the  very  least  to  con- 
nect the  old  aqueduct  on  the  Bronx  and  on  the  Man- 
hattan sides  of  the  river  in  order  to  crowd  the  water 
that  comes  through  the  old  aqueduct  through  the  new 


aqueduct  tunnel.  To  do  that,  in  carrying  225,000,- 
000  gallons  of  water  from  the  new  aqueduct,  and 
60,000,000  from  the  old  aqueduct,  there  would  be 
a  loss  of  between  two  and  three  feet  of  head  at  the 
155th  Street  gatehouse,  which  it  is  stated  would  be 
a  very  serious  loss,  considering  the  difficulty  now  in 
delivering  the  old  Croton  service  at  sufficient  eleva- 
tion in  a  considerable  part  of  the  territory  in  which 
that  water  is  used.  If  the  bridge  were  removed,  it 
was  estimated  by  Mr.  Smith  that  this  new  con- 
nection; on  account  of  the  alterations  necessary, 
would  cost  about  $800,000. 

THE  suggestion  for  the  removal  of  certain  ob- 
structing river  piers  of  High  Bridge  dates  back 
to  191 1 .    The  matter  first  came  up  in  a  letter  to  the 
City  of  New  York  from  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  U. 
S.  Army,  in  which  attention  was  called  to  plans  that 
had  been  received  from  time  to  time  by  the  Secretary 
of  War  and  by  the  United  States  Engineers'  office 
for  the  First  District,  concerning  the  obstruction  to 
navigation  caused  by  the  river  piers  of  this  bridge. 
Some   two    years    later,    a    number    of    property 











owners  and  business  men  along  the  Harlem  River 
in  the  Borough  of  the  Bronx,  made  complaint  of  the 
obstruction  along  the  Harlem  River,  and  it 
seemed  necessary  then  to  present  a  report  to 
the  city  authorities.  Such  a  report  was  pre- 
sented in  1915.  While  the  bridge  .crosses  a  nav- 
igable stream,  this  report  pointed  out  that  it  is  an 
aqueduct  rather  than  a  bridge.  It  incidentally  car- 
ries a  footway.  It  is  not  a  highway  bridge  in  the 
ordinary  sense  of  the  word.  It  is  one  of  the  most 
notable  structures  in  or  about  the  City  of  New  York, 
and  its  removal  or  the  serious  mutilation  of  its  ap- 
pearance would  be  a  public  misfortune,  and  should 
only  be  considered  in  case  it  was  shown  that  it  forms 
a  serious  obstruction  to  navigation,  which  could  not 
be  removed  or  mitigated  except  by  taking  out  one  or 
more  of  the  piers.  The  removal  of  the  bridge  was 
not  considered  at  that  time. 

Apparently  the  War  Department  did  not  press  the 
matter  for  some  time  and  it  was  not  until  the  early 
part  of  1920  that  the  matter  was  brought  to  a  head 
by  the  following  notice  being  served  on  the  New 
York  City  authorities : 

The  Secretary  of  War  having  good  reason  to  believe 
that  the  bridge  over  the  Harlem  River,  New  York  City, 
known  as  "High  Bridge,"  is  an  unreasonable  obstruc- 
tion to  the  free  navigation  of  said  river,  on  account  of 
insufficient  clearance  between  piers,  it  is  proposed  to 
require  the  following  changes  to  be  made  in  the  bridge 
within  one  year  from  the  date  of  service  of  order  by 
the  War  Department,  to  wit:  Two  alternate  piers  to 
be  removed,  and  a  vertical  clearance  of  at  least  100  feet 
above  mean  low  water  to  be  provided  in  each  of  the 
proposed  widened  spans. 

This  required  action.  Although  but  a  short  pe- 
riod remains  before  the  expiration  of  the  time  stated 
in  the  order,  no  work  of  reconstruction  has  been 
started.  Public  hearings  have  been  held  and  various 
suggestions  have  been  made. 

THE  suggestion  which  advocated  the  entire  re- 
moval of  the  bridge  has  brought  forth  a  storm 
of  protest.    This  suggestion  was  made  by  the  Com- 
missioner of  Plant  and  Structures  in  a  communica- 
tion to  the  Board  of  Estimate  and  Apportionment. 

Since  this  communication  states  the  case  for  the  re- 
moval of  High  Bridge,  the  retention  of  which,  with 
suitable  alterations,  the  American  Institute  of  Con- 
sulting Engineers,  the  New  York  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  the  American  So- 
ciety of  Civil  Engineers  and  the  American  Institute 
of  Fine  Arts  have  gone  on  record  as  favoring,  it  is 
here  published  in  full. 
To  the  Honorable 

The  Board  of  Estimate  and  Apportionment 
of  the  City  of  New  York : 

"In  the  matter  of  improving  the  navigation  facili- 
ties on  the  Harlem  River,  in  the  vicinity  of  High 
Bridge,  the  various  plans  for  treatment  of  High 
Bridge  submitted  to  the  Board  of  Estimate  and  Ap- 
portionment have  been  given  full  consideration,  and 
it  appears  to  me  that  the  proper  action  to  be  taken 
by  the  Board  of  Estimate  and  Apportionment  is  the 
removal  of  this  bridge. 

"This  Department  assumed  this  position  at  the 
hearing  of  the  New  York  Harbor  Line  Board  on 
March  30,  1920,  when  it  was  proposed  by  that  Board 
to  remove  two  alternate  piers.  Following  the  sug- 
gestion of  the  Harbor  Line  Board,  plans  were  pre- 
pared by  this  Department  providing  for  the  removal 
of  two  alternate  piers  and  the  construction  of  two 
spans  of  steel  and  concrete.  An  arch  effect  was  to 




be  obtained  by  the  use  of  these  materials.  The  aque- 
duct line  on  the  bridge  was  to  be  maintained,  and  the 
cost  of  the  work  was  estimated  at  $630,000. 

"On  June  11,  1920,  the  Board  of  Estimate  and 
Apportionment  referred  two  communications  in  ref- 
erence to  High  Bridge  reconstruction  to  this  Depart- 
ment for  report,  as  follows : 

Communication  dated  June  2,  1920,  from  Mr. 
Wm.  J.  Wilgus,  submitting  on  behalf  of  a  Com- 
mittee of  the  American  Institute  of  Consulting 
Engineers  and  the  New  York  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  arguments  in 
favor  of  retaining  High  Bridge,  and  that  necessary 
alterations  be  so  made  as  not  to  mar  the  beauty  of 
the  structure. 

loading  on  this  pier,  have  elements  of  uncertainty 
that  might  entail  failure. 

"In  the  removal  of  two  alternate  piers  no  piles  are 
to  be  driven  and  the  loads  on  the  various  piers  are 

"There  are  no  record  drawings  extant  showing 
how  this  pile  foundation  for  Pier  12  was  constructed, 
and  in  my  judgment  in  the  reconstruction  of  this 
pier  we  would  have  to  rely  a  great  deal  on  what  we 
would  find  after  making  excavation  in  a  cofferdam. 

"The  camouflaging  referred  to  by  Mr.  Wilgus  in 
connection  with  the  removal  of  alternate  piers  should 
receive  little  consideration  as  the  term  can  be  ap- 
plied to  many  of  the  city's  important  structures  where 
steel  and  masonry  are  used  in  conjunction  ;  as  for  ex- 



This  shows  the  best  treatment  of  any  of  the  schemes  so  far  suggested. 

Communication  dated  June  3,  1920,  from 
Charles  Paff  &  Co.,  Architects  and  Engineers,  sub- 
mitting for  consideration  designs  for  the  improve- 
ment of  the  water  spans  at  High  Bridge. 

"The  plans  submitted  in  these  communications  pro- 
vide for  the  removal  of  two  adjacent  piers  and  the 
building  of  one  masonry  arch.  No  estimate  was 
submitted  by  Charles  Faff  &  Co.  The  estimate  sub- 
mitted by  Mr.  Wilgus  called  for  the  expenditure  of 

"The  Engineers  of  this  Department  have  examined 
in  detail  the  estimates  as  furnished  by  Mr.  Wilgus 
and  find  that  the  cost  would  be  about  50  per  cent,  in 
excess  of  his  estimate  of  $830,000  or  $1,250,000. 

"The  driving  of  additional  piles  at  Pier  12  and 
the  attaching  of  new  masonry  to  the  present  pier 
masonry,  which  will  mean  additional  and  eccentric 

ample,  the  Municipal  Building  is  a  steel  structure 
covered  with  granite  and  not  a  granite  building. 
"Your  board  has  before  it  three  propositions : 

1.  Removal  of  High  Bridge— cost  $500,000. 

2.  Removal  of  two  alternate  piers — $630,000. 

3.  Removal  of  two  contiguous  piers — $830,000. 
(Wilgus),   which  the   Department's   Engineers   be- 
lieve will  cost  at  least  50  per  cent,  more  or  $1,250,000. 

"High  Bridge,  if  reconstructed,  will  provide  chan- 
nels with  vertical  clearance  of  101  feet  at  mean  high 

"Washington  Bridge  to  the  north  of  this  structure 
has  a  clearance  of  135  feet  at  mean  high  water. 

"All  the  East  River  bridges  have  similar  clear- 
ances, while  the  Hell  Gate  Bridge  has  a  clearance 
of  140  feet  at  mean  high  water. 

"Thus  the  clearance  at   High   Bridge,   if   recon- 




^•tructed,  will  always  be  the  limiting  height  for  ves- 
sels navigating  around  Manhattan  Island. 

"No  one  can  say  that  the  Harlem  River  with  the 
improvements  contemplated  will  not  be  used  by  ocean 
going  vessels.  Note  the  class  of  vessels  now  op- 
erating in  Newtown  Creek  which  is  only  250  feet 
wide — Harlem  River  400  to  440  feet  channel. 

"The  question  of  continuing  High  Bridge  as  an 
aqueduct  is  one  that  might  have  some  weight  if  the 
city  did  not  have  the  Catskill  supply  in  addition  to 
the  new  Croton  Aqueduct  supply  which  is  carried  to 
Manhattan  by  a  tunnel  under  the  Harlem  River. 

"The  High  Bridge  conduit  which  connects  the 
old  Croton  aqueduct  with  Manhattan  has  not  been 
used  in  many  years,  and  I  would  suggest  that  if  this 
old  aqueduct  is  to  be  used  in  the  future,  it  should  be 
for  the  purpose  of  increasing  the  water  supply  in  the 
Borough  of  the  Bronx,  which  to-day  has  a  larger 
population  than  the  old  City  of  New  York  had  when 
the  old  Croton  aqueduct  was  opened. 

"The  old  City  of  New  York  in  1850  had  a  popula- 
tion of  515,547  and  the  population  of  the  Bortfiigh 
of  the  Bronx  in  1920—730,016. 

"If  it  be  decided  to  remove  the  bridge  entirely  the 
stone  can  be  stored  along  the  Harlem  River  Speed- 
way until  required  for  use  in  the  building  of  the  hulk- 
head  wall  along  the  Harlem  River  at  and  near  the 
location  of  High  Bridge.  The  Bulkhead  walls  of  the 
Speedway  will  require  reconstruction  in  the  near  fu- 

"The  contemplated  improvement  of  the  Harlem 
River  is  a  matter  that  affects  the  whole  City  of  New 
York.  This  improvement  would  mean  the  bulkhead- 
ing  and  the  dredging  of  the  River  to  provide  facility 
not  only  for  the  present  traffic  but  for  the  future 
that  will  ensue  after  these  improvements  will  have 
been  made. 

"It  wjll  mean  much  in  the  cost  of  handling  food 
products,  supplies  and  materials. 

"The  proposed  work  of  straightening  the  Harlem 
Ship  Canal  at  Spuyten  Duyvil  and  the  dredging  at 
the  Harlem  Kills  connecting  the  River  direct  with 

Long  Island  Sound,  as  a  matter  of  business  policy, 
should  mean  the  removal  of  this  Bridge.  The  En- 
gineers of  this  Department  have  fully  considered  this 
entire  question  and  I  believe  that  the  only  proper  ac- 
tion to  be  taken  by  your  Honorable  Board  is  the 
entire  removal  of  this  bridge." 

Yours  very  truly, 
(Signed)   GROVER  R.  WHALEN, 


THE  future  of  the  Harlem  River  is  a  matter  of 
pure  speculation.  It  is  entirely  within  the  realms 
of  possibility  that  ocean  going  vessels  may  some 
day  ply  its  waters.  Still  one  can  hardly  view  the 
present  High  Bridge  and  contemplate  its  removal 
without  a  tinge  of  regret.  Surely  this  is  an  age  of 
Commercialism  if  such  things  must  be.  A  far  more 
satisfactory  solution,  to  the  minds  of  all  lovers  of  art, 
would  be  the  reconstruction  of  the  bridge  according  to 
the  design  already  referred  to.  This,  however,  does 
not  comply  with  the  order  of  the  War  Department  in 
that  it  would  cause  the  removal  of  two  adjacent  and 
not  two  alternate  piers.  To  obtain  such  approval,  the 
design  would  have  to  be  submitted  to  the  War  De- 
partment by  the  City  of  New  York.  The  entire  sub- 
ject will  be  discussed  by  the  Board  of  Estimate  and 
Apportionment  at  its  meeting  on  January  21,  1921. 

From  the  standpoint  of  historic  interest,  sentiment 
and  the  preservation  of  structures  of  artistic  merit  as 
well  as  for  utilitarian  reasons,  the  bridge  should  be 
retained,  with  only  such  alterations  as  will  remove 
its  objectional  features  without  marring  its  beauty. 
As  a  further  argument  in  favor  of  its  retention  with 
suitable  alterations,  it  is  pointed  out  that  it  is  the  only 
bridge  across  the  Harlem  River  between  Washington 
Bridge  (181st  St.)  on  the  north  and  Central  Bridge 
(155th  St.)  at  the  south.  In  reconstructing  the  bridge 
it  could  be  altered  to  function  as  a  highway  bridge 
by  being  provided  with  an  effective  roadway  approxi- 
mately 20  ft.  wide  with  a  sidewalk  on  either  side  sup- 
ported by  brackets,  and  an  effective  connection  made 
with  the  street  system  on  the  Manhattan  side. 


A  New  Idea  in  Lighting  Fixtures 

The  Portable  Feature  Has  Many  Advantages 

THE  general  public,  as  well  as  the  electrical 
contractor,  has  been  interested  in  a  new  de- 
sign of  electric  outlet  for  use  in  homes,  of- 
fices, public  buildings  and  everywhere  that  electric 
wiring  and  electric  lighting  are  used.     The  purpose 
of  these  outlets  is  to  give  every  house  or  building  a 
system  of  wiring  that  will  be  flexible  enough  to  meet 
all  conditions  without  the  necessity  of  alterations  or 
additions  to  the  circuits  already  installed. 

The  design  and  construction  of  the  new  outlet  are 
shown  clearly  in  the  accompanying  illustrations. 
They  are  intended  to  be  located  in  different  places 
in  the  walls  and  ceilings  so  that  wall  lights  and  ceil- 
ing lights  may  be  attached  to  them  directly  without 
the  use  of  an  extension  cord.  In  fact,  any  electrical 
appliance  may  be  readily  attached  to  these  outlets. 
Each  room  has  more  outlets  than  are  necessary  at 
any  one  time.  When  not  in  use  they  are  covered  by 
paintings  or  they  are  painted  in  keeping  with  the  wail 
decorations,  so  that  they  are  invisible.  The  plugs  for 
the  ceiling  outlets  are  designed  strong  enough  to 
carry  the  heaviest  chandeliers  made. 

The  provision  for  many  more  outlets  in  each  room 
than  are  necessary  at  one  time  permits  the  lighting 
to  be  arranged  to  suit  the  individual  taste  of  the  oc- 
cupant. It  permits  a  ceiling  light  here,  a  desk  light 
there  and  a  wall  light  in  the  alcove.  When  the  furni- 
ture is  rearranged,  the  lights  may  be  located  to  suit. 

It  is  often  desirable  that  the  lighting  fixtures  in  a 
room  be  in  keeping  with  the  style  of  furniture.  When 
moving  into  another  house  this  is  not  easily  possible 
if  the  lighting  is  fixed,  but  it  is  easily  accomplished 
with  the  new  outlets  and  changeable  lighting  fix- 

tures. The  lighting  then  becomes  a  part  of  the  room. 
The  style  of  fixture  is  selected  to  harmonize  with  the 

In  offices  these  outlets  are  also  valuable.  When  it 
is  necessary  to  move  to  new  space  or  for  any  reason 
to  alter  the  partitions  in  the  present  space,  these  out- 
lets lend  themselves  readily  to  the  new  arrangement. 


The  ceiling  plug  is 
designed  to  support 
the  heaviest  chande- 
lier, and  its  rigidity 
increases  in  propor- 
tion to  the  weight 
that  it  supports. 

Partitions  may  be  run  without  thought  of  the  wiring 
on  the  floor,  because  there  will  always  be  an  outlet 
where  it  is  needed. 

The  expense  and  inconvenience  of  making  altera- 
tions in  electrical  wiring  has  often  prevented  changes 
in  the  lighting  of  buildings,  rearrangement  of  furni- 
ture and  rearrangement  of  office  partitions,  even 
though  such  changes  would  be  desirable  and  eco- 
nomical. The  new  outlet  system  of  lighting  elimi- 
nates the  expense,  the  dirt  and  the  inconvenience. 

The  Electric  Outlet  Company,  New  York  City,  is 
making  these  new  outlets.  This  company  foresees 
the  day  of  standardization  of  electrical  fixtures. 


The  method  of  placing  a 
portable  fixture  in  a  wall 
outlet  is  shown  here.  The 
operation  is  simple  and  is 
accomplished  in  the  same 
way  that  a  plug  is  inserted 
in  a  socket.  Such  outlets 
as  these  are  located  in 
convenient  places  in  the 
room.  The  lighting  scheme 
then  becomes  entirely 
flexible  and  may  be  readily 
suited  to  the  style  or 
arrangement  of  the 



(Continued  from  page  41) 

ity  now  largely  composed  of  many  different  elements 
as  to  taste  in  art,  in  social  ways  and  daily  habits  of 
living,  so  unanimously  agree  on  establishing  a  prece- 
dent that  one  wonders  has  not  heretofore  been  at- 

The  structure  wanted  had  to  be  at  least  40  by  80 
feet  to  provide  for  its  known  requirements  and  to 
give  room  for  normal  expansion.  A  small  fund  of 
approximately  $25,000  was  available,  and  the  prob- 
lem has  been  to  provide  an  attractive,  well  construct- 
ed edifice  that  would  meet  requirements  and  which 
could  be  built  within  the  money  at  hand.  This  the 
architects  have  accomplished  in  the  most  successful 

The  feature  of  the  plan  is  placing  on  either  side  of 
the  main  structure  of  extensions  approximating 
twelve  feet  in  width.  This  provides  the  additional 
space  for  the  necessary  seating  and  does  not  detract 
from  the  symmetry  of  the  plan,  which  follows  the 
best  precedent  of  the  Georgian. 

Further,  this  arrangement  of  side  extensions  in- 
sures better  interior  lighting  and  also  better  circula- 
tion of  air  and  natural  ventilation.  By  introducing 
the  side  wings  and  confining  the  present  main  struc- 
ture to  a  comparatively  narrow  plan  (it  is  but  20 
feet  in  width)  the  costly  construction  of  a  40-foot 
span  has  been  avoided,  and  a  much  more  practical 
and  better  architectural  result  obtained. 

The  choir  loft  has  been  placed  at  the  front  of  the 
church  over  the  entrance.  The  organ  will  be  of  an 
early  type,  low  in  cost,  but  adding  to  the  feeling  that 
the  architects  have  so  successfully  attained,  of  an 
early  American  church  interior. 

The  low  tower  on  this  church  with  its  balustrade 
and  cupola  further  carries  out  the  feeling  of  a  fish- 
ing village  church.  It  was  in  these  cupola  that  was 
hung  the  bell  that  served  many  purposes  besides  that 
for  which  it  was  consecrated.  Its  notes  announced 
the  arrival  of  some  long  overdue  fishing  fleet,  it 
called  to  council  on  occasions  of  public  interest,  and 
often  when  the  church  was  used  as  a  schoolhouse. 
hastened  the  lagging  steps  of  school  children. 

Around  this  cupola  is  a  narrow  platform,  which  in 
earlier  New  England  churches  and  in  many  preten- 
tious houses,  was  built  as  a  "Captain's  walk."  It 
was  on  these  balconies  that  retired  sea  captains  took 
exercise  and  scanned  the  horizon  for  a  glimpse  of 
some  expected  sail. 

St.  Clare's  at  Great  Kills  is  an  innovation  in  the 
architecture  of  Roman  Catholic  Churches  that  every 

patriotic  man  will  commend.    We  believe  it  is  the 
forerunner  of  many  such,  or,  at  least  we  hope  so. 

Criticism    and    Comment 


Your  editorial  in  the  Dec.  15  number  has  greatly 
interested  me,  as  I  believe  the  subject  is  one  of  vital 
importance  in  the  development  or  even  maintenance 
of  architecture  as  a  profession. 

Architects  are  much  inclined  to  consider  architec- 
ture purely  as  a  Fine  Art,  as  something  apart  from 
the  scientific  features,  or  from  the  engineering  in- 
volved in  various  forms.  In  this  I  believe  the  pro- 
fession is  making  a  serious  error.  The  public  taking 
the  cue  from  the  architect  is  naturally  inclined  to 
turn  to  the  engineer  or  even  to  the  contractor  for 
advice  which  should  come  from  the  architect.  Con- 
tinued to  its  natural  conclusion  this  leaves  the  archi- 
tect in  a  position  of  being  merely  a  planner  who  ap- 
plies to  his  plan  the  purely  artistic  principles  of  form 
and  detail  on  paper,  and  without  assuming  any  re- 
sponsibility whatever,  and  with  little  claim  to  knowl- 
edge of  the  scientific  or  engineering  features  in- 
volved in  detail,  undertakes  to  supervise  the  execu- 
tion of  the  building,  only  so  far  as  its  artistic  features 
are  involved.  Is  this  what  the  profession  of  archi- 
tecture is  leading  to?  Some,  including  many  engi- 
neers, seem  to  think  that  this  point  has  already  been 

As  stated  in  your  excellent  editorial,  "engineering 
is  (or  should  be)  an  essential  element  of  architec- 
ture." The  various  forms  of  engineering,  scientific 
in  their  nature,  should  be  considered  as  highly  spe- 
cialized branches  of  architecture,  .not  as  something 
apart  from  it. 

Architecture  should  be  considered  as  the  combined 
Art  and  Science  of  Building,  and  the  practice  of 
architecture  conducted  accordingly,  co-operatively 
with  engineering.  The  architect  then  might  become 
the  true  Master  Builder.  The  tendency  of  the 
schools,  however,  is  to  set  up  two  distinct  profes- 
sions, one  of  which  is  Architecture  or  the  Fine  Art 
of  Building,  the  other  being  Engineering,  which  so 
far  as  it  applies  to  building  refers  to  the  Science  of 
Building.  The  public  it  is  hoped  will  continue  to  ad- 
mire the  Art,  but  it  will  undoubtedly  pin  its  faith 
to  the  Science  every  time,  and  therein  lies  the  danger. 

Chicago,  111. 


Current   News 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Field  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

From  the  Library  of  Congress 

The  Library  of  Congress  of  desirous  of  securing 
copies  of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  of  November 
3,  1920,  to  complete  its  files,  and  would  appreciate 
the  courtesy  of  the  gift  of  this  copy  to  the  library. 
Our  supply  of  this  issue  has  been  exhausted.  We 
therefore  suggest  that  if  any  of  our  subscribers  can 
spare  a  copy  of  November  3  they  communicate  with 
Yale  O.  Millington,  Periodical  Division,  Library  of 
Congress,  Washington,  stating  their  willingness  to 
extend  this  courtesy. 

Johns  Hopkins  Plans  $11,500,000 

Plans  involving  an  expenditure  of  $11,500,000 
have  been  formulated  by  the  Johns  Hopkins  Hospi- 
tal, Baltimore.  They  include  rebuilding  all  the  prin- 
cipal buildings  of  the  hospital  group  and  providing 
improvements  required  because  of  the  growing  de- 
mand on  the  institution. 

The  principal  new  structure  is  to  be  a  dispensary 
420  by  100  feet  and  seven  stories  high.  There  will 
be  a  pathological  building  costing  $600,000.  Other 
portions  of  the  plans  follow.  Two  million  dollars 
for  general  improvements,  $400,000  for  women's 
clinic,  $1,714,000  for  out-patient  or  dispensary  build- 
ing, $1,000,000  for  dispensary,  $100,000  to  $500,000 
for  extension  of  heating  and  power  plant,  $500,000 
for  additions  to  nurses'  home  and  $250,000  for  school 
of  nursing. 

from  the  Bureau  of  Public  Lectures,  Board  of  Edu- 
cation, 157  East  67th  street,  New  York  City. 

Course  more  particularly  for  the  professional  pub- 
lic will  start  on  January  11  at  the  West  Side  Young 
Men's  Christian  Association.  The  speakers  are 
representative  men  of  wide  repute  in  their  field.  The 
series  includes  fifteen  lectures. 

Y.M.C.A.  Real  Estate  Lecture  Course 

In  view  of  the  general  interest  in  real  estate  buy- 
ing, selling,'  renting,  legislation  and  building,  the 
Educational  Department  of  the  West  Side  Branch 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association  and  the  Board  of 
Education  of  New  York  City  have  planned  a  most 
timely  co-operative  series  of  real  estate  lectures  of 
mound  educational  value. 

The  lectures  given  under  the  auspices  of  the  oBard 
of  Education  are  for  the  buying  and  general  public, 
are  offered  free,  and  are  given  at  certain  public  high 
school  auditoriums  and  at  other  places  in  Manhattan, 
the  Bronx,  and  in  Brooklyn  and  Queens  boroughs. 
A  schedule  of  the  Board  of  Education  real  estate 
lectures  covering  the  topic  thoroughly  has  been  an- 
nounced and  further  information  may  be  obtained 

Great  Roosevelt  Memorial  Proposed 

Decision  that  the  Theodore  Roosevelt  memorial  to 
be  constructed  in  Washington  would  be  "in  no  way  a 
utilitarian  structure,"  but  a  monument  "comparing  in 
grandeur  and  impressiveness"  with  the  memorials  to 
Washington  and  Lincoln,  was  reached  at  a  meeting 
here  yesterday  of  the  committee  of  the  Theodore 
Roosevelt  Memorial  Association,  headed  by  Elihu 

The  committee  announced  that  it  had  considered 
several  sites  for  the  memorial,  which  will  require  a 
tract  of  land  of  about  sixty  acres,  but  would  reach 
no  decision  on  a  site  until  it  had  made  a  further 
study  of  possible  locations.  It  is  hoped,  the  announce- 
ment said,  that  a  design  for  the  memorial  which 
would  "meet  the  approval  of  the  whole  American 
people"  can  be  completed  within  three  months." 

Architectural  Exhibit  for  Ghent, 

The  Provinces  of  East  and  West  Flanders,  com- 
prising the  Ghent  consular  district,  were  among  the 
greatest  sufferers  from  war  devastation.  All  indus- 
tries were  more  or  less  ruined,  and  the  year  1919 
was  spent  in  reconstructing  buildings,  putting  in  new 
machinery,  obtaining  raw  materials,  etc.,  in  order  to 
renew  factory  operation.  At  the  present  time,  most 
of  the  linen  and  jute  mills  have  been  rebuilt  and 
some  of  the  cotton  mills. 

To  collect  useful  and  artistic  information  which 
will  aid  in  rebuilding  this  devastated  area,  an  Ex- 
position of  Architecture,  Building  and  Similar  Indus- 
tries will  be  held  at  Ghent  in  April  and  June,  1921, 
at  the  Palais  des  Fetes,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
National  Government,  the  Province,  and  the  city. 

Full  information  may  be  obtained  from  the  "Ex- 
position Internationale  d'Architecture,  du  Batiment 
et  des  Industries  Connexes"  15  Coupure.  Ghent.  Bel- 



Chicago  News  Notes 

Decrease  in  building  activity  during  1920  has  cut 
the  tax  assessment  value  of  Chicago  and  Cook  coun- 
ty real  estate  by  at  least  $1,000,000.  This  is  the  esti- 
mate of  Stephen  Griffin,  chief  clerk  of  the  Board  of 
Tax  Review. 

Superintendent  Mortenson  of  the  Chicago  Public 
Schools  has  asked  the  Board  of  Education  for  ap- 
propriations aggregating  $30,000,000  to  be  spent  for 
thirty  new  public  school  buildings  in  Chicago.  The 
request  is  being  considered  in  committee. 

The  Illinois  Society  of  Architects  has  recently 
admitted  several  news  members.  Among  them  are 
J.  Bernard  Barthel,  Allen  L.  Barnes,  Murray  D. 
Hetherington,  Richard  Griesser,  Carl  Harber, 
Arthur  Jacobs,  Edward  A.  Klamt,  William  H. 
Lautz.  Charles  O.  Liska,  James  R.  Morrison,  Francis 
W.  Puckey,  Issac  S.  Stern,  William  Stuhr,  Carl 
M.  Teutsch,  Theodore  C.  Visscher,  Dwight  G.  Wal- 
lace, Maurice  Roy  Wallace,  Leo  H.  Wiesfeld. 

Wealthy  residents  of  Evanston,  Chicago's  largest 
northshore  suburb,  are  objecting  strenously  to  the 
zoning  plan  of  that  town,  which  will  permit  the  in- 
troduction of  business  houses,  such  as  stores,  in  cer- 
tain exclusive  residential  sections. 

The  upper  Michigan  avenue  property  owners 
are  planning  to  try  the  New  York  gold  medal  plan 
for  keeping  up  appearances  in  the  new  district.  A 
gold  medal  will  be  awarded  to  the  property  owner 
in  the  north  central  district — as  the  district  is  offi- 
cially termed — during  the  year. 

Greater  New  York  Miscellanies 

Travelers  to  Manhattan 

According  to  statistics  compiled  by  the  general  pas- 
senger agent  of  the  Long  Island  Rairload,  295,814,- 
532  persons  were  handled  by  the  railroads,  ferries 
and  tubes  which  connect  Manhattan  with  the  trunk 
line  railroads  with  terminals  in  New  Jersey  during 
the  current  calendar  year.  He  estimated  the  in-and- 
out  movement  of  people  during  1919  at  250,000,000. 

The  Size  of  Queens 

Queens  is  about  the  same  size  as  Manhattan  and 
Brooklyn  together,  but  has  only  about  one-ninth  of 
their  total  population,  according  to  the  last  census. 

Long  Island  Land 

There  are  1,000,000  acres  of  land  on  Long  Island, 
populated  by  2,721,000  people.  The  Borough  of 
Brooklyn  has  49,680  acres.  The  total  extent  of  the 
land  on  the  island  that  can  be  devoted  to  industrial, 
residential  and  gardening  purposes  is  881,000  acres, 
all  of  which  is  within  easy  access  of  New  York  City. 

First  Stage  to  Boston 

In  1700  New  York  was  first  connected  with  Bos- 
ton by  a  regular  stage,  which  took  forty-one  hours 
to  make  the  distance.  An  air  line  now  covers  the 
distance  in  about  three. 

Will  Consider  Housing  Problems 

Most  of  the  sessions  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce 
of  the  United  States  at  Washington,  January  27 
and  28,  will  be  devoted  to  housing  problems.  The 
three  main  topics  will  be :  The  social  and  civic  effects 
of  housing  shortage ;  effects  of  building  stagnation 
on  business  conditions,  and  the  housing  of  employes 
by  industrial  concerns.  John  Ihlder,  formerly  field 
secretary  of  the  National  Housing  Association,  is 
head  of  the  newly  created  Civic  Development  Depart- 
ment of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  of  the  United 
States,  the  headquarters  of  which  are  at  Washington. 

Gotham   National    Bank — A    Large 

Eight  floors  in  the  new  Gotham  National  Bank 
Building,  now  nearing  completion,  at  Broadway 
and  Fifty-ninth  street,  New  York,  have  been  leased 
by  a  graphophone  company  for  a  term  of  years  at 
an  aggregate  rental  of  over  $1,000,000.  This,  it  is 
believed,  is  one  of  the  largest  transactions  of  its 
kind  closed  north  of  Thirty-fourth  street,  and  in- 
volving a  record  rental  for  the  Columbus  Circle 

The  lease  serves  to  accentuate  the  uptown  trend 
of  business  and  the  desirability  of  a  business  loca- 
tion accessible  from  all  points  of  the  Greater  City. 
Many  downtown  firms  have  recognized  the  im- 
portance of  Columbus  Circle  as  a  new  centre  of 
business.  To  date  leases  have  been  signed  with  a 
number  of  firms  whose  former  location  was  below 
Canal  street.  If  the  demand  for  space  continues  at 
its  present  rapid  rate,  this  building,  which  is  the 
highest  of  all  business  structures  north  of  Forty- 
second  street,  will  be  entirely  rented  at  the  time  of 
its  completion,  February  1,  1921. 


Weekly  Review  of  the  Construction  Field 

With  Reports  of  Special  Correspondents  in   Regional  Centers 

IT  is  extremely  gratifying  to  know  that  this  jour- 
nal's optimistic  attitude  regarding  business  condi- 
tions during   1921    is   shared  by  a  very  important 
group   of    bankers    and    industrial    leaders    of    the 

Judge  Elbert  H.  Gary,  chairman  of  the  board, 
United  States  Steel  Corporation,  looks  forward  to 
a  promising  year. 

"If  I  read  aright  the  signs  of  the  times,"  he  says, 
"we  may  look  forward  with  confidence  to  marked  im- 
provement in  business  results,  perhaps  not  so  soon 
or  so  rapid  as  we  could  wish,  but  as  certain  and  as 
satisfactory  as  the  disposition  and  the  action  of  the 
majority  of  the  people  themselves  will  permit. 

"With  its  great  and  increasing  wealth,  its  natural 
resources,  its  productive  capacity,  its  location,  and 
with  a  well-defined  and  settled  policy  to  foster  and 
encourage  its  industries,  who  can  measure  the  future 
natural  growth  and  strength  of  the  United  States? 
We  have  the  opportunity  to  remain  the  leading 
nation  of  the  world,  financially,  commercially  and  in- 

Daniel  Guggenheim,  of  Guggenheim  Brothers,  be- 
lieves that  optimism  will  replace  pessimism  in  this 

"There  will  soon  be  the  beginning  of  a  new  era 
of  prosperity  for  the  people  of  the  United  States," 
he  points  out.  "Such  depressions  as  we  are  now 
going  through  rarely  last  long  in  this  country.  The 
tremendous  deflation  now  taking  place  is  going  to 
bring  into  our  country  great  prosperity.  There  is 
no  need  for  a  long-continued  business  depression  in 
the  United  States  if  the  leaders  of  industrial  enter- 
prises will  rid  themselves  of  unfounded  fear  of  the 

This  opinion  is  shared  by  Bernard  M.  Baruch, 
formerly  chairman  of  the  War  Industries  Board 
Mr.  Baruch  emphasizes  the  fact  that  "we  have  a 
vast  opportunity  in  making  up  for  the  work  that  has 
been  long  left  undone,  as  well  as  in  the  performance 
of  the  current  profitable  tasks  that  await  us.  These 
tremendous  works  will  require  labor,  capital,  brains 
and  materials  in  ever-increasing  volume.  We  have 
scarcely  scratched  the  resources  of  our  own  country 
as  yet,  and  there  are  limitless  fields  in  foreign  lands 
for  our  enterprise  and  our  capital.  The  world  is 
ours  in  a  wealth-making  sense." 

To  preserve  this  prosperity  of  which  Mr.  Baruch 

speaks,  there  is  chiefly  needed  "just  common  sense 

constructive  co-operation  between  Congress  and 

the  progressive  business  interests  of  the  country  " 

according  to  Francis  H.  Sisson,  vice-president  of  the 

Guaranty  Trust  Company  of  New  York.  "Basic- 
ally," he  emphasizes,  "economic  conditions  in  the 
United  States  are  absolutely  sound." 

Their  soundness  is  vouched  for  in  the  fact  that 
the  year  just  passed  was  the  "record  year  of  Ameri- 
can railroad  operation,"  according  to  the  review  of 
the  railroad  situation  for  1920  by  Thomas  de  Witt 
Cuyler,  chairman,  Association  of  Railway  Execu- 

As  to  the  future,  Mr.  Cuyler  has  this  to  say : 

"In  my  judgment  the  American  railroad  companies 
during  the  present  year  have  fully  justified,  and 
during  the  coming  year  will  make  every  effort  to 
continue  to  justify,  the  support  and  confidence  which 
public  opinion  .  .  .  has  already  accorded  them." 

Samuel  P.  Colt,  chairman,  U.  S.  Rubber  Company, 
who  comes  constantly  in  contact  with  the  many  con- 
ditions affecting  the  export  trade,  has  this  to  say 
about  it : 

"I  am  optimistic  as  to  the  future  of  our  foreign 
trade  and  the  ultimate  restoration  of  new  levels  in 
exchange,  which,  while  far  from  normal,  will  be 
reasonably  steady  and  permit  the  interchange  of 
goods  with  foreign  countries." 

Current  wholesale  prices  for  the  New  York  mar- 
ket, for  the  week  ending  January  9,  follow : 

LUMBER :  Yellow  Pine—E  &  Btr  F  G  Floor- 
ing, 2y2"  face,  $59.50;  Long  Leaf  Dimension, 
SISIE,  Nb.  1  Com.,  2x4",  $37 ;  Merchantable  Long 
Leaf  Timbers,  12x12,  10  to  20  ft.,  $61. 

North  Carolina  Pine — Roofers,  12/16x6"  (Air 
Dried),  $28.50;  No.  2  and  Better  Flooring,  2y2" 
Face,  $61.50;  Tonawanda  White  Pine,  Fine  Com- 
mon, 4/4x8  and  up,  $106. 

Douglas  Fir— No.  1  Clear  Flooring,  1x4  (VG), 
$71.50;  Dimension,  SISIE,  2x42,  16',  $42.25. 

W.  Va.  Spruce— 2x4",  16',  $54.50;  Adirondack 
Spruce,  2x4",  16',  $42.25. 

Penn  Hemlock — Base  Price,  $50. 

Cypress,  Factory  Selects,  4/4,  $105 ;  Spruce  Lath, 

Current  retail  prices  (except  brick)  are  as 
follows : 

BASIC:  Brick— Hudson  Common,  $16-18;  Fire 
Brick,  Standard  No.  1,  per  M,  $85;  "Haverstraw" 
Hollow,  $25. 

Cement— Domestic  Portl.  bbl.,  N.  Y.  yd.,  $4.80 
Gravel— Delivered  to  job  site,  $4.25  per  cti.  yd. 

Grit— Delivered  to  job  site,  Cow  Bay,  $3.50  per 
cu.  yd. 

Iron  and  Steel—Wire  Rods,  No.  5,  Common  Basic 



or  Bessemer  Rods  to  domestic  consumer,  $57 ;  Chain 
Rods,  $57. 

Structural  Steel — From  N.  Y.  stocks,  small  lot 
quantities,  cents  per  Ib.  Bars — Refined  iron,  base 
price,  4.70c.  per  Ib. ;  Swedish  bars,  base  price,  20c. 
per  Ib. ;  Soft  steel  bars,  base  price,  3.48c.  to  3.70c. 

Beams  and  Channels,  Angles  and  Tees — 3"xJ4" 
and  larger,  base  3.58c.  to  3.80c.  per  Ib. ;  under 
3"x%",  base  3.48c.  to  3.70c. 

Lime — Delivered  job  site,  standard  300-lb.  bbl., 
per  bbl,  $5.20.  Common  Lime,  standard  300-lb.  bbl., 
per  bbl.,  $5.20.  Hydrate  Fin.  Lime,  per  ton  (cloth, 
paper  bags),  $31  and  $29.  Common  Hydrate  Lime, 
per  ton(  cloth,  paper  bags),  $25  and  $23. 

Sand — Per  cu.  yd.,  delivered  job  site,  $2.75. 

Stone — Broken,  cu.  yd.,  delivered  job  site,  $4.00. 

Stone,  Building — Indiana  Limestone,  $1.81  to 
$1.85;  Ohio  Sandstone,  $1.75  to  $2.35;  Kentucky 
Limestone,  $2.07  to  $2.07;  Marble  (Tenn.),  $5  to 
$5  ;  Granite,  $2  to  $3.50. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE,  January  10. — With  the  stock  taking 
period  over  and  adjustments  made  for  income  taxes, 
Pacific  coast  business  men  are  asking  each  other 
the  question  daily,  "When?"  and  how  the  construc- 
tion revival  so  long  deferred  is  to  be  brought  about. 
Architects  in  many  instances  have  their  hands  full 
of  new  projects  while  awaiting  the  word  from  inves- 
tors as  to  the  time  they  believe  the  prices  have  hit 
bottom,  in  order  that  this  section  can  go  on  a  normal 
basis.  It  is  apparent  that  in  the  steel  industry  lies 
the  answer. 

That  reconstruction  must  be  begun  after  prices 
have  fallen  lower  is  generally  believed  by  jobbers  in 
the  most  advantageous  position  to  judge.  Liquida- 
tion of  stocks  in  the  hands  of  manufacturers,  jobbers 
and  retailers  is  one  plan.  Another  is  to  attain  a 
price  level  that  will  hold  long  enough  to  restore  con- 
fidence in  the  new  prices. 

In  the  event  that  manufacturers,  jobbers  and  re- 
tailers did  this  thing  and  converted  stocks  into  cash 
and  strong  accounts,  there  would  follow  a  resump- 
tion of  buying  on  the  part  of  all,  and  the  banks 
would  have  sufficient  cash  to  loan  at  low  interest 
rates.  A  proper  level  of  prices,  however,  must  be 
struck  before  there  can  be  any  change.  Buyers 
must  know  that  tomorrow's  list  will  not  show  that 
they  have  lost. 

Large  operators,  regarding  these  questions  as 
vital,  are  studying  on  plans  for  solution.  That 
there  is  a  surplus  of  all  merchandise  and  a  shortage 
of  credit  and  that  to  get  rid  of  both,  stocks  must 
be  converted  into  cash  and  loans  liquidated  is  the 
feeling.  When  this  is  accomplished  business  will 
expand  in  volume  and  interest  rates  made  low,  these 

operators  assert,  and  an  immediate  start  now  when 
production  is  low  would  bring  about  the  change 
with  the  least  injury  to  all. 

In  the  liquidation  process  prices  must  naturally 
seek  a  lower  level,  because  lower  prices  are  necessary 
to  stimulate  consumption  and  buying.  Large  opera- 
tors have  it  in  mind  that  the  level  has  been  reached 
when  there  is  evidence  of  renewed  buying.  What 
this  level  will  be  is  only  conjectural,  proven  by  the 
lack  of  uniform  opinion  as  to  the  future  values  and 
low  points  on  commodities.  Jobbers  and  manufac- 
turers who  believe  that  future  values  will  look  right 
and  clear  are  increasing  in  number.  Stability  of 
prices  will  precede  an  upward  tendency. 

Jobbers  in  steel  intimate  that  the  necessity  of  re- 
placement value  cost  must  be  the  basis  of  readjust- 
ment of  prices.  This  readjustment,  to  be  far  sweep- 
ing and  conclusive,  jobbers  point  out,  must  begin  at 
the  mills  and  continue  on  down  the  course  until  it 
reaches  the  consumer.  Many  interested  jobbers  and 
manufacturers  are  strong  in  the  conviction  that  this 
level  will  be  considerable  above  pre-war  prices  if 
legitimate  profits  are  to  be  maintained. 

Large  operators  who  have  outlined  the  cource  of 
economic  events  as  stated  declare  that  after  the 
period  of  readjustment  no  stronger  exponents  of 
optimism  and  faith  in  the  country's  business  welfare 
can  be  found  than  among  those  who  are  endeavoring 
to  direct  and  aright  the  route  of  American  commerce 
now  rocking  on  a  practically  uncharted  sea. 

There  is  an  ample  supply  of  nails,  pipe  and  sheets 
for  all  immediate  demands.  Jobbers  are  not  operat- 
ing with  any  idea  of  accumulating  stocks  on  a  fu- 
ture demand,  but  are  preparing  to  take  care  of  what 
may  arise  with  the  early  spring  prospects.  Prices 
are  stationary. 

The  fir  lumber  market  is  steady.  Production  by 
119  associated  mills,  which  represent  the  bulk  of  the 
cut  in  the  West  coast  lumber  territory,  was  54  per 
cent,  of  normal,  due  to  the  year-end  closing  down, 
interruption  of  which  is  indefinite.  Wages  in  the 
mills  and  camps  have  been  cut  25  per  cent.,  and  the 
men  have  uttered  little  protest.  The  mills  hold  un- 
filled orders  for  2,485  carloads. 

Pacific  coast  architects,  particularly  those  in  this 
territory,  state  that  they  have  many  big  jobs  in  pros- 
pect, with  orders  to  refrain  from  proceeding  farther 
until  investors  are  satisfied  that  prices  have  settled 
to  a  substantial  bottom. 

(.Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO,  January  10. — The  new  year  opens 
here  with  every  indication  pointing  to  an  early  re- 
sumption of  building  activity.  Only  favorable 
weather  now  seems  necessary  to  bring  the  industry  to 
life  after  several  moribund  months. 

Lumber  and   materials  are  gradually  settling  in 



pn,t-    so  that  .he  cost  of  construction  is  consider- 
ably Lower  than  during  the  spring  and  summer  of  1 
vear  and  labor  IS  showing  a  much  more  docile  atti- 
tade,  both  as  to  its  willingness  of  endeavor  and  its 
Standpoint    on   wages.     A   very   significant    recent 
movement  was  the  voluntary  offer  of   some  9  OC 
em,  .loves  of  the  Pullman  Company,  many  of 
in  the' woodworking  trades,  to  accept  a  wage  reduc- 
tion of  20  per  cent.     This  offer  was  made  without 
suggestion  or  coercion  from  the  Pullman  Company, 
the  step  being  taken  by  the  shops  committee  as  a 
concession  to  the  spirit  of  readjustment  of  industry. 
The  movement  has,  of  course,  no  direct  bearing 
on  the  building  trade  except  that  it  emphasizes  the 
growing  improvement  in  the  labor  situation,  which  in 
the  past  has  been  one  of  the  most  stupendous  stum- 
bling blocks  in  the  path  of  construction  in  the  Chi- 
cago district. 

For  the  holiday  period  a  somewhat  general  dull- 
ness prevailed  in  the  building  industry,  as  was  to  be 
expected,  but  the  improved  mercantile  situation 
brought  about  by  Christmas  and  pre-inventory  buy- 
ing left  the  general  public  in  a  better  frame  of  mind 
and  the  new  year  opened  in  Chicago  with  very  en- 
couraging expressions  of  optimism  from  the  leading 
men  of  finance  and  industry. 

So  far  as  Chicago  architects  can  foresee  there  is 
nothing  now  remaining  in  the  list  of  objections  to 
new  building  activity.    A  great  deal  of  work  is  now 
on  the  boards  and  much  more  in  contemplation.  .  The 
line  of  prospective  activity  covers  virtually  all  lines 
of  construction.     There  are  many  important  office 
buildings  to  be  erected.    Hotel  construction  will  also 
figure  prominently,  while  the  increase  in  the  build- 
ing of  apartments  will  be  unusually  great,  accord- 
ing to  the  best  predictions.     Home  building  will  go 
forward  as  never  before,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the 
flat  dwellers  having  felt  the  lash  of  the  unfeeling 
apartment  landlord  are  now  prepared  to  venture  on 
homes  of  their  own.     The  heavy  present  call   for 
suburban  realty  indicates  that  many  of  these  homes 
will    be   pretentious    and    engaging,    therefore,    the 
services  of  many  architects. 

Industrial  building  is  at  present  dull  and  may  not 
show  the  important  revival  expected  in  other  lines, 
but  there  is  a  sufficient  indication  of  industrial  build- 
ing need  to  firm  up  the  prospects  in  that  department, 

It  is  interesting  to  observe  the  different  attitude 
which  the  public  is  taking  toward  building  as  com- 
pared with  its  viewpoint  on  business  in  general.  The 
man  in  the  street,  as  well  as  the  business  man  and 
the  capitalist  assumes,  as  a  matter  of  course,  that 
building  will  open  as  soon  as  the  weather  permits. 
Other  lines  of  business  are  viewed  much  less  cer- 
tainly in  regard  to  normal  resumption.  This  matter 

of  fact  attitude  is  one  of  the  very  encouraging 
aspects  of  the  building  prospect. 
"  All  hands  in  the  industry  are  fostering  this  sense  of 
assurance  One  of  the  important  contributions  tc 
this  optimistic  propaganda  is  a  pamphlet  on  the  build- 
ing situation  recently  issued  by  the  Universal  Port- 
land Cement  Company.  "A  period  of  depression  i, 
largely  a  state  of  mind"  says  the  pamphlets.  '  We 
had  one  after  the  armistice.  We  are  experiencing 
one  now."  As  a  panacea  for  this  condition,  the 
pamphlet  urges  construction,  because  all  factors  in 
the  building  situation  are  now  favorably  disposed  to- 
ward construction  work. 

Interest  in  the  "Own  Your  Home"  Exposition  to 
be  staged  at  the  Coliseum,  March  26  to  April  2.  Ar- 
chitects in  Chicago  are  particularly  interested  in  con- 
tributing to  the  success  of  the  exposition  and  under 
the  leadership  of  Henry  K.  Holsman  of  the  Illinois 
Society  of  Architects,  the  local  members  of  the  pro- 
fession are  doing  all  that  they  can  to  further  the 
Exposition  plans.  Letters  have  been  sent  out  to 
6,000  architects  submitting  to  them  a  prize  offer  for 
the  best  architectural  solution  of  the  small  house 

Real  estate  dealers  are  of  the  opinion  that  the  1 
position  will  do  a  great  deal  to  stimulate  home  build- 
ing throughout  Chicago  and  there  has  been  no  lack 
of  co-operation  from  the  realty  interests.  As  a  mat- 
ter of  fact,  all  lines  of  business  interested  in  home 
building  have  assured  the  committee  of  complete 
co-operation  and  all  of  the  display  space  has  long  ago 
been  contracted  for  by  those  anxious  to  exhibit  ma- 
,  terials  and  the  like. 

Charles  Bostrom,  Chicago's,  building  commis- 
sioner, in  reviewing  the  building  situation  over  the 
last  year  is  not  as  optimistic,  however,  as  some  others. 
"There  is  not  much  hope  of  a  very  great  renewal  of 
building  activities  in  sight  at  present"  says  Mr.  Bos- 
trom, "but  it  is  hoped  that  by  spring  conditions  will 
have  so  adjusted  themselves  that  a  marked  improve- 
ment in  building  operations  will  be  shown." 

Mr.  Bostrom  notes  that  the  building  trade  con- 
tinued rather  briskly  up  to  May  1  of  1920  and  that 
from  that  date  up  to  the  present  activities  have  de- 
clined. During  the  first  eleven  months  of  1919. 
building  permits  in  Chicago  totalled  6296,  while  for 
the  same  period  in  1920  the  total  was  only  3574. 
The  cost  of  the  building  contemplated  in  the  1919 
permits  up  to  December  1  was  $95,224,100,  as  com- 
pared with  $73,794,650  for  the  corresponding  pe- 
riod in  1920.  December  permits  are  late  in  being 
announced,  but  the  final  month  in  the  year  will  show 
a  loss  as  compared  with  December  of  1919. 

Business  continues  to  be  dull  in  lumber  and  other 
building  materials  in  this  market.  Holiday  apathy 
has  been  felt  in  all  lines  and  this  superimposed  upon 
an  already  dull  market  has  left  the  demand  very  list- 



less.  All  factors  in  the  lumber  and  building  mate- 
rials trades,  however,  are  expecting  an  early  begin- 
ning of  business  for  the  new  year. 

They  also  feel  that  bottom  price  has  been  struck 
for  the  present  both  in  lumber  and  in  the  minor  ma- 

Prices  hold  at  the  levels  of  previous  weeks  in  prac- 
tical all  items  on  the  lumber  and  materials  list  as  will 
be  seen  by  comparing  the  following  prices  with 
those  of  earlier  weeks : 

Yellow  Pine:  B.  &  B.  1  inch,  $95  to  $130,  depend- 
ing on  thickness ;  2  x  4,  No.  1,  10  to  16  ft.  length,  $51 
to  $53 ;  2  x  6,  $48 ;  2  x  8,  $50 ;  2  x  10,  $53 ;  2  x  12, 
$55  ;  13-16  x  3%  z  &  b  flat  flooring,  $85  to  $90;  1  x 
6,  No.  2  common,  $48  to  $90. 

Douglas  Fir:  2  4  S,  in  sizes  up  to  12  x  12,  in 
length  up  to  32  feet,  $65  to  $70 ;  14  x  14,  $68  to  $73 ; 
16  x  16,  $72  to  $75 ;  18  x  18,  $75  to  $80. 

Hard  Maple:  Four,  y4  No.  1  and  2,  $135;  select, 
$120;  No.  1  common,  $100;  No.  2  common,  $65; 
No.  3  common,  $32. 

Birch:  Four  %  No.  1  and  2,  $160;  select,  $133  to 
$138;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No.  2,  common, 
$6  Oto  $65 ;  No.  3  common,  $40. 

Red  Gum :  Four  %  No.  1  and  2,  $150 ;  No.  1  com- 
mon, $90  to  $92 ;  No.  2  common,  $47. 
Face  brick — 

Standard,  vitrified  red $32.00@34.00 

Smooth,  Indiana  red 38.00@40.00 

Smooth,  Ohio  red 38.00@40.00 

Smooth,  Pennsylvania  red 46.00@48.00 

Smooth,  buff 45.00@47.00 

Smooth,  grey 47.00@49.00 

Rough,  buff 44.00@46.00 

Rough,  grey    47.00@49.00 

Variegated,  rough  texture 34.00@49.00 


Common  brick $16.00 


Portland  cement $3.00 

Per  Yard 

Torpedo — Lake  and  bank  sand $3.50 

Crushed  stone,  gravel  screeings 3.50 

Per  Ton 

Hydrated  lime,  Ohio,  paper $22.00 

Hydrated  lime,  Ohio,  cloth 29.00 

Includes  sacks  at  30c  each. 

Hydrated  lime,  Wis.,  paper 20.00 

Bulk  lime.  .  1.75 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN   ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON,  January  10.— The  files  of  the  Boston 
Real  Estate  Exchange  shows  that,  during  the  week 
ending  December  19,  1920,  there  were  391  transfers 
210  mortgages  aggreating  $1,712,045,  as  compared 
to  372  transfers,  199  mortgages  aggregating  $1,698,- 
161  for  the  same  week,  1919,  and  276  transfers,  149 
mortgages  ($838,666)  for  the  like  week,  1918. 

As  more  manufacturers  have  announced  wage  re- 
ductions commencing  January  1,  far-sighted  business 
leaders  see  in  the  rapidity  of  labor  liquidation  the 
promise  of  productions  which  will  enable  manufac- 
turers to  turn  out  goods  at  prices  which  will  again 
appeal  to  the  public.  Taken  from  this  angle,  this  past 
week  may  be  said  to  have  seen  a  quickening  toward 
the  day  of  better  business,  but  as  to  actual  signs 
of  immediate  improvement,  they  are  few. 

In  some  of  the  primary  markets  there  has  been 
evidence  that  prices  were  down  to  such  levels  as 
to  attract  buyers.  In  leather,  for  instance,  one  of 
the  first  commodities  to  collapse  in  the  period  of 
deflation,  some  very  substantial  transactions  have  re- 
cently been  reported.  In  wool  it  is  the  same  story. 

The  greatest  customers  of  the  nation's  industries, 
the  farmers,  are  at  present  rather  stunned  by  the 
rapidity  of  the  decline  in  their  products.  They  are 
unwilling  to  exchange  their  products,  selling  on  a 
pre-war  basis,  for  the  products  of  industry  which  are 
still  far  above  that  basis.  With  industrial  costs 
down  and  prices  down  so  that  the  products  of  the 
city  may  be  exchanged  for  those  of  the  farm  on  a 
just  basis,  one  may  expect  to  see  greater  activity  in 

Next  to  the  fanners  the  largest  industry  in  coun- 
try, the  transportation  business,  is  still  out  of  the 
market  for  goods.  It  has  always  happened  that, 
whenever  the  railroads  started  to  buy  on  a  large  scale, 
all  other  lines  of  business  began  immediately  to 
quicken  and  general  prosperity  followed. 

The  future  of  the  business  situation  seems  to  be 
closely  bound  up  with  getting  the  farmers,  transpor- 
tation and  the  export  trade  back  into  the  commodity 



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NUMBER  2352 

Program  of  Competition  for  a  New  Group 

of  Buildings  for  the  New  Britain, 

Connecticut,  State  Normal  School 

PROPOSED  BUILDING:   The  State   Board 
of  Education  of  Connecticut  proposes  to  erect 
a  new  group  of  buildings  for  the  New  Brit- 
ain, Connecticut,  State  Normal  School  on  property 
facing   upon    Stanley   and    Wells    streets   at    New 

AS  TO  FEES  :  The  Board,  having  in  hand  a  sum  suffi- 
cient for  the  purpose,  desires  to  secure  through  this 
competition  preliminary  sketches  by  means  of  which 
it  may  ascertain  the  probable  cost  of  the  accommoda- 
tions desired,  preparatory  to  the  introduction  of  a 
bill  in  the  State  Legislature  to  carry  on  appropria- 
tion for  the  erection  of  the  necessary  structure  or 
structures.  It  therefore  proposes  to  hold  a  Limited 
Competition  for  the  selection  of  an  architect  to  pre- 
pare the  preliminary  sketches  and  estimate  of  cost 
referred  to.  The  competition  drawings  will  be  few 
in  number  and  small  in  scale  with  the  least  possible 
degree  of  elaboration  in  presentation.  The  winner 
must  be  prepared  to  begin  to  develop  the  preliminary 
sketches  in  consultation  with  the  Board  immediately 
upon  the  close  of  the  competition  and  to  complete 
them  as  soon  after  the  first  of  January,  1921,  as 
practicable  and  not  later  than  February  1,  1921. 
These  preliminary  sketches  must  be  of  the  character 
usually  prepared  by  architects  of  those  invited  in  this 
competition  for  the  purpose  of  determining  the  ap- 
proximate cost  of  important  buildings  and  grounds ; 
and  the  successful  competitor  must  be  prepared  to 
provide  also  a  water  color  perspective  drawing  of 
the  exterior.  For  the  professional  services  rendered 
in  connection  with  these  preliminary  sketches,  the 
scale  and  number  of  which  are  to  be  determined  upon 
between  the  successful  competitor  and  the  Board,  the 
Board  agrees  to  pay  the  successful  competitor  the 
sum  of  $12,000,  which  shall  be  inclusive  of  his  fee  as 
competitor  and  of  which  sum  he  shall  be  paid  $3,000 
on  account  within  ten  days  of  the  date  of  the  award. 
The  Board  fully  expects  and  intends  to  employ  the 

architect  successful  in  this  competition  to  render  full 
architectural  service  as  defined  by  the  American  In- 
stitute of  Architects,  but  should  the  Legislature  of 
the  State  of  Connecticut  fail  to  make  an  appropria- 
tion for  the  purpose  of  building  the  structure  or 
structures  within  three  years  from  January  1,  1921, 
this  agreement  to  employ  the  successful  competitor 
becomes  null  and  void.  In  the  event  that  the  State 
Legislature  should  subsequently  make  an  appropria- 
tion, a  new  agreement  shall  be  entered  into  between 
the  State  Board  and  the  successful  competitor.  In 
either  case  the  $12,000  already  paid  him  shall  be  paid 
and  received  as  a  payment  on  account  of  the  total 
architect's  fee.  The  unsuccessful  competitors  shall 
be  paid  the  sum  of  $750,  each  within  ten  days  of  the 
date  of  award. 

PROFESSIONAL  ADVISER:  The  State  Board  of 
Education  has  appointed  as  its  professional  adviser 
H.  Van  Buren  Magonigle,  architect,  101  Park  ave- 
nue, New  York  City,  to  assist  in  the  preparation  of 
this  program  and  to  act  as  its  adviser  in  the  conduct 
of  this  competition,  including  the  making  of  the 

Professional  Adviser  will  examine  the  designs  to  as- 
certain whether  they  comply  with  the  mandatory  re- 
quirements of  the  program  and  will  report  to  the 
Board  any  instance  of  failure  to  comply  with  them. 
The  Board  agrees  that  it  will  satisfy  itself  of  the  ac- 
curacy of  the  report  of  the  Professional  Adviser  and 
will  place  out  of  competition  and  make  no  award  to 
any  design  which  does  not  comply  with  the  manda- 
tory requirements. 

The  Board  and  the  Professional  Adviser  will  then 
proceed  to  the  examination  of  the  remaining  draw- 
ings and  will  make  the  award  by  secret  ballot  and  by 
majority  vote  before  opening  the  envelopes  which 
contain  the  names  of  the  competitors.  In  making  the 
award  the  Board  and  the  Professional  Adviser  will 
thereby  affirm  that  they  have  made  no  effort  to  learn 

Copyright,  19X1,  The  Architectural  &  Building  Press  (Inc.) 


the  identity  of  the  various  competitors,  and  that  they 
have  remained  in  ignorance  of  such  identity  until 
after  the  award  was  made. 

The  opening  of  the  envelope  containing  the  name 
of  the  author  of  the  selected  design  will  automatically 
close  the  contract  between  him  and  the  Board,  as  set 
forth  in  Paragraph  2  hereof. 

EXHIBITION  OF  DRAWINGS:  It  is  agreed  that  no 
drawings  shall  be  exhibited  or  made  public  until 
after  the  award  and  that  no  design  shall  be  made 
public  without  the  consent  of  the  author. 

Nothing  original  in  the  unsuccessful  designs  shall  be 
used  without  consent  of,  or  compensation  to,  the  au- 
thor of  the  design  in  which  it  appears. 

In  case  the  Board  desires  to  make  use  of  any  indi- 
vidual feature  of  an  unsuccessful  design,  the  same 
may  be  obtained  by  adequate  compensation  to  the  de- 
signer, the  amount  of  such  compensation  to  be  deter- 
mined in  consultation  with  the  author  and  the  Pro- 
fessional Adviser. 

COMMUNICATIONS:  (Mandatory}  If  any  competi- 
tor desires  information  of  any  kind  whatever  in  re- 
gard to  the  competition  or  the  program  he  shall  ask 
for  this  information  by  an  unsigned  letter  on  plain 
paper  addressed  to  the  Professional  Adviser,  and  in 
no  other  way,  and  a  copy  of  this  letter  and  the  an- 
swer thereto  will  be  sent  simultaneously  to  each  com- 
petitor, but  no  request  received  after  October  2, 
1920,  will  be  answered. 

ANONYMITY  OF  DRAWINGS:  (Mandatory)  The 
drawings  to  be  submitted  shall  bear  no  name  or  mark 
which  could  serve  as  a  means  of  identification,  nor 
shall  any  such  name  or  mark  appear  upon  the  wrap- 
per of  the  drawings,  nor  shall  any  competitor  direct- 
ly or  indirectly  reveal  the  identity  of  his  design  or 
hold  communication  regarding  the  competition  with 
any  member  of  the  Board  or  with  the  Professional 
Adviser  or  with  any  other  person  connected  with  the 
State  Normal  School,  except  as  provided  for  under 

This  program  contains  all  the  data  necessary  to  the 
competing  architects  as  a  basis  of  their  sketches  and 
inquiry  from  miscellaneous  sources  is  futile;  the 
communications  of  the  Professional  Adviser  with 
the  competitors  will  therefore  be  limited  to  matters 
of  interpretation.  The  award  will  be  made  upon 
the  evidences  of  general  grasp  of  a  problem  of  this 
nature  exhibited  by  the  sketches.  It  is  understood 
that  in  submitting  a  design  each  competitor  thereby 
affirms  that  he  has  complied  with  the  foregoing  pro- 
visions in  regard  to  anonymity  and  agrees  that  any 
violation  of  them  renders  null  and  void  this  agree- 
ment and  any  agreement  arising  from  it.  With  each 
set  of  drawings  must  be  enclosed  a  plain  opaque, 
sealed  envelope  without  any  superscription  or  mark 
of  any  kind  and  which  shall  contain  the  name  and 

address  of  the  competitor.  These  envelopes  shall  be 
opened  by  the  Professional  Adviser  in  the  presence 
of  the  Board  after  the  award  has  been  made. 

DELIVERY  OF  DRAWINGS  :  (Mandatory )  The  draw- 
ings submitted  in  this  competition  shall  be  securely 
wrapped  and  addressed  to  H.  Van  Buren  Magonigle, 
Professional  Adviser,  care  of  Marcus  White,  Presi- 
dent of  the  State  Normal  School,  New  Britain, 
Conn.,  in  plain  lettering  and  with  no  other  lettering 
thereon,  and  be  delivered  at  this  address  not  later 
than  midnight  of  Monday,  November  8,  1920. 


SITE:  The  site  of  the  building  is  shown  upon  the 
accompanying  survey  and  the  competitors  must  visit 
the  site  before  beginning  their  sketches.  All  the  ap- 
proaches to  the  future  school  will  be  of  practically 
equal  importance.  The  street  car  line  which  now 
terminates  a  very  short  distance  south  of  the  south- 
erly line  of  the  property  will  probably  be  extended 
and  pass  the  whole  frontage;  and  the  districts  east 
and  west  of  the  site  will  become  important  in  time. 

COST:  Recognizing  that  it  is  impossible  in  the 
present  condition  of  the  building  industry  to  esti- 
mate the  cost  of  a  building  by  any  cubic  foot  rate 
formerly  in  use,  the  Board  advises  the  competitors  of 
its  hope  that  the  desired  accommodation  called  for 
with  the  exception  of  the  future  dormitory  may  be 
secured  by  an  expenditure  of  about  nine  hundred  and 
fifty  thousand  dollars  and  that  wasteful  planning, 
excessive  heights  and  an  undue  degree  of  elabora- 
tion in  workmanship  or  materials  will  militate 
against  the  success  of  the  competitor. 

DRAWINGS:  (Mandatory)  The  drawings  submit- 
ted shall  be  as  follows,  at  scale  given  and  rendered 
as  noted,  and  no  other  drawings  than  these  shall  be 

a.  A  general  plan  showing  the  entire  property, 
with  present  contour  lines,  with  roads,  paths,  play- 
grounds and  existing  or  proposed  plantations  and  the 
new  buildings  in  outline  to  be  at  a  scale  of  sixty-four 
feet  to  the  inch  rendered  in  monotone  wash. 

b.  The  several  floor  plans  of  the  main  building, 
such  plans  of  the  dormitory  building  as  required  to 
show  dining  room  arrangements,  a  front  and  a  side 
elevation  and  a  section  taken  at  will  as  best  explana- 
tory of  the  design,  at  a  scale  of  32  feet  to  the  inch. 

These  drawings  shall  be  in  pencil,  on  white  paper 
or  tracing  paper  without  shadows,  and  without  any 
accessories.  The  plans  and  sections  may  have  a  gray 
wash  on  all  wall  and  floor  sections.  All  of  these 
drawings  shall  be  mounted  on  cardboard  (it  is  rec- 
ommended that  owing  to  the  wear  and  tear  of 
handling  the  drawings  shall  be  mounted  solid). 

DESCRIPTION  :  A  brief  description  of  the  design, 
covering  those  points  not  made  manifest  by  the 



drawings  and  particularly  stating  the  materials  pro- 
posed, etc. 

ARBITRATION  :  Any  difference  in  opinion  between 
the  Board  and  any  competitor  arising  under  this  pro- 
gram shall  be  referred  to  arbitration,  the  Board  and 
competitor  each  selecting  one  person  and  these  two 
selecting  a  third.  The  decision  of  two  of  these  per- 
sons shall  be  final  and  binding  upon  all  parties.  The 
Professional  Adviser  will  not  be  eligible  for  selection 
as  one  of  the  arbitrators. 


Item  1  :  A  main  building  for  administration  and 

Item  2 :  A  dormitory  to  accommodate  100  stu- 
dents, with  a  few  rooms  suitable  for  teachers.  Kitch- 
en and  dining  room  facilities. 

Item  3 :  Provision  either  in  main  building  or  in 
dormitory  for  a  lunch  room  (for  lunches  only)  to  ac- 
commodate 200  non-residents  in  the  dormitory.  At 
competitor's  option  kitchen  facilities,  but  not  dining 
room,  may  be  combined  for  Items  2  and  3. 

Item  4:  The  design  should  permit  the  erection  of 
a  second  future  dormitory  in  proper  relation  to  the 
other  buildings. 

Item  5 :  An  adequate  heating  plant  of  flexible 
character,  sufficient  for  present  needs  and  adapted  to 
expansion,  both  as  to  structure  and  equipment. 

Item  6:  Living  quarters  for  superintendent  of 
building  and  grounds,  which  should  include  a  small 
garage  and  a  small  stable  for  a  horse  for  use  in  the 
grounds,  sheds  for  the  storage  of  tools,  etc.  At  the 
option  of  the  competitor  the  heating  plant  and  super- 
intendent's quarters  may  be  either  (a)  combined  in 
one  general  structure,  (b)  or  in  a  small  separate 
group,  (c)  the  heating  plant  and  the  living  quarters 
may  be  in  the  main  building. 

Item  7 :  Four  tennis  courts  and  a  level  grassy  area 
for  playground  purposes  for  such  sports  as  basket- 
ball, base  ball,  etc. 


The  figures  given  are  approximate  only. 

BUSINESS  OFFICE:  About  400  sq.  ft.,  with  office 
supply  closet  and  sink. 

PRINCIPAL'S  OFFICE  :  About  180  sq.  ft. 

OFFICE  OF  DEAN  :  80  to  100  sq.  ft. 

sq.  ft. 

100  sq.  ft. 

RECEPTION  ROOM  :  80  to  100  sq.  ft. 

(These  require  no  separate  toilet  facilities.  The 
two  teachers'  dressing  rooms  will  suffice.) 

A  demonstration  room  on  the  first  floor,  with  150 
seats  arranged  in  a  rising  semi-circle,  with  level  space 
in  front  for  a  class  of  children. 

Biology  room,  about  24x30  ft.,  sunny  exposure. 

A  library  about  50x75  ft.,  with  book  shelves  in  al- 
coves around  same. 

A  supply  room  opening  out  of  the  library,  or  adja- 
cent thereto,  about  400  sq.  ft. 

An  art  room  with  space  for  40  small  working 
tables.  Space  for  supply  closets  and  shelves.  This 
room  must  have  north  light,  which  may  be  overhead. 

An  art  room  annex  about  half  the  size  of  the  art 
room  for  industrial  work,  modeling,  etc. 

A  music  room  for  100  students,  so  placed  as  to  dis- 
turb as  little  as  possible  the  rest  of  the  school. 

About  ten  recitation  rooms,  approximating  24x30 
ft.,  and  of  which  two  or  three  should  be  half  this  size. 

An  assembly  hall  to  seat  450,  with  an  inclined 
floor ;  a  stage  about  25  ft.  deep,  with  adequate  wings 
and  fair  gridiron  space  above. 

A  gymnasium,  50  to  60  by  75  to  80  ft.,  without  a 
running  track ;  spectators'  gallery  if  possible,  and  out- 
side light. 

An  office  for  the  physical  director. 

A  room  for  gymnasium  supplies,  physical  exami- 
nations, etc. 

A  students'  sick  room,  with  toilet.  This  is  to  be 
arranged  adjacent  to  the  gymnasium,  the  physical  di- 
rector being  in  charge  of  the  general  health  of  the 

A  locker  room,  in  connection  with  the  gymnasium, 
for  250.  At  least  12  shower  baths,  2  W.  C.'s,  2  wash 

A  teachers'  cloak  room  for  12  women,  with  wash 
room  and  toilets  adjacent. 

A  teachers'  rest  room. 

A  dressing  room  for  6  or  8  male  teachers,  with 
wash  room  and  toilet  facilities. 

Students'  (girls)  cloak  room  or  rooms,  a  total  of 
350  lockers,  with  proper  wash  room  and  toilet  fa- 
cilities. There  may  be  two  or  more  locker  rooms  at 
competitors'  option  with  a  total  capacity  of  350. 

Janitor's  supply  rooms,  closets,  sinks,  etc. 

Drinking  fountains  at  proper  points  in  the  plan. 

The  following  four  rooms  should  be  grouped  to- 
gether : 

The  science  lecture  room :  100  seats  arranged  in  a 
rising  semi-circle,  with  demonstration  table,  suitably 

Laboratory  for  physics  and  chemistry  to  accommo- 
date 40  students. 

A  work  room  about  24x30  ft. 

A  science  supply  room,  about  400  sq.  ft. 


Factory  Production  Applied  to  Housing 

Robert  Tappan,  New  York  Architect,  Addresses  National  Housing 


IT  has  been  said  that  it  requires  the  services  of  one 
hundred  thousand  different  workers  to  satisfy 
the  normal  needs  of  any  one  individual.     I  feel 
that  this  is  an  understatement.    In  our  complex  civil- 
ization the  productive  forces  of  the  wide  world  are 
drawn  upon  to  supply  us  with  what  we  usually  con- 
sider the  ordinary  necessities  of  life.    Food,  clothing 
and  shelter  naturally  form  the  basic  production  prob- 
lems of  the  entire  earth.    The  National  Housing  As- 
sociation is  concerned  with  the  last  of  these. 

Nature  has  been  kind  enough  to  furnish  to  us 
gratis  many  elemental  food  products,  ready  for  con- 
sumption. She  also  provides  the  material  for  our 
clothing;  ranging  up  through  several  degrees  of  raw 
material  to  partial  manufacture.  In  one  climate 
clothes  are  obtained  from  her  practically  ready- 
made  ;  in  another,  clothes  do  not  figure  as  a  prime 
necessity.  But  for  housing — there  we  are  left  to  shift 
for  ourselves — and  what  a  mess  generally  we  make 
of  it !  Not  that  there  are  no  good  and  sufficient  rea- 
sons for  our  shortcomings  and  mistakes. 

House  building  is  the  oldest  craft.  We  soon  out- 
grew cave  dwelling.  Perhaps  some  prehistoric 
board  of  health  condemned  caves  as  dark,  damp,  dis- 
mal and  generally  deficient  in  serving  the  best  inter- 
est of  the  community;  or  better  still,  let's  imagine 
that  some  rapacious  landlord  jumped  the  rent  or  cut 
down  on  the  heat.  At  any  rate;  some  one  among  our 
early  ancestors  built  himself  the  first  house.  It 
couldn't  have  been  much  to  look  at,  but  it  had  the 
merit  of  novelty  and  did  not  resemble  anything  else 
on  the  street.  Immediately,  artificial  hand-made 
houses  became  the  vogue.  Cave  dwelling  simply 
wasn't  being  done — and  so,  perhaps,  the  ancient  and 
still  honorable  profession  of  the  house  builder  was 

Houses  are  still  largely  hand-made.  It  requires 
the  labor  of  twenty  different  trades  to  build  a  quite 
ordinary  and  unpretentious  modern  cottage.  Behind 
these  trades  or  crafts  are  lined  up  literally  thousands 
of  skilled  experts,  each  performing  some  highly  de- 
veloped specialty  and  each  a  necessary  factor  in  the 
successful  and  economical  making  of  the  house.  As 
an  architect,  nothing  has  caught  and  held  my  imag- 
ination more  than  the  realization  that  every  line  I 
draw  will  tend  to  set  in  motion,  or  keep  in  motion, 
some  wheel,  somewhere,  in  this  gigantic,  world-wide 

No  other  necessity  in  life  remotely  approaching  the 
dwelling  house  in  importance,  is  produced  today  by 

so  many  different  skilled  hand  workers,  laboring  in 
the  open,  at  tasks  that  shift  and  vary  from  minute 
to  minute  and  job  to  job.  Behind  these  expert  field 
craftsmen  are  thousands  of  others  who  also  shift 
and  vary  their  work  to  meet  the  demands  of  the 
home  builder.  My  object  in  this  address  is  to  try  to 
tell  you  how  some  of  this  vast  machinery  can  be 

Wood  is  a  basic  building  material.  In  one  form 
or  another  it  enters  every  home.  It  is  living,  a  grow- 
ing raw  product,  that  requires  only  intelligent  cultiv- 
ation to  constantly  replenish  the  earth's  timber  re- 
serves. Lumber  production  is  notoriously  wasteful, 
and  its  use  after  production  is  even  more  so. 

It  had  been  my  plan  to  interest  some  big  lumber 
producer  in  manufacturing  wooden  houses  for  me 
right  where  the  trees  grew.  I  believed  that  many 
economies  could  be  made  in  the  production  of  lum- 
ber, scientifically  standardized  to  fulfill  certain  clearly 
defined  purposes. 

Lumber,  such  as  is  used  in  ordinary  house  build- 
ing, is  standardized  by  trade  custom  into  certain  def- 
inite sizes,  shapes,  lengths  and  grades.  The  logs 
are  carefully  sorted  and  cut  to  meet  current  demands. 
An  average  day's  run  produces  10  per  cent,  of  waste 
and  15  to  20  per  cent,  of  low  grade  stock  too  short 
to  fit  the  regular  standards.  Lumbermen  conserva- 
tively estimate  that  10  per  cent,  of  the  log,  in  the 
form  of  slabs  and  trimmings,  goes  to  the  burner,  be- 
cause of  the  lack  of  demand  for  short-length  ma- 

Now  one-third  of  the  ordinary  framing  lumber 
usually  used  in  building  a  six-room  workingman's 
house  can  be  obtained  from  material  running  under 
eight  feet  in  length.  One-half  of  the  expensive 
finishing  lumber  used  for  flooring  and  dressing  up 
the  interior  and  exterior  of  the  house  also  can  be 
made  from  short-length  stock.  Does  it  not  seem 
wise  to  get  together  with  the  lumberman  with  a  view 
to  utilizing  this  discarded,  so  called,  low  grade  ma- 
terial? I  thought  so  and  attempted  to  do  so,  but 
there  were  a  few  obstacles  in  my  path. 

In  the  first  place,  a  lumberman  is  a  manufacturer. 
Now  a  manufacturer  thinks  in  different  terms  from 
an  architect,  a  carpenter,  or  other  professional  crafts- 
men. He  speaks  a  totally  different  language ;  using 
such  words  as  cost,  equipment,  production,  merchan- 
dising, credits,  transportation,  storage,  financing, 
publicity,  stock  holders,  directors,  profits — and  a  host 
of  other  terms  that  were  quite  new  to  me.  So  I  found 



it  hard  to  interest  him  in  my  very  simple  idea.  Fin- 
ally, by  studying  up  on  some  of  these  unknown 
words,  I  was  able  to  get  together  and  sit  in  with  some 
who  listened  long  enough  and  patiently  enough  to 
get  the  drift  of  my  thoughts.  I  found  that  we  had  very 
much  in  common  and  that  we  were  not  so  very  dif- 
ferent after  all.  They  looked  upon  themselves  as 
quite  as  useful  and  necessary  members  of  society 
as  were  professional  men.  They  dared  to  dream 
dreams  with  me  and  to  make  plans  for  the  ultimate 
good  of  humanity.  Only  it  had  to  be  done  in  a  way 
they  understood — a  way  that  was  practical  and  busi- 

In  theory  it  had  seemed  that  the  producer  ought 
to  be  able  to  make  up  complete  consignments  of  care- 
fully standardized  lumber  sufficient  to  construct  one 
house,  and  he  should  be  able  to  ship  this  lumber, 
packed  in  a  box  car,  directly  to  the  individual  home 
builder,  at  a  saving  to  him  of  at  least  25  per  cent. 
The  lumber  required  to  construct  an  ordinary  six- 
room  house  represents  about  35  per  cent,  of  its  total 
cost  and  the  carpenter  bill  amounts  to  15  per  cent, 
more ;  so  in  dealing  with  this  subject  we  are  working 
upon  a  very  important  factor  in  the  high  cost  of 
home  building.  It  certainly  looks  as  though  the  pro- 
ducer and  the  consumer  ought  to  be  brought  in  close 
contact  for  their  mutual  benefit,  but  unfortunately,  it 
is  impossible  for  the  lumber  manufacturer  to  produce 
economically  for  direct  retail  distribution.  He  must 
manufacture  in  large  quantities  or  his  whole  system 
of  lumber  production  will  be  slowed  down  to  an  un- 
profitable pace.  This  fact,  together  with  orders 
equally  significant  in  allied  industries  connected  with 
house  building,  forced  the  conclusion  that  the  only 
way  to  secure  manufacturing  economies  was  to  stan- 
dardize the  product,  manufacture  it  in  quantities  and 
seek  wholesale  markets. 

Efficient  factory  production  is  inconceivable  with- 
out standardization.  Can  American  dwellings  be 
standardized  without  sacrificing  reasonable  individu- 
ality ?  That  is  debatable.  However,  we  are  dealing 
with  a  vital  necessity  of  life,  that  has  grown  con- 
stantly more  expensive  to  supply.  Personally,  I  feel 
that  I  could  stand  any  quantity  of  standardized 
houses  so  long  as  each  individual  home  was  attrac- 
tive in  appearance  and  I  knew  that  its  inhabitants 
were  not  starving  or  freezing  themselves  to  death  to 
meet  the,  monthly  payments.  It  has  never  occurred 
to  me  to  criticise  nature  for  standardizing  her  prod- 
ucts, or  to  rail  at  a  field  of  daisies  because  they  were 
all  white.  Why  modern  men  and  women,  who  go 
out  of  their  way  to  dress,  eat  and  think  alike,  persist 
in  housing  themselves  in  structures  that  represent 
the  styles,  modes  and  whims  of  every  age  and  clime, 
is  too  much  for  my  comprehension.  It  was  not  al- 
ways thus.  Can  it  be  that  we  architects  are  to 
blame  ? 

After  many  months  spent  in  study  and  experiment, 
I  devised  a  series  of  house  organisms  that  combined 
a  reasonable  amount  of  convenience  and  attractive- 
ness with  a  fairly  economical  use  of  lumber  and  lum- 
ber labor.  The  floor  plans  were  designed  in  units,  a 
method  that  has  been  in  vogue  in  Japan  for  centuries. 
While  the  Japanese  are  a  nation  of  individual  home 
dwellers,  and  famous  for  the  artistry  that  pervades 
so  many  of  their  products,  it  is  curious  to  observe 
that  their  homes  are  decidedly  lacking  in  architectural 
pretension.  If  there  is  no  attempt  at  architectural  dis- 
play in  the  dwellings  of  Japan  the  traveller  is  at  least 
spared  those  miserable  experiences  he  so  often  en- 
counters in  his  own  country,  where,  to  a  few  houses 
of  good  taste,  he  is  sure  to  pass  hundreds  of  per- 
forated boxes  embellished  with  grotesque  and  offend- 
ing abominations.  From  one  end  of  Japan  to  the 
other,  house  plans  are  designed  in  terms  of  a  standard 
unit  of  measurement,  the  floor  mat.  The  dimensions 
of  the  mat  are  three  feet  wide  by  six  feet  long.  The 
architect  marks  on  his  plan  the  number  of  mats 
each  room  is  to  contain — this  number  defining  the 
size  of  the  room ;  hence  the  lumber  used  must  be  of 
definite  lengths  and  the  carpenter  is  sure  to  find  those 
lengths  in  the  lumber  yard.  It  follows  that  but 
little  waste  of  lumber  occurs  in  the  construction  of 
a  Japanese  house.  It  had  occurred  to  me  that  an 
adaptation  of  this  system  of  unit  planning  might  re- 
sult in  a  similar  saving  in  lumber  here  in  America 
if  I  could  get  the  lumber  producer  interested  in  co- 
operating. I  employed  a  unit  or  module  of  sixteen 
inches,  as  that  spacing  is  in  common  enough  use 
among  our  carpenters,  though  generally  ignored  by 
architectural  designers.  This  unit,  when  faithfully 
followed  throughout  an  entire  house  organism,  per- 
mits the  use  of  a  few  simple  standard  lengths  of 
lumber  that  can  be  used  in  many  places  in  scores  of 
differently  designed  houses.  The  floor,  wall  and  roof 
boards,  for  example,  may  be  cut  in  multiples  of  four 
feet,  and  be  nailed  in  place  without  waste.  There 
is  a  technique  of  unit  planning  just  as  there  is  in 
playing  the  piano  (its  keyboard  is  only  so  many 
units),  and  the  longer  I  practice  at  unit  design  the 
more  valuable  the  idea  proves  to  be.  Next,  I  care- 
fully scheduled  all  of  the  lumber  and  submitted  my 
complete  details  to  several  manufacturers  for  their 
estimates.  The  result  was  gratifying.  Instead  of 
saving  25  per  cent.,  I  found  that  we  could  lower  the 
cost  50  per  cent. 

This  was  interesting,  but  it  is  not  the  whole  story. 
There  are  other  significant  savings  that  can  be  made. 
We  have  found  that  unit  design  and  standardized 
wooden  construction  speeds  up  the  work  all  along 
the  line.  The  psychological  laws  underlying  the 
wonderful  manufacturing  efficiency  of  our  great 
modern  industrial  establishments  work  out  just  as 
truly  when  they  are  applied  to  standardized  house 



construction.  If  this  paper  were  not  confined  to  one 
topic  I  could  tell  you  of  a  quantity  of  experiences 
that  I  have  had  in  proving  out  Ford  car  production 
methods  on  carpenters,  painters,  plumbers  and  other 
house-building  craftsmen.  There  is  absolutely  no 
doubt  in  my  mind  but  that  the  housing  problem,  from 
the  point  of  view  of  economical  production,  will  solve 
itself  eventually. 

Today  we  are  passing  through  the  throes  of  a 
great  change.  A  new  world  is  being  born.  Old,  out- 
worn methods  are  being  discarded  and  new  ones  are 
taking  their  places.  There  are  many  who  deplore 
and  even  resist  the  onward  march  of  industrial  pro- 
gress. They  prophecy  the  death  of  all  craftsmanship 
and  art.  I  do  not.  No  one  has  more  respect  for  the 
time-honored  building  crafts  than  have  I.  It  has 
been  my  privilege  to  be  intimately  associated  with  ex- 
pert craftsmen  in  many  lines  on  a  number  of  impor- 
tant gothic  churches  and  cathedrals.  I  have  worked 

with  artists  and  appreciate  the  thrills  of  inspiration 
and  the  joy  that  every  true  craftsman  feels  in  crea- 
tive accomplishment,  but  I  firmly  believe  that  the 
time-honored  methods  of  the  house-building  crafts, 
easy-going  and  haphazard  as  they  certainly  are,  rep- 
resent a  distinct  menace  when  applied  to  the  construc- 
tion of  this  great  necessity  of  life.  Food  and  clothing 
are  no  longer  produced  by  mediaeval  processes; 
houses  still  are,  with  an  added  complication,  that  the 
modern  house  is  by  no  means  so  simple  as  was  its 
early  ancestor.  In  the  old  days  materials  were  ob- 
tained locally,  skilled  labor  cost  next  to  nothing  and 
mechanical  installations  were  unknown.  Today  the 
meanest  residence  that  an  enlightened  craftsman  will 
inhabit  requires  the  services  of  thousands  of  experts 
to  construct.  Any  new  factory  production  methods 
that  will  tend  to  simplify  and  lower  the  costs  of 
modern  workingmen's  homes  ought  to  be  welcomed, 
not  resisted. 

The  Extension  of  Paris 

A  SPECIAL  meeting  of  the  London   Society 
was  held  in  the  hall  of  the  Royal  Society  of 
Arts   some   time   ago  to   hear   a   paper   on 
"L'Extension  de  Paris,"  by  Monsieur  Louis  Bonnier, 
Inspector-General  des  Services  Techniques  d'Archi- 
tecture  et  d'Esthetique  (representing  the  Prefet  of 
the  Seine). 

After  referring  to  the  way  in  which  the  great 
cities  had  gradually  drained  the  population  away 
from  the  country,  he  is  reported  in  the  Architects' 
Journal  of  London,  as  saying  that  the  advent  in  our 
history  of  these  formidable  masses  of  population 
demanded  a  new  school  of  therapeutics  and  surgery. 
The  machinery  of  the  town  being  much  more  com- 
plex becomes  more  fragile  and  at  the  mercy  of  the 
slightest  mishap,  such  as  an  abnormal  flood  or  an 
unexpected  strike.  What  would  be  the  position  to- 
morrow if  we  had  masses  of  population  amounting 
to  ten  millions  of  people  ?  He  then  touched  on  the 
history  of  Paris  and  the  efforts  that  were  made  in 
the  time  of  Phillippe  Auguste,  Charles  V.  and 
Louis  XIV,  to  arrest  the  growth  of  Paris  by  stat- 
ute. It  was  only  at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury that  public  opinion  began  to  take  an  interest 
m  the  beautification  of  the  city,  the  first  actual  plan 
being  prepared  by  Verniquet  in  1790.  He  then  re- 
ferred to  the  efforts  of  the  various  periods  up  to  the 
time  of  Napoleon  III.,  who,  with  his  Prefet  Hauss- 
mann,  dreamed  of  the  complete  transformation  of 
Paris.  Though  these  works  are  still  the  wonder  of 
the  world,  yet  they  have  become  quite  insufficient 
for  Pans  of  the  present  day.  The  advent  of  the 

motor  vehicle  created  requirements  which  could  not 
be  compared  with  those  of  pre-war  days.  At  a  point 
where  four  years  ago  one  horse  fiacre  passed,  now 
there  were  perhaps  four  or  five  taxicabs.  What 
would  be  the  state  of  affairs,  he  asked,  when  nor- 
mal conditions  were  re-established,  seeing  that 
France  possessed  only  one  motor  for  every  400  in- 
habitants, while  the  United  States  had  one  for 
every  14  inhabitants.  Evidently  we  must  be  pre- 
pared for  an  enormous  increase  of  motors  on  the 
streets  of  Paris.  He  suggested  that  a  strict  regula- 
tion of  vehicles  would  be  necessary  in  the  future, 
and  that  it  would  be  necessary  to  consider  the  sup- 
pression of  heavy  vehicular  traffic  in  the  center  of 
the  city,  the  reduction  of  footpaths  for  the  benefit 
of  the  roadway,  and  even  the  removal  of  the  stalling 
of  the  terraces  before  the  shops  and  cafes,  which 
give  Paris  so  much  character. 

A  law  was  passed  just  before  the  war  that  made 
it  obligatory  on  every  town  of  10,000  inhabitants 
and  over  to  prepare  a  scheme  of  improvements. 

Monsieur  Bonnier  then  described  the  various 
studies  they  had  made  of  the  movements  of  popula- 
tion, etc.,  in  Paris,  in  order  that  they  might  be  able 
to  properly  consider  the  probable  needs  of  the  fu- 
ture. He  mentioned  that  they  had  come  to  the  con- 
clusion that  it  was  necessary  to  include  in  the  City 
of  Paris  any  neighboring  communes  with  more 
than  100  inhabitants  to  the  hectare ;  while  of  the  re- 
maining districts,  which  they  considered  as  Greater 
Paris,  those  where  the  inhabitants  numbered  be- 
tween 10  and  100  to  the  hectare.  He  mentioned  that 
though  this  lowest  figure  of  10  to  the  hectare  was 



arbitrarily  selected  by  them,  they  found  it  was  justi- 
fied by  later  experiments,  and  it  was  an  undoubted 
fact  as  soon  as  the  figure  of  10  per  hectare  was  ex- 
ceeded then  for  the  first  time  the  influence  of  Paris 
began  to  make  itself  felt. 

The  lecturer  proceeded  to  show  cinematograph 
films  that  he  had  had  made :  one  showing  the  suc- 
cessive development  of  Paris,  the  other  of  its  su- 
burbs during  the  course  of  the  nineteenth  century. 
These  films  have  been  prepared  from  plans  all 
drawn  to  one  scale,  which  show  the  growth  of  the 
city  at  various  stages,  then  being  all  run  through 
the  cinema  quickly  they  give  a  graphic  idea  of  the 
population's  increase.  The  "agglomeration"  of 
Paris  covers  a  total  area  of  49,483  hectares,  border- 
ing on  the  Department  of  Oise  and  Seine-et-Marne. 
In  110  years  the  area  has  increased  in  the  propor- 
tion of  1  to  14.4;  the  population  1  to  7.9.  They  had 
tried  to  find  out  from  their  investigations  what 
would  be  the  population  of  Paris  50  years  hence, 
and  came  to  the  conclusion  that  it  would  be  14,- 
300,000  in  habitants,  a  figure  not  more  startling  to 
us  to-day  than  would  have  been  the  actual  popula- 
tion of  1911  to  the  inhabitants  of  Paris  50  years 

After  referring  to  the  well-known  axiom  of 
town-planning,  which  laid  down  that  it  is  the  pub- 
lic transport  services  which  are  the  key  to  the  ex- 
tension of  the  town  and  the  distribution  of  its  in- 
habitants, he  proceeded  to  mention  the  efforts  they 
were  making  for  safeguarding  the  most  precious 
monuments  of  the  past  in  the  city  of  Paris.  He  said 
that  both  the  French  and  ourselves  belonged  to 
countries  the  soil  of  which,  in  addition  to  the  natural 
riches,  had  clothed  itself  with  an  incomparable  robe 
of  buildings  of  many  descriptions,  which  consti- 
tuted a  national  treasure  that  it  behooved  us  to  safe- 
guard and  keep  at  all  costs. 

He  said  that  these  monuments  of  the  past  marked 
the  character  of  the  town  and  determined  the  pivot 
of  its  embellishment.  Though  sometimes  they  were 
a  cause  of  difficulty  to  the  town  planner,  yet,  like 
difficulties  in  other  matters,  they  could  be  made  a 
pretext  and  a  reason  for  ingenious  and  picturesque 
arrangements.  Nothing  was  so  commonplace  as  the 
things  that  arranged  themselves  too  easily.  In  Paris 
they  were  preparing  an  inventory  of  all  their  ancient 
monuments.  After  showing  various  slides  illus- 
trating this  portion  of  the  work,  he  went  on  to 
speak  of  the  recent  Congress  and  Competition  for 
a  Plan  of  the  Future,  pointing  out  that  it  was  im- 

possible to  undertake  the  improvement  of  a  city 
without  first  having  exhausted  all  sources  capable  of 
furnishing  suggestions.  From  the  most  grandiose 
schemes  or  the  most  fantastic,  one  could  always  gain 
some  inspiration.  The  City  of  Paris  organized  an 
inter-allied  Conference  to  discuss  its  extension.  He 
referred  particularly  to  the  points  on  which  the 
competitors  were  unanimous,  such  as  the  necessity 
for  reducing  immediately  the  density  of  the  popula- 
tion and  bursting  through  the  narrow  boundaries 
which  made  Paris  the  most  overcrowded  of  the  great 
capitals.  They  all  agreed,  also,  that  the  industrial 
population  should  be  gradually  brought  back  again 
to  the  North  of  the  City,  leaving  the  intellectual 
quarter  to  the  South ;  that  more  radial  and  circular 
lines  of  railways  were  needed,  and  they  agreed  as 
to  the  necessity  for  the  electrification  of  the  rail- 
ways ;  the  removal  to  a  distance  of  workshops,  car- 
riage depots,  and  to  the  reconstruction  of  roads. 

Some  competitors  suggested  that  the  improve- 
ments should  be  secured  by  driving  large  and  costly 
avenues  from  north  to  south  and  from" east  to  west: 
others  that  similar  benefits  could  be  obtained  by  bet- 
ter organization  and  stricter  regulations,  which 
might  be  progressively  coercive.  Monsieur  Bonnier 
intimated  that  probably  a  combination  of  the  two 
would  be  found  to  be  the  best  solution.  He  re- 
ferred to  the  immense  importance  of  beautifying 
the  approaches  to  the  city  and  to  the  fact  that  rail- 
way stations  had  now  taken  the  place  of  the  City 
Gates.  Yet  was  it  not  a  fact  that  our  railway  sta- 
tions were  so  designed  that  their  most  pleasing  fea- 
tures were  seen  not  by  the  coming  but  by  the  depart- 
ing traveller. 

Finally  he  remarked  that  though  many  happy 
ideas  were  evolved  from  the  competition,  yet  even  in 
the  best  schemes  there  were  some  deplorable  ones. 
He  spoke  most  strongly  against  the  theory  of  the 
isolation  of  ancient  monuments,  pointing  out  that 
people  were  apt  to  forget  that  they  had  been  de- 
signed for  the  particular  position  that  they  occu- 
pied. He  objected,  also,  strongly  to  the  idea  that  it 
was  necessary  to  surround  ancient  monuments  with 
buildings  that  were  supposed  to  be  in  harmony  with 
them ;  nor  did  he  consider  it  possible  to  rely  on  the 
judgment  of  administrative  commissions  in  these 
matters.  He  said  that  our  great  architects  of  the 
past  could  never  have  executed  their  "chefs 
d'ceuvres"  if  a  dozen  serious  gentlemen  had  been 
charged  to  lop  off  the  faults  with  which  they  were 
happily  endowed. 


The  Housing  Problem  Met  and  Overcome 

in  Prague 

(From  our  Special  English  Correspondent) 

WITH  us  in  England  the  housing  problem 
seems  to  firmly  decline  to  be  conjured  by 
any  motions  of  the  official  wand.  After  in- 
numerable speeches,  and  complicated  and  dubious  ex- 
pedients, Dr.  Addison,  who  is  officially  in  charge 
of  this  question,  has  produced  a  bill  which  has  just 
been  thrown  out  by  the  House  of  Lords,  with  the 
general  approval  of  the  country,  but  with  the  result 
that  it  leaves  this  pressing  question  in  an  even  worse 
muddle  than  it  was  before.  After  these  years  of 
governmental  mismanagement  one's  heart  goes  out 
in  sympathy  to  those  who — in  the  little  Sussex  vil- 
lage where  I  write  these  lines — on  the  sound  old 
principle  that  the  gods  help  those  who  help  them- 
selves, set  to  work  a  few  months  ago  to  build  their 


own  houses,  and  by  this  year's  ending  will  have 
roofed  in  three  or  four  very  cosy  looking  dwellings 
on  the  bungalow  type. 

But  we  are  by  no  means  the  only  ones  to  suffer 
from  housing  difficulties.  I  believe  that  the  problem 
has  crossed  the  Atlantic;  and  in  Europe  Prague, 
the  ancient  capital  of  the  new  state  of  Czechoslovakia! 
has  had  a  very  acute  housing  problem.  This  was 
particularly  felt  by  the  many  thousands  of  students 
of  the  University,  who  could  hardly  find  suitable 
lodgings.  Here  too  the  idea  of  self  help  came  for- 
ward, and  found  a  ready  and  efficient  acceptance. 
Professor  Zahorsky,  of  the  Technical  High  School, 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  organizations  of  the 
students  his  own  patented  system  of  "rapid  build- 

ing." The  Municipality  of  Prague  "lent"  to  them 
for  twenty  years  the  ground  required ;  and  soon 
some  two  thousand  volunteers,  all  of  them  students, 
had  started  to  build  a  complex  of  eleven  large 
pavilions,  which  will  provide  accommodation  and 


comfortable  conditions  for  700  students.  These  will 
include  a  central  kitchen,  dining-hall ;  laundry,  read- 
ing-room, etc.  The  students,  as  will  be  seen  in  one 
of  my  illustrations,  have  themselves  dug  the  founda- 
tions for  these  pavilions,  they  had  even  dynamited 



stone  in  the  quarries,  and  in  fact  have,  I  understand, 
done  the  whole  work— with  the  exception  of  the 
brick-laying,  which  was  done  by  professionals. 



I  am  told  by  my  friends  in  Prague  that  it  is  very 
interesting  to  visit  this  busy  active  colony,  and  see 
them  at  work — especially  on  Saturdays  and  Sun- 
days, when  some  400-500  are  to  be  found  working. 



By  an  excellent  regulation  the  right  to  get  a  room  in 
this  colony  is  only  acquired  by  those  who  have 
worked  at  least  70  hours  on  the  construction.  The 
colony  is  situated  in  the  modern  part  of  the  city,  near 

the  Stadium,  where  last  summer  the  great  display  of 
the  Sokol  gymnastic  societies  took  place;  and  the 
girl  students  do  the  cooking  for  their  working  com- 
rades, that  is,  for  those  who  are  actually  working  on 
the  construction.  The  whole  movement  only  com- 
menced some  5-6  weeks  ago,  and  by  this  time  all 
the  eleven  pavilions  are  about  completed  and  occu- 
pied by  the  students. 

The  system  of  "rapid  building"  which  Professor 
Zahorsky  has  so  generously  placed  at  the  disposal  of 
the  students  has  the  advantage  that  very  solid  build- 
ings, with  quite  a  good  appearance,  can  be  built  of 
wood,  with  stone  foundations  and  brick  underset- 
tings,  without  any  specialized  knowledge  of  carpen- 
try, for  the  planks  are  only  nailed  together.  Our  il- 
lustrations, which  show  the  students  at  work,  will 
help  in  forming  some  idea  of  the  methods  of  con- 
struction used.  The  buildings  have  double  walls, 
with  a  sort  of  small  ladders  between,  and  the  walls 
are  filled  with  ashes  so  that  the  pavilions  will  keep 
warm.  The  result  should  go  far  to  test,  and  very 
possibly  establish,  the  advantages  of  the  method  here 
put  in  use.  In  any  case,  after  such  interminable  dis- 
cussion, it  is  a  pleasant  change  to  find  some  peo- 
ple who  can  take  off  their  coats,  and  put  the  work 
clean  through  in  six  weeks. 

The  American  Specification  Institute 

FROM  an  examination  of  your  editorial  of  No- 
vember 17  it  appears  to  us  that  your  plan  for 
the  American  Specification  Institute  is  a  good 
one.  We  do  not  know  that  specifications  as  now 
produced  are  the  least  creditable  portion  of  the  out- 
put of  an  architect's  office.  While  we  see  other  archi- 
tects' work  as  published  in  the  magazines  we  never 
see  another  architect's  specifications  and  seldom  see 
any  of  his  detail  drawings.  We  sometimes  hear 
criticisms  of  other  architects'  specifications  from 
contractors  who  use  them  and  have  even  heard 
favorable  comments  on  our  own. 

It  would  seem  to  us  that  if  some  arrangement 
could  be  found  by  which  our  specifications  could  be 
criticised  by  some  impartial,  disinterested  architect, 
or,  even  better,  by  such  a  contractor,  it  would  be  of 
very  great  benefit. 

Pittsfield,  Mass. 

in  your  editorial  November  12.  If,  as  you  say,  it  is 
wisely  formed  and  managed,  it  should  greatly  assist 
in  improving  this  branch  of  architectural  and  engi- 
neering work,  which,  we  must  agree,  is  generally 
not  given  the  attention  it  deserves. 

We  await  with  much  interest  further  information 
regarding  progress  of  this  movement. 


Detroit,  Mich. 

I  am  very  much  impressed  with  your  suggestions 
and  wish  you  every  success,  and  would  be  glad  to 
help.  MYRON  HUNT,  Architect. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. 

We  heartily  endorse  the  formation  of  the  Ameri- 
can Specification  Institute,  about  which  you  write 

I  quite  agree  with  your  view  that  as  a  rule  the 
specifications  now  produced  are  the  least  creditable 
portion  of  the  output  of  architects'  offices,  and, 
holding  this  opinion,  I  therefore  feel  that  anything 
that  is  likely  to  improve  the  character  of  specifica- 
tion writing  and  any  institution  that  will  turn  out 
men  competent  to  write  good  specifications  should 
be  welcomed  by  the  architectural  profession  as  a 
whole  and  certainly  would  have  my  hearty  approval. 

The  proposed  Specification  Institute  may  be  the 
very  organization  to  handle  this  work.  I  am  not 
sure  that  I  understood  its  purposes  and  equipment 
sufficiently  to  give  it  unlimited  commendation,  but, 
if  I  understand  it  correctly,  I  shall  certainly  wish 
for  its  abundant  success. 


Columbus,  O. 



Trinity  Church,  Newport,  R.  I. 

(See  reproduction  of  original  drawing  by  O.  R.  Eggers  on  opposite  page) 

Newport,  Rhode  Island,  sometimes  called  the  social 
capital  of  the  United  States,  was  even  before  the  outbreak 
of  the  Revolution  socially  and  industrially  important. 
During  the  occupation  of  Newport  by  the  British,  a  fire 
destroyed  a  large  part  of  the  town.  Among  the  few 
structures  to  escape  the  flames  was  Trinity  Church,  the 
subject  of  this  sketch.  As  a  result  of  military  operations 
Newport  became  almost  depopulated,  but  through  all  the 
vicissitudes  of  the  Revolutionary  struggle,  "old  Trinity" 
passed  safely. 

In  its  architecture  Trinity  resembles  many  other  churches 
built  in  New  England  during  the  early  history  of  the 
Colonies,  and  while  preserving  the  dignity  and  quiet  refine- 
ment that  characterized  the  early  meeting  houses,  its  chief 
claim  is  its  association  with  stirring  scenes  of  early  wars  and 
the  reverential  aspect  of  the  people  who  stoutly  guarded 
this  sacred  building  from  every  threatened  danger. 

Old  Newport  presents  a  picturesque  contrast  to  the  newer 
section,  where  now  the  mansions  of  the  newly  rich  flaunt 
their  pride  of  wealth  before  the  observer.  In  the  old  town 
the  houses  are  small,  wooden  structures,  the  streets  are 
quaint  and  narrow  and  there  is  a  restful  feeling  about  the 
entire  section. 

In  earlier  days  the  waterfront  was  the  scene  of  bustling 
activity.  Newport  is  an  ideal  harbor  for  ships  of  even 
the  largest  draft.  From  this  port  there  cleared  to  sail 
the  waters  of  the  seven  seas  tall  sparred  ships  whose  cargoes 
formed  a  considerable  part  of  our  American  commerce.  At 
that  time  the  spire  of  Trinity  dominated  the  town  and  it 
served  as  a  landmark  for  incoming  ships  and  a  beacon  of 
hope  to  the  home-coming  sailor. 



THE  AMERICAN  ARCB1TECT  Series  of  Earl,  Amtrican  Ar,hile,lure 

Europe  Turns  to  American  Architects 

AX  increasing  respect  for  American  architects  is 
being  manifested  by  the  attitude  of  Europe. 
Visitors  to  these  shores  from  abroad  reverse  the 
opinion  expressed  by  foreign  guests  some  thirty 
years  ago.  At  that  time  it  was  generally  recognized 
that  American  architecture  in  the  finer  and  accepted 
sense,  did  not  exist  in  our  promiscuously  grouped 
skyscrapers,  which  in  themselves  were  ugly. 

But  today  it  is  different.  Arthur  Balfour,  during 
his  recent  trip  to  this  country,  referred  with  unre- 
strained admiration  to  "these  great  cathedrals  which 
you  call  business  buildings."  Blasco  Ibanez  when  he 
was  here,  declared  that  in  the  presence  of  New 
York's  skyline  and  the  magnificence  of  its  great 
structures,  he  felt  "a  new  pride  in  the  achievements 
of  man." 

Today  America  leads  in  architectural  development. 
The  Philadelphia  Ledger  summarizes  certain  in- 
stances of  dependence  upon  us  for  the  restoration  of 
Europe's  war-marred  places.  An  American  has  been 
asked  to  plan  the  restoration  of  Rheims.  An  Ameri- 
can architect  has  been  invited  to  rebuild  the  Uni- 
versity of  Louvain.  And  greater  yet,  one  of  the 
largest  problems  confronting  European  specialists, 
the  planning  of  a  new  Constantinople,  has  also  just 
been  referred  to  American  architects. 

These  few  examples  indicate  a  tendency,  but  it  is 
logical  to  assume  that  only  competence  has  been  the 
basis.  If  American  architects  had  not  made  good, 
not  only  in  America  where  our  own  prejudice  might 
discolor  merit,  but  in  the  opinion  of  unbiased  na- 
tions across  the  seas,  the  situation  would  be  quite 
different.  It  is  the  practical  grasp  of  the  business 
of  architecture,  combined  with  a  close  knowledge  of 
architecture  as  an  art,  that  is  more  and  more  bring- 
ing recognition  to  the  profession,  and  by  a  harmoni- 
ous union  of  these  two  attitudes  will  the  profession 
move  onward  to  an  ever  better  standard. 

What  Is  a  "Public"? 

"T)EOPLE  are  naturally  egotistical.  No  better 
1  proof  of  this  can  be  found  than  our  attitude  to- 
ward strikes  and  the  "public"  which  those  strikes 

effect.  Forget  entirely  about  the  right  or  wrong  of 
a  strike.  Take  it  for  granted  that  a  strike  exists  in 
a  municipal  street  railway  system.  That  is  a  so-called 
public  utility.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  it  is  no  more 
a  public  utility  than  the  hotel  one  stops  in,  the  res- 
taurant one  eats  in,  or  the  house  one  lives  in.  We 
have  become  accustomed  to  speaking  of  it  as  a  public 
utility  in  a  loose  sense,  and  we  probably  shall  con- 
tinue to  do  so  for  a  long  while. 

Precisely  as  we  speak  of  "the  public"  in  a  loose 
sense  in  the  event  of  a  strike  on  a  traction  system. 
Also,  in  a  selfish  and  egotistical  sense.  We  find  that 
we  cannot  get  down  to  work.  We  are  inconvenienced. 
We  have  to  resort  to  various  makeshifts  to  reach  our 
place  of  business.  We  immediately  speak  of  "the 
public,"  which  means  simply  that  we  are  speaking  of 
ourselves  and  others  who  want  to  get  down  to  work 
on  that  particular  traction  system.  That  is  "the  pub- 
lic" for  the  time  being. 

If  cooks  go  on  strike,  the  owners  of  restaurants 
set  up  a  wail  about  the  "public"  being  hard  hit.  They 
are  thinking  and  speaking  only  of  restaurant  owners. 
It  matters  little  to  them  if  steel  erectors  are  also  on 
strike,  so  long  as  such  a  strike  does  not  immediately 
and  directly  affect  restaurant  owners  as  a  whole. 

So  it  goes.  The  "public"  is  always  nothing  more 
than  ourselves. 

One  of  the  best  things  ever  said  about  the  too- 
often  quoted  "public"  is  this  by  Albert  Strauss, 
formerly  Yice-Governor  of  the  Federal  Reserve 

"The  workmen  of  each  manufacturer  and  pro- 
ducer are  the  customers  of  all  manufacturers  and 
producers.  The  great  bulk  of  the  working  popula- 
tion constitutes  the  great  bulk  of  the  customers  of 
the  producers  and  manufacturers.  Unemployment, 
therefore,  tends  to  perpetuate  itself  by  cutting  off 
the  purchasing  power  of  the  population;  the  more 
that  purchasing  power  is  curtailed  the  more  does 
business  fall  off,  and  the  more  business  falls  off  the 
more,  through  unemployment,  is  the  purchasing 
power  of  the  community  impaired." 

Careful  consideration  and  study  of  that  paragraph 
would  eliminate  a  great  deal  of  useless  and  inane  talk 
about  "the  public."  It  would  not  excuse  unjustifiable 



strikes.  It  would  not  mean  that  strikes  are  right  or 
wrong.  It  would  simply  tend  to  do  away  with  some 
of  the  natural  egotism  which  is  unfortunately  too 
great  a  part  of  every  member  of  the  real  public. 

Excessive  Bidding 

CONTRACTORS  do  not  make  bids  in  any  way 
comparable  with  those  made  after  the  work  is 
ready  to  start  and  the  owner  ready  to  buy.  This 
gives  the  impression  that  buildings  will  cost  more 
than  they  actually  do  cost.  Hence  the  owner  decides 
not  to  go  ahead  .  .  .  Stabilization  of  prices  and 
the  revival  of  building  will  be  here  when  the  con- 
tractors are  ready  to  quote  their  real  prices,  so  that 
investors  can  see  their  way  clear  to  go  ahead  and  not 
feel  that  they  are  paying  a  premium  to  the  juggling 
of  prices  by  contractors." 

This  paragraph  occurs  in  a  letter  from  one  of  our 
correspondents,  and  is  a  quotation  from  a  recent  in- 
terview with  one  of  the  country's  most  prominent 
architects,  a  man  directly  in  touch  with  the  adminis- 
trative affairs  of  several  architectural  societies  and 
constantly  on  the  alert  to  the  various  factors  which 
operate  to  the  good  or  evil  of  the  building  industry. 

Two  examples  will  suffice  to  show  just  what  this 
practice  means  to  the  building  industry.  A  20-story 
building,  on  which  figures  were  taken  recently,  was 
to  have  seven  passenger  elevators.  They  were  bid 
at  about  $225,000.  In  another  job  (a  bank  build- 
ing) 14  stories  high,  and  with  steel  to  carry  20 
stories,  was  let  at  "$1  per  cubic  foot,"  according  to 
information  given  out  to  the  public. 

Now  as  to  the  first  instance.  The  bid  for  these 
elevators  was  outrageous;  almost  100  per  cent,  too 
high.  Proof  of  that  fact  was  shown  in  the  action 
of  the  elevator  company  which  made  the  bid.  A  week 
after  the  original  bid  was  submitted  a  representative 
of  the  elevator  company  which  made  it  called,  and 
said  just  about  this : 

"If  this  building  operation  goes  ahead,  we  can  ma- 
terially cut  the  price  and  close  the  contract." 

Moreover,  the  steel  was  bid  at  $110  per  ton,  which 
is  in  excess  of  the  cost  now  being  used  in  a  building 
now  being  constructed  in  the  particular  city  where 
all  this  occurred. 

"Contractors,"  says  this  same  architect,  "seem  to 
be  afraid  to  make  bona-fide  bids.  Afraid  they  might 
bid  too  much  lower  than  their  competitors.  I  know 
how  that  is  from  my  own  experience.  Everyone 
sparring  for  wind  and  playing  for  position." 

So  much  for  the  first  example  of  this  practice. 

The  second — concerning  the  cubic  foot  cost  of  the 
bank  building  referred  to — has  to  do  more  properly 
with  misinformation  rather  than  with  excessive  bid- 
ding, but  it  creates  an  impression  of  excessive  bid- 
ding, and  is  therefore  to  be  spoken  of  at  one  and  the 
same  breath. 

What  that  $1  per  cubic  foot  actually  represented 
in  that  bank  building  was  practically  a  total  cost, 
since  it  included  all  of  the  marble  and  bronze  bank 
fixtures,  vaults  and  other  expensive  items  of  a  bank, 
but  not,  by  any  means,  part  of  an  ordinary  office 

Yet  the  public,  or  even  architects,  who  may  not 
have  known  the  real  facts  of  the  case,  were  given  the 
impression  that  the  building  itself  cost  $1  per  cubic 

What^  is  the  value  of  getting  at  facts  like  these? 

Simply  this :  To  recognize  a  condition,  produce 
examples  of  it  based  on  facts,  and  then  seek  a  rem- 
edy. There  can  be  no  doubt  that  excessive  bidding 
exists.  The  facts  given  here  are  typical  instances, 
not  detached  incidents.  They  point  the  necessity 
for  a  remedy. 

What  shall  that  remedy  be?  It  has  been  pointed 
out  time  and  again  at  conventions  of  architects,  of 
engineers,  of  builders,  and  of  every  group  which  has 
to  do  with  the  building  industry.  It  has  been  repeat- 
ed so  much,  and  so  vociferously,  that  it  has  become 
tiresome  to  a  great  many  architects.  Yet  it  is  the 
one  remedy  for  the  thing,  and  it  is  summed  up  in  one 
short  word. 

It  is  needless  to  print  that  word. 


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VOL.  CXIX,  No.  2352 


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Heating  and  Ventilating  Industrial  Buildings 

Part  III 

Hot-Blast  Systems 

By  CHARLES  L.  HUBBARD,  Heating  Engineer. 

THE  most   satisfactory   system  of   heating   for 
the    modern    industrial    building,    especially 
where  the  number  of   occupants  is  large  in 
proportion  to  the  cubic  space,  is  that  employing  a 
fan  and  heater  with  a  system  of  ducts  for  distributing 
the  warm  fresh  air  to  all  parts  of  the  building. 

Various  modifications  of  this  arrangement  are  em- 
ployed for  different  conditions,  including  the  re- 
cirulation  of  air ;  the  unit  system,  without  the  use  of 
distributing  ducts ;  a  combination  of  supply  and  ex  - 




Vento  heaters  are  located  inside  the  galvanized  housing,  warming 
air  forced  through  by  electrically  driven  fan. 

haust  fans,  etc.,  etc.,  which  will  be  mentioned  in  some 
detail  later  on. 

While  a  certain  amount  of  simple  data  relating  to 
the  design  of  systems  of  this  kind  will  be  given,  the 
plan  proposed  is  to  make  this  rather  brief  and  devote 
the  greater  part  of  the  article  to  the  general  arrange- 
ments which  have  been  found  most  satisfactory  for 
different  classes  of  buildings,  thus  assisting  the  ar- 
chitect in  making  a  selection  of  a  system  for  any 
given  set  of  conditions. 


The  fans  used  for  hot-blast  heating  are  almost 
entirely  of  the  centrifugal  type,  enclosed  in  steel 
plate  casings.  They  are  of  two  general  forms  known 
as  the  "paddle  wheel"  and  "multi-vane." 

The  first  of  these  is  the  older,  and  is  probably 
more  widely  used  than  any  other,  although  it  is  be- 
ing rapidly  superseded  in  new  work  by  the  multi- 
vane  fan,  owing  to  the  smaller  size  of  the  latter  for 
a  given  capacity  and  its  higher  efficiency. 

The  paddle  wheel  fan  has  been  more  or  less  stan- 
dardized in  design  by  different  makers  so  that  general 
data  is  of  some  value  for  approximating  the  size, 
speed  and  horse  power,  under  given  working  condi- 

The  multi-vane  fan,  on  the  other  hand,  varies  con- 
siderably in  design  and  operation,  hence  it  is  best  to 
obtain  all  data  as  regards  its  action  from  the  makers 
for  any  particular  case  under  consideration,  furnish- 
ing them  with  the  volume  of  air  to  move,  and  a 
rough  sketch  of  the  size  and  arrangement  of  the  dis- 
tributing ducts. 

In  a  general  way,  the  cubic  space  required  by  a 




Vote  metbod  of  running  air  supply  ducts. 

multi- vane  fan  will  be  approximately  one-half  to  two- 
thirds  that  required  by  a  paddle  wheel  fan  of  the 
same  capacity,  and  for  the  same  size  outlet  will  de- 
liver the  same  volume  of  air  at  about  65  per  cent. 
of  the  tip  speed-,  and  will  require  approximately  80 
per  cent,  of  the  power. 


For  fans  of  average  proportions,  the  volume  of 
air  moved  may  be  computed  by  the  following 

V  =  2  x  D  x  X  x  A  x  B;  in  which 

V  =  cubic  feet  of  air  discharged  per  minute. 

D  —  diameter  of  fan  wheel,  in  feet. 

N  =  revolutions  per  minute. 

A  =  a  factor  depending  upon  the  diameter  of  fan. 
(See  Table  /.) 

B  =  a  factor  depending  upon  the  resistance  pro- 
duced by  the  air  ducts.  This  may  be  taken  as 
0.6  for  the  conditions  found  in  shops  and 
factories  when  the  duct '  arrangement  is  as 
shown  in  Figs.  1  and  2,  and  07  for  systems 
like  Figs.  3,  4,  5  and  6.  (See  Editor's  Note.) 
If  the  size  and  volume  of  air  are  given,  the 

speed  may  be  obtained  by  the  following,  in  which 
the  svmbols  are  the  same  as  before : 

2  x  D  x  A  x  B 


Diameter  of 
fan,  in  feet 


Value  of  "A" 
in  formula 













.  .  18.6 


What  volume  of  air  will  be  delivered  per  minute 
by  a  6-foot  fan  running  at  300  r.p.m.  in  connection 
with  a  shop  system  of  the  general  type  illustrated 
in  Fig.  1? 
V  =  2  x  6  x  300  x  0.6  x  107  =  23,112  or  23,000 

cubic  feet,  in  round  numbers. 
The  horse  power  for  driving  a  fan  depends  upon 




In  this  case  the  columns  have  been  utilized  as  ventilating  ducts. 

the  diameter,  speed  and  the  resistance  operated 
against.  Table  II  gives  data  from  which  the  horse 
power  may  be  approximated.  The  figures  in  the 
table  are  for  fans  discharging  directly  into  the  at- 
mosphere without  the  use  of  ducts. 

For  the  conditions  of  factory  work,  multiply  these 
figures  by  0.7  when  "B"  in  the  formula  =  0.6;  and 
by  0.8  when  "B"  =  0.7. 


Dia.  of 
an,  in 

Revolutions  per  minute 

160]  200|  240|  2801  3201  3GO|  400|  440|  4801  520]  560|  600 

Horse  power  for  driving  fan 










































What  horse  power  will  be  required  to  drive  the 
fan  considered  in  the  previous  example? 

Here  we  have  a  6-foot  fan  running  at  300  r.p.m., 
with  a  value  of  "B"  =  0.6.  From  Table  II  we 
find  that  a  fan  of  this  size  running  at  280  r.p.m. 
requires  20  H.  P.  and  at  320  it  requires  27  H.  P. 
Interpolating,  we  find  that  for  300  r.p.m.,  the  horse 
power  will  be 
20  +  27 

—  x  300  =  24  horse  power. 


Ventilating  fans  may  be  driven  either  by  steam 
engines,  turbines,  or  electric  motors,  according  to 
circumstances.  \Yhen  the  exhaust  can  be  utilized 

in  the  heater,  an  engine  or  turbine  is  usually  more 
economical  to  operate  where  it  is  necessary  to  vary 
the  fan  speed  to  any  great  extent  during  different 
parts  of  the  day.  Where  electricity  is  generated  on 
the  premises,  motors  are  usually  employed  for  all 
fan  work,  especially  where  ventilation  is  provided 
throughout  the  year,  regardless  of  heating,  and 
where  the  exhaust  from  the  engine  would  be  wasted 
during  the  summer. 

Again,  the  convenience  of  a  motor  often  leads  to 
its  use,  even  at  an  increased  cost  of  operation. 

A  simple,  quiet-running  engine  is  desirable  for  fan 
work,  and  may  be  either  horizontal  or  vertical,  as 
found  most  suitable.  The  matter  of  a  belted  or  di- 
rect drive  is  also  one  of  available  space  in  industrial 
buildings,  and  either  may  be  employed  satisfactorily. 
Engines  having  the  crank  and  connecting  rod  en- 
cased are  especially  adapted  to  this  class  of  work,  as 
it  protects  the  bearings  from  dust  and  grit  which  are 
liable  to  be  present  to  some  extent  when  the  engine 
is  placed  in  the  fan  room. 

Since  it  is  frequently  desirable  to  connect  the 
motor  directly  with  the  fan  shaft,  direct  current  is 
preferable  in  ventilation  work.  When  this  is  not 
available,  and  alternating  current  must  be  employed, 
it  becomes  necessary  to  use  a  belted  or  geared  motor 
in  order  to  secure  the  required  speed  reduction. 


The  radiating  surface  used  in  connection  with 
blo"\ver  work  may  be  either  in  the  form  of  wrought 
iron  pipe  or  cast  iron  sections  designed  especially 
for  this  purpose.  In  either  case,  standard  forms  are 
generally  employed  so  that  the  work  of  the  architect 


In  heating  buildings  in  which  food  products  are  prepared,  not 
only  fresh  air,  but  that  free  from  dust,  and  of  proper  humidity 
is  essential.  In  the  plant  shown  above  the  air  is  both  washed 
and  heated  before  delivery.  In  addition  the  humidity  is  under 
careful  control. 




:  rise  in  temperature  of  air,  in  degrees. 


This  press  room  is  both  heated  and  ventilated  by  fresli  warm  air 
supplied  through  the  register  openings. 

or  engineer  relates  rather  to  their  arrangement  than 
to  details  of  design. 

The  quantity  of  heat  given  off  varies  with  the 
depth,  the  amount  of  surface,  the  velocity  of  air 
flow  over  it  and  the  difference  in  temperature  be- 
tween the  air  and  the  steam  filling  the  neater.  The 
final  temperature  of  the  air  depends  upon  the  depth 
of  the  heater  rather  than  the  amount  of  surface. 

For  average  conditions,  say,  with  steam  at  2 
pounds  gauge  pressure,  air  entering  the  heater  at 
zero,  and  passing  through  it  at  a  velocity  of  1,000 
feet  per  minute,  the  final  temperature  will  be  ap- 
proximately as  follows  for  heaters  of  the  depths 


Depth  of  heater, 
in  rows  of 
1-inch  pipe 


Final  temperatun 
of  air  passing 
•          through  heater 










24   . 


The  efficiency  of  the  heater,  or  heat  units  given 
off  per  square  foot  of  surface  per  hour,  for  dif- 
ferent depths  is  given  in  Table  IV,  which  is  based 
on  the  same  conditions  as  before;  that  is,  air  en- 
tering at  zero,  velocity  of  air  1,000  feet  per  minute, 
steam  pressure  2  pounds  gauge. 

The  working  formulae  for  the  design  of  main 
heaters  are  very  simple,  and  are  as  follows : 

VxT  55  xH  55  xH 

H=  — ;  V=  — ;  and  T= ,  in  which 

55  T  V 

H  =  total  heat  to  be  supplied,  in  thermal  units. 
V  =  cubic  feet  of  air  to  be  heated. 

Depth  of  heater, 
in  rows  of 
1-inch  pipe 


Efficiency  of  heaters, 
in  thermal  units  per 
sq.  ft.  of  surface  per  hour 










24    , 


The  use  of  these  formulae  and  Tables  III  and  IV 
are  best  illustrated  by  working  a  practical  example. 


A  factory  building  contains  240,000  cubic  feet  of 
space,  and  it  is  desired  to  change  the  air  three  times 
per  hour  when  it  is  zero  outside,  and  maintain  an 
inside  temperature  of  70  degrees  at  the  same  time. 
The  maximum  heat  loss  through  transmission  and 
leakage  is  computed  as  600.000  thermal  units  per 
hour  by  methods  previously  given.  How  many  square 
feet  of  surface  must  the  main  heater  at  the  fan  con- 
tain, and  how  many  rows  of  pipe  deep  must  it  be? 

The  total  heat  to  be  supplied  per  hour  is  that  re- 
quired to  warm  the  incoming  air  from  zero  to  70 
degrees,  plus  that  lost  by  transmission  and  leak- 
age. The  total  air  quantity  is  240,000  x  3  =  720,000 
cubic  feet  per  hour.  To  raise  the  temperature  of 
this  through  70  degrees  requires 

720,000  x  70 

H  =  -  =  916,400  thermal  units. 


Adding  to  this  the  loss  by  transmission  and  leak- 
age gives  a  total  of  1,516,400  thermal  units  per 


The  design  of  heating  and  ventilating  systems  for  buildings 
devoted  to  this  industry  requires  careful  study.  The  large 
quantity  of  steam  constantly  present  tends  to  produce  excessive 
condensation  on  all  cool  surfaces.  This  being  especially  detri- 
mental to  wood  and  iron  must  be  to  a  large  measure  counteracted 
by  the  system  installed. 



hour.  As  this  must  be  brought  in  by  720,000  cubic 
feet  of  air,  the  problem  now  becomes  to  what  temper- 
ature must  the  air  be  raised  to  absorb  this  amount 
of  heat?  This  is  given  by 


T  =  =116  degrees 


which  added  to  the  initial  temperature  of  zero  gives 
a  final  temperature  of  0  -|-  116  =  116  degrees. 
Looking  in  Table  III  we  find  that  a  heater  20  pipes 
deep  is  required  to  give  a  final  temperature  equal  to 
this.  Also  from  Table  IV  it  will  be  seen  that  a 
heater  of  this  depth  will  have  an  efficiency  of  1,500. 
The  total  heat  to  be  supplied  is  1,516,400  thermal 
units.  Hence  1,516,400  -4-  1500  =  1011  square  feet 
of  surface  will  be  required. 

The  method  of  distributing  the  warm  air  under 
different  conditions  is  best  described  by  illustrating  a 
number  of  typical  buildings. 

In  certain  plants  where  the  rooms  are  well  filled 
with  operatives,  or  where  the  processes  carried  on 
are  such  that  maximum  ventilation  is  required  at  all 
times,  the  heater  should  be  designed  for  giving  the 
full  air  supply  in  zero  weather.  In  other  plants, 
where  the  requirements  are  not  so  exacting,  satisfac- 
tory results  may  be  obtained  by  re-circulating  the 
full  volume  of  air  within  the  building  in  zero 
weather  and  gradually  increasing  the  outside  supply 
as  the  temperature  rises,  until  the  full  quantity  is 
taken  from  outside  when  the  temperature  reaches  25 
or  30  degrees.  In  other  cases,  where  the  cubic  space 
is  large  per  occupant,  it  may  be  entirely  satisfactory 
to  recirculate  the  entire  air  volume  for  all  outside 
temperatures  below  40  or  50  degrees  and  depend  on 
natural  leakage  for  the  fresh  supply.  The  latest 
theories  of  ventilation  lay  special  stress  upon  air 
movement  and  temperature  regulation,  and  these  are 
easily  brought  about  when  a  fan  system  is  employed. 
The  main  heater  may  be  supplied  with  any  steam 
pressure  desired,  but  is  usually  made  to  utilize  the 
exhaust  the  same  as  in  direct  heating.  Temperature 
regulation  may  be  secured  in  different  ways,  the  most 
common  being  to  shut  off  a  part  of  the  sections  or 
by-pass  a  portion  of  the  air  around  the  heater  by 
means  of  a  special  damper  provided  for  this  purpose. 


A  good  arrangement  is  a  combination  of  these 
methods,  using  the  steam  valves  for  rough  regula- 
tion and  the  by-pass  for  the  finer  changes  which 
need  to  be  made  from  hour  to  hour  or  at  shorter 
periods  during  the  day.  In  many  cases  the  by-pass 
damper  is  operated  automatically  by  a  thermostat 
placed  in  the  main  room  of  the  factory. 

In  buildings  of  several  stories,  or  consisting  of  a 

number  of  rooms  or  departments  requiring  different 
temperatures,  or  having  different  exposures,  each 
room  must  be  regulated  independently.  This  is  or- 
dinarily done,  within  certain  limits,  by  varying  the 
quantity  of  warm  air  admitted  to  the  room,  rough 
regulation  for  the  entire  plant  being  brought  about 
by  changing  the  air  temperature  leaving  the  main 
heater,  this  being  under  the  control  of  the  engineer. 

When  conditions  are  such  that  the  air  supply  must 
not  be  cut  down  below  a  certain  minimum,  then  the 
temperature  of  the  room  must  be  regulated  inde- 
pendently of  the  air  supply.  When  the  system  is 
arranged  for  the  re-circulation  of  air,  return  ducts 
should  be  provided  with  inlets  from  different  parts 
of  the  room.  Otherwise  the  rotation  of  air  will  be 
localized  in  the  vicinity  of  the  fan  and  the  circula- 
tion in  other  parts  will  be  weakened.  However, 
in  buildings  of  medium  size,  with  the  warm  air  well 
distributed,  return  air  for  re-heating  may  be  drawn 
directly  into  the  heater  casing,  or  at  least  through  a 
comparatively  short  duct  without  interfering  seri- 
ously with  the  distribution. 

It  has  been  necessary  to  print  Part  III  of  Mr. 
Hubbard's  article  in  two  sections.  Some  of  the 
figures  referred  to  in  this  section  will  appear  with 
the  second  section  in  the  January  26  issue. 

We,  therefore,  suggest  to  our  readers  that,  after 
reading  this  first  part  of  the  discussion,  they  save 
these  pages,  and  read  the  ivhole  article  again  when 
the  next  issue  appears  on  January  26. — Editor. 

American  Industrial  Art 

THE  Fifth  Exhibition  of  American  Industrial 
Art  will  continue  until  January  30  at  the 
Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.  It  is  intended  to  be 
a  demonstration  of  the  practical  or  trade  value  of 
an  art  museum,  a  proof  of  the  educational  use  made 
of  museum  objects  for  the  advantage  and  improve- 
ment of  current  design  in  many  industrial  art 
branches.  Objects  and  designs  have  been  brought 
together  which  were  made  for  the  commercial 
market,  but  which,  in  a  greater  or  less  degree,  owe 
their  conception  or  method  of  execution  to  the  study 
of  museum  originals  or  other  resources  in  allied 
departments.  An  effort  has  been  made  to  select 
examples  in  varied  types  of  material,  form,  color, 
texture,  and  technique  generally,  in  widely  separated 
lines  of  production,  yet  all  destined  for  the  open 
market  and  all  showing  that  museum  study  has  been 
found  worth  while  in  terms  of  the  selling  product 
which  results. 

Manufacturers  are  urged  to  acquaint  themselves 
with  museum  resources.  Richard  F.  Bach,  Asso- 
ciate in  Industrial  Arts,  is  ready  at  all  times  to  assist 
manufacturers,  designers,  artisans,  and  craftsmen 
in  objects  of  industrial  art. 


The  Garage  Fire  Record* 

Sprinklers  Prove  Ability  to  Extinguish  Garage  Fires 

Tl  I K    registration    of    motor    vehicles    in    the 
I'nited  States  has  increased  from  about  48,- 
000  in  1906  to  7,565,446  in  1919.    The  in- 
crease from  1915  to  1919  has  been  5,200,000.    The 
number  of  automobiles  manufactured  and  placed  in 
service  is  still  increasing  in  geometrical  ratio.     In 
1919  there  was  a  total  increase  in  registration  of  23 
per  cent.,  and  despite  transportation  difficulties  the 
manufacturers'  estimates  for  1920  indicate  the  largest 
automobile    production    in    the    country's    history. 


It  is  a  self-evident  fact  that  these  automobiles  are 
accommodated  in  garages  ;  that  garage  construction 
has  kept  pace  with  the  multiplication  of  the  automo- 
bile. There  are  no  satisfactory  national  statistics  on 
garage  construction,  but  automobiles  are  too  valu- 
able to  leave  in  the  open  exposed  to  the  weather,  and 
it  is  reasonable  to  assume  that  garage  facilities  have 
increased  in  proportion  to  the  automobiles.  This 
mushroom  growth  of  garages  continues,  unadvertised 
and  unnoticed  by  the  majority.  Unlike  housing 
construction,  it  has  not  been  halted  by  increased 
prices  or  other  difficulties.  In  fact,  it  is  the  largely- 
held  opinion  that  the  automobile  and  its  attendant 
extravagances  are  responsible  at  least  in  part  for 
the  present  housing  shortage.  Such  statistics  as 
are  available  are  not  inconsistent  with  this  conten- 
tion. For  example,  in  one  American  city  for  the 
first  six  months  of  1920  building  permits  were  issued 
as  follows  :  Single  houses,  1  ;  apartment  hou=es  2  • 
garages,  114. 



Fire  experience  and  municipal  legislation  have 
been  responsible  for  great  improvements  in  the  mod- 
ern garage  over  the  converted  livery  stable  and  car- 
riage repair  shops  of  ten  and  fifteen  years  ago,  but 
there  remain  many  features  requiring  further  better- 
ment. And,  with  the  continuing  era  of  garage  con- 
struction, there  will  still  be  opportunity  to  incor- 
porate the  best  features  in  new  garages.  .  . 

Gasoline  is  the  inherent,  fundamental  hazard  of 
the  automobile  and  its  storage  and  repair.  Gasoline 
itself  is  not,  properly  speaking,  a 
cause  of  fire,  although  it  is  fre- 
quently reported  as  such.  How- 
ever, it  may  be  regarded  as  a 
contributory  cause  in  the  great 
majority  of  garage  fires.  For 
whatever  the  primary  cause  of 
fire,  gasoline  usually  is  responsible 
for  its  rapid  spreading.  The 
mitigating  circumstance  is  the  fact 
that  the  hazard  of  gasoline  is  now 
fairly  well  recognized,  even  if  not 
fully  realized.  Large  quantities 
are  not  ordinarily  present  inside 
the  garage  buildings  except  in 
proper  containers  (if  automobile 
tanks  are  considered  proper  con- 
tainers). The  quantities  present, 
although  comparatively  small,  are, 
with  the  inadequate  ventilation 
usually  obtained,  amply  sufficient  to  occasion  serious 
fires.  And  when  a  fire  is  one  well  under  way, 
the  gasoline  tanks  are  destroyed,  contributing  their 
fuel.  *  *  * 


Ventilation  is  perhaps  the  most  important  of  all 
construction  features.  With  adequate  ventilation 
explosive  gasoline  vapors  would  not  collect,  and  a 
large  part  of  the  fire  hazard  would  be  eliminated. 
For  a  discussion  of  garage  ventilation  see  Charles 
E.  Worthington's  article,  "The  Common  Sense  of 
Garages,"  which  appeared  in  the  N.  F.  P.  A. 
Quarterly  last  January. 

Modern  garage  buildings  are  usually  of  concrete, 
and  therefore  fire-resistive.  But  there  is  a  tendency 
toward  very  large  areas.  Horizontal  areas  are 
usually  as  large  as  possible  and  are  in  no  way 
obstructed  by  partitions,  while  in  the  city  garage 
occupying  several  floors  there  is  seldom  any  attempt 
made  to  protect  vertical  openings.  Although  seldom 
used  in  garages,  fire  doors  can  give,  and  have  given, 



excellent  accounts  of  themselves  in  the  journal  of 
fire  experience. 


Claims  have  sometimes  been  made  that  the  garage 
hazard  is  too  severe  for  ordinary  automatic  sprinkler 
protection,  and  that  application  of  water  is  likely  to 
spread  the  fire  by  floating  burning  gasoline.  Records 
show  no  basis  for  such  opinion.  In  the  files  of  the 
National  Fire  Protection  Association  there  are  re- 
ports of  134  fires  occurring  in  sprinklered  garages. 
The  accompanying  table  shows  that  of  the  134  there 
were  only  four  failures,  making  a  total  of  130  fires, 
or  97.1  per  cent.,  where  the  operation  of  the 
sprinklers  were  satisfactory.  This  compares  favor- 
ably with  a  general  average  of  95.7  per  cent,  for  all 
class  of  occupancy.  Of  the  four  failures,  two  were 
due  to  water  shut  off  sprinklers  and  two  due  to 
obstructions  to  distribution.  A  review  of  all  the 
garage  fire  reports  in  the  files  of  the  National 
Fire  Protection  Association  has  failed  to  disclose 
any  instance  in  which  burning  gasoline  was  spread 
by  water  from  sprinklers. 

The  accompanying  photographs  (Figs.  1  and  2) 
contrast  the  results  of  fire  in  sprinklered  and  un- 
sprinklered garages.  In  the  first  case  (Fig.  1),  one 
sprinkler  operated  and  extinguished  and  confined  the 
fire  to  the  car  in  which  it  started.  Mr.  H.  L.  Miner 
reports : 

Fire  occurred  in  a  one-story  frame  garage  SO  by  100 
feet  in  area,  which  contained  twelve  automobiles. 
Garage  was  locked  up  Saturday  afternoon.  Monday 
morning,  when  next  visited,  it  was  found  that  fire  had 
occurred  in  one  of  the  automobiles,  cause  unknown, 
possibly  due  to  defective  electrical 
system,  or  possibly  from  a  smoulder- 
ing fire  due  to  smoking  in  the 
upholstery  of  the  car.  One  auto- 
matic sprinkler  to  all  appearances 
opened  promptly  and,  although  top 
of  car  was  raised,  thereby  intro- 
ducing considerable  obstruction  to 
distribution,  the  automatic  sprinkler 
entirely  extinguished  the  fire.  Five 
feet  from  the  automobile  was  a  tank 
of  compressed  acetylene  gas,  also 
an  oxygen  tank.  Photographs  shows 
position  of  car  in  garage  and  oxygen 
and  acetylene  tanks  referred  to 
above.  The  automatic  sprinkler  was 
still  operating  when  this  photograph 
was  taken^  This  is  really  a  remark- 
able demonstration  showing  the 
effectiveness  of  automatic  sprinkler 
protection,  even  though  the  sprink- 
lers are  working  under  a  serious 

Figure  2  shows  what  recently 
happened  in  an  unsprinkled  garage 
in  Yakima,  Washington.  Note  that 
the  building  had  brick  walls — 

incombustible  outside  walls,  to  the  ignorant,  give  the 
all  too  frequent  impression  that  a  building  is  "fire- 
proof." Mr.  John  Perry  reports  that  thirty  machines 
were  destroyed,  with  an  estimated  loss  on  building 
and  contents  of  $88,000,  and  considerable  damage 
to  adjoining  buildings  not  included  in  this  figure. 




Sprinklered  :  No.  of  Fires. 

*Small    134 

Large    — 


Unsprinklered : 

Small    250 

Large    129 




*Small  loss  is  under  $5,000. 

The  Table  of  Losses,  showing  a  fairly  large  pro- 
portion of  large  losses  in  unsprinklered  garage  fires, 
while  in  sprinklered  buildings,  of  the  134  fires  on  re- 
cord there  are  no  losses  over  $5,000,  is  another  rather 
convincing  argument  for  the  sprinkler. 


Contrast  this  fire,  w 
one  spr 

here  thirty  machines  were  destroyed,  with  that  shown  in  Fig.   1,  where 
inkier  head  confined  the  fire  to  the  car  where  it  originated. 


Relative  Heat  Conductivities  of  Some 
Building  Materials 

Results  That  Represent  What  May  Be  Expected  Under  Actual 

Service  Conditions 

THE  Verona  Chemical  Company  of  North 
Newark,  N.  J.,  has  been  conducting  an  inves- 
tigation to  determine  by  the  air  box  method 
the  relative  heat  conductivities  of  building  materials. 
The  tests  of  the  different  materials  were  conducted 
under  identical  conditions  as  nearly  as  was  possible. 
A  number  of  cube-shaped  boxes  were  constructed 
of  the  different  materials  of  practically  the  same 
dimensions  which  were  approximately  8"  x  8"  x  8" 
inside.  The  thickness  of  the  walls  was  about  one 
inch.  An  electric  lamp  was  used  as  a  heating 
element  inside  these  boxes.  The  electric  current  was 
regulated  by  a  rheostat  and  measured  by  accurate 
voltmeter  and  ammeter. 

The   temperature   inside   was   measured    by    two 
thermometers   and   outside  by   three   thermometers 
and  these  thermometers  were  placed  in  the  same  rel- 
ative position  on  each  testing  box. 

The  testing  apparatus  was  set  up  in  the  basement 
of  the  laboratory,  where  the  room  temperature  was 
fairly  constant.  No  readings  were  taken  during  the 
first  twenty-four  hours  in  order  to  allow  time  for  all 
conditions  to  reach  an  equilibrium.  After  this, 
readings  were  taken  about  every  two  hours. 

The  conductivities  "K"  as  shown  in  the  accom- 
panying table  in  B.  T.  U.  were  calculated  from  the 
formula : 

3.415  X  B  X  W 

K  =  - 

12  X  A  X  (T-t) 
where  "B"  is  the  thickness  of  the  walls  in  inches; 

"A"  is  area  in  sq.  ft.,  "W"  is  the  watts  from  the 
voltmeter  and  ammeter  readings;  and  "T-t"  is  the 
difference  between  the  inside  and  outside  tempera- 
tures as  indicated  by  the  thermometers.  Area  "A" 
was  considered  to  be  the  mean  between  the  inside 
area  and  the  outside  area  of  the  box.  The  thermal 
conductivity  so  measured  represents  the  quantity  of 
heat  expressed  in  B.  T.  U.,  that  flows  through  one 
square  foot  unit  area  of  plates,  through  a  unit  thick- 
ness of  one  foot  having  a  unit  difference  of  1  deg. 
Fahrenheit  between  its  faces. 


The  results  thus  obtained  cannot  be  accurately 
compared  with  results  of  similar  tests  made  under 
different  conditions,  because  the  conductivity  "K" 
found  in  this  way  is  not  the  heat  transmitted  only 
through  the  tested  material  of  the  thickness  "B."  It 
is  the  heat  which  passes  also  through  the  layer  of  air 
from  the  inside  thermometer  bulb  to  the  wall,  hence 
through  the  wall,  and  thence  from  the  outside  of  the 
wall  to  the  outside  thermometer  bulb. 

The  results  will  be  different  from  results  of  tests 
where  air  contact  has  been  excluded.  They  will  also 
be  different  from  tests,  where  fans  or  other  devices 
have  been  used  to  keep  the  air  in  motion,  thereby 
diminishing  the  resistance  to  the  heat  entering  into 
the  wall  of  the  material  to  be  tested.  Inasmuch  as 
the  figures  are  arrived  at  under  the  conditions  under 
which  the  materials  are  used  ordinarily  in  building 
construction,  they  will  give  a  good  idea  of  the  rela- 
tive values  of  heat  conductivity  of  the  different  ma- 
terials tested. 


Concrete,  1   cement:   2   sand. 


Box  Walls,  Electric 

inside  mean 

dimen-  thick-        Mean   Volume  Weight    Spec, 
sions,       ness.         area,       box,        box,      grav- 
ins.  ins.         sq.  ft.    cu.  ins.      Ibs. 

Gypsum  board   .........................     R&8K  VA 

Porete   reinforced  with  exp.   metal  .....     S'Ax&%  I1/,, 

Yellow  pine,  North  Carolina  ............  8Vwx8VM  1  «/« 

Air  cell,   asbestos  board  ................     8x8x8J4  Itf 

Cork-board    ...............................       8x8x8  ^ 










cu.  ft., 



outside  Temper 
temper,    diff.. 

.     Heat 












































Current    News 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Field  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

Better  Distribution  of  Aliens 
Aim  of  New  Bureau 

Through  the  establishment  of  a  new  bureau  at 
Ellis  Island,  New  York,  in  charge  of  economic  and 
linguistic  experts,  better  distribution  of  aliens,  par- 
ticularly with  a  view  to  avoidance  of  their  congestion 
in  large  centers  of  population,  is  to  be  sought.  The 
census  this  year  reveals  a  tendency  of  the  general 
population  to  flock  to  cities,  and  the  new  bureau, 
through  its  co-operation  with  state  authorities,  hopes 
to  gain  a  much  better  distribution  of  aliens  through 
rural  communities. 

The  new  bureau  is  to  be  known  as  the  Division  of 
Immigration  Distribution  and  its  chief,  according 
to  Immigration  Commissioner  F.  A.  Wallis,  will 
probably  be  P.  A.  Donohue,  an  economic  expert  from 
the  U.  S.  Department  of  Labor.  Mr.  Donohue  has 
been  a  member  of  several  boards  of  inquiry  at  Ellis 
Island,  and  it  is  believed  he  will  be  well  fitted  for  his 
new  position  through  his  war  work  for  the  Federal 
Employment  Bureau. 

Prehistoric  Village  Found 

Discovery  of  the  ruins  of  a  prehistoric  village  and 
cemetery,  in  which  were  many  relics  of  great  value, 
in  the  Navajo  country  in  New  Mexico,  has  been 
announced  by  the  American  Museum  of  Natural 
History.  The  discovery  was  made  by  an  exploration 
party  headed  by  Earl  H.  Morris. 

Fragments  of  polished  pottery,  glistening  in  the 
sun,  led  the  party  "by  mere  chance"  to  the  new  dis- 
covery. Mr.  Morris  wrote  to  headquarters  here. 
Hundreds  of  pottery  vessels  of  artistic  design  and 
scores  of  ancient  tombs,  which  revealed  many  inter- 
esting habits  of  living,  were  unearthed,  he  said. 

"There  had  been  more  than  twenty  dwellings  in 
the  village,"  he  said,  "varying  in  size  from  four  to 
as  many  as  fifty  rooms." 

In  Prague 

In  Czechoslovakia,  the  system  of  locking  up  a 
house  is  very  peculiar.  There  are  usually  two  very 
inferior  locks  on  an  outside  door,  which  is  further 
fastened  on  the  inside  with  a  small  chain.  The  chain 
is  considered  necessary,  because  anyone  who  has  a 
dozen  or  so  keys  could  go  about  and  unlock  most 
of  the  doors  in  the  street.  The  keys  are  always  large 

and  unwieldly  things,  frequently  5  or  6  inches  long. 

There  would  be  some  local  conservatism  to  combat 
in  attempting  to  introduce  a  really  good  spring  lock, 
but  there  is  no  doubt  that  they  are  much  needed. 
Furthermore,  there  will  soon  be  a  great  deal  of  build- 
ing in  Czechoslovakia,  especially  in  and  about  Prague. 
The  needs  of  the  rapidly  growing  city  have  not  been 
satisfied  by  the  existing  office  and-  dwelling  accom- 
modations, and  building  has  been  at  a  standstill  for 
several  years.  It  is  now  beginning  to  revive. 

Pennsylvania  Academy  Annual  Exhi- 
bition Announced 

The  116th  annual  exhibition  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Academy  of  Fine  Arts  will  open  to  the  public  on 
Sunday,  Feb.  6,  1921.  It  will  close  on  March  27. 
Press  view  and  varnishing  day  will  be  Saturday, 
Feb.  5.  The  reception  and  private  view  will  be 
given  in  the  evening  of  the  same  date.  The  Artists' 
Evening  will  be  held  on  Feb.  12. 

The  usual  long  list  of  prizes,  medals,  etc.,  is  an- 
nounced. The  honors  include  the  Academy  gold 
medal  of  honor,  the  Temple  fund  and  gold  metal, 
the  Edward  T.  Stotesbury  prize  of  $1,000,  the 
Walter  Lippincott  prize  of  $300,  the  Philadelphia 
prize  of  $250,  the  Mary  Smith  prize  of  $100,  the 
Jennie  Sesnan  gold  medal  endowed  by  Elizabeth 
W.  Roberts,  the  Carol  H.  Beck  gold  medal,  the  Lam- 
bert fund  and  the  George  D.  Widener  memorial 

The  members  of  the  jujry  are:  Robert  Vonnoh, 
chairman ;  Cecilia  Beaux,  Frank  W.  Benson,  Hugh 
H.  Breckenriclge,  Adelaide  Cole  Chase,  William  J. 
Glackens,  William  M.  Paxton,  William  Ritschel, 
Robert  Spencer,  Helen  M.  Turner,  Carroll  S.  Tyson, 
Jr.,  A.  Stirling  Calder,  Charles  Grafly  and  Albert 

Famous  Workhouse  Closes 

St.  George's  workhouse,  just  south  of  London 
bridge,  where  Oliver  Twist  had  the  audacity  to  ask 
for  a  second  helping  of  thin  gruel,  has  been  closed 
by  the  poor  law  authorities  and  the  inmates  have 
been  transferred  elsewhere.  The  gruel,  of  which 
Dickens'  child  hero  and  his  fellow  sufferers  partook, 
was  made  in  a  copper  cauldron,  which  is  to  be  pre- 
sented to  the  Southmark  Borough  Council's  museum. 



Gobelin  Works  Admit  Women 

For  the  first  time  since  the  famous  Gobelin  tapes- 
try works  were  established  in  France,  back  in  1664, 
women  are  now  being  taught  to  make  tapestries. 

Danes  Erect  Obelisk 

An  obelisk  of  granite  70  feet  high  is  to  be  erected 
in  Denmark  as  a  memorial  to  the  many  thousands  of 
American  and  Allied  soldiers  of  Danish  descent  who 
died  in  the  World  War.  It  has  been  estimated  that 
about  30,000  men  of  Danish  blood  fought  in  the 
American  armies  in  France  and  that  about  20,000 
Danes  fought  in  the  Canadian,  Australian  British 
and  French  armies. 

The  proposed  obelisk  will  rest  on  a  base  twelve 
feet  high,  on  one  side  of  which  will  be  two  women's 
figures,  one  elderly,  the  other  young,  both  with 
slightly  bowed  heads,  expressing  the  sorrow  of  the 
motherland  and  her  emigrant  daughter  for  those 
who  died  in  war.  On  another  side  will  be  an  Amer- 
ican eagle  with  the  Star  Spangled  Banner,  and  in 
addition  there  will  be  bas-reliefs  of  typical  war 
scenes  from  the  American  and  Allied  fronts. 

Bridge  Resists  Floods  for  Ages 

In  Foochow,  China,  the  city  of  the  white  pagoda, 
is  the  "Bridge  of  Ten  Thousand  Ages."  Endless 
time  and  labor  must  have  been  expended  on  the 
bridge,  which  is  one  thousand  years  old,  states  a 
report  in  the  Chicago  News.  It  is  all  of  granite,  each 
stone  roughly  carved  to  fit  its  neighbor  without  a  bit 
of  mortar  and  to  resist  the  river  in  flood  and  ebb. 
The  massive  piers,  ten  feet  thick,  piles  of  rough 
hewed  stone,  are  like  inverted  pyramids,  buttressed 
on  the  river  sides  and  on  the  inner  sides,  each  layer 
pf  rock  extending  a  foot  beyond  the  layer  below. 
Twenty  feet  is  the  widest  span  between  any  pair  of 
the  seventy-five  piers  and  nothing  wider  than  a  sam- 
pan or  raft  passes  on  the  turgid  Min  river. 

Immense  slabs  of  .granite  are  the  spans  between 
the  piers.  Countless  silken  slippers,  bare  feet  of 
chair  bearers  and  straw  sandals  of  sweating  coolies 
have  worn  the  surface  smooth,  while  grass  and  wild 
shrubbery  grow  in  the  crevices  of  the  piers  and 
around  the  carved  lions  and  dragons  on  the  posts  of 
the  ponderous  stone  handrail.  The  roadway  is  no 
wider  than  an  automobile. 

But  this  picturesque  bridge  is  to  be  replaced  by 
a  grim  structure  of  steel— for  automobiles,  carriages 
and  trucks  and  broad  roads  from  the  country  have 
jome  to  Foochow.  The  shifting  bed  of  the  muddy 
Km  IS  to  be  dredged  and  ocean  steamers  will  come 
to  the  city,  instead  of  anchoring  fourteen  miles 


Reconstruction  in  Belgium 

Of  all  the  warring  countries  in  Europe  none  have 
returned  to  their  pre-war  activities  in  a  measure  com- 
parable to  Belgium,  according  to  recent  Commerce 
Reports.  When  the  armistice  was  signed  the  country 
found  itself  with  a  third  of  its  factories  ruined.  In 
transportation  essentials,  2,000  kilometers  ( 1 ,250 
miles)  of  railroads,  1,800  bridges,  and  600  kilo- 
meters of  canals  had  been  destroyed,  60,000  rail- 
road cars  and  2,500  locomotives  taken  by  the  ( ler- 
mans,  and  the  telegraph  and  telephone  systems 

Progress  made  in  the  past  18  months  toward  re- 
construction is  so  phenomenal  that  within  the  next 
six  months  all  pre-war  industries  excepting  steel 
plants  will  have  attained,  where  they  do  not  already 
exceed,  the  production  of  pre-war  years. 

Practically  all  railway  trains  in  the  country  are 
running  on  pre-war  schedules,  the  roadbeds  and 
bridges  having  been  for  the  most  part  repaired  or 

Agricultural  activity  commenced  immediately  after 
armistice  was  signed,  with  the  result  that  crops  pro- 
duced in  1919  fully  equalled  those  of  1913.  As  an 
evidence  of  the  intensity  with  which  Belgians  applied 
themselves  to  work,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that,  on 
the  termination  of  war,  there  were  upward  of  800,- 
000  persons  receiving  chomage  (unemployment 
wage),  while  at  present  the  number  has  been  re- 
duced to  less  than  200,000. 

Much  of  this  remarkable  progress  is  due  to  the 
activity  of  the  Recuperation  Committee  which  has 
succeeded  in  recovering  most  of  the  machinery  taken 
away  by  the  Germans. 

Reconstruction  has  been  but  little  handicapped  by 
the  few  strikes  occurring,  and  there  is  little  or  no 
spirit  of  Bolshevism  among  the  inhabitants. 


McCluer  &  Griffith,  architects,  formerly  Dexter 
&  McCluer,  are  now  operating  at  401  Canby  Build- 
ing, Dayton,  O.  Mr.  Dexter  has  retired  from  the 

A.  H.  Ebeling,  architect,  has  moved  his  office  from 
1106  West  Fifteenth  street,  Davenport,  la.,  to  818-9 
Kahl  Building,  that  city. 

The  K.  L.  Hullsick  Company,  architecture  and 
engineering,  has  opened  an  office  at  400  Flatiron 
Building,  Norfolk,  Va. 

A.  E.  Norman,  architect,  formerly  located  at  1526 
Devon  avenue,   Chicago,   111.,   is  now   practicing 
1531  Devon  avenue,  that  city. 


Weekly  Review  of  the  Construction  Field 

With  Reports  of  Special  Correspondents  in  Regional  Centers 

NOTHING  is  worse  than  the  hypocritical 

The  fellow  who  shouts  optimism  from  the  house- 
tops and  tells  the  truth  in  the  secret  places  is  the 
most  dangerous  factor  in  any  industrial  community. 
If  a  market  for  a  given  commodity  is  weak,  and  con- 
tinues to  be  weak,  it  does  no  good,  and  much  harm, 
to  insist  that  "conditions  are  improving"  and  "are 
better."  No  harm  comes  from  telling  an  industrial 
truth.  The  leaders  in  industry  and  finance  are  lead- 
ers because  of  their  foresight.  That  is  their  stock  in 
trade.  Upon  that  their  present  and  future  business 
reputations  rest  and  always  will  rest.  They  can  no 
more  risk  injury  to  it  than  an  architect  can  risk  in- 
jury to  his  reputation  by  insisting  that  an  unsafe 
building  is  safe. 

It  was  for  precisely  that  reason  that  this  journal 
published  the  opinions  of  prominent  industrial  and 
financial  leaders  regarding  the  future  of  both  indus- 
try and  finance.  When  men  such  as  Judge  Gary, 
Daniel  Guggenheim,  and  Francis  H.  Sisson  speak  of 
the  near  future  with  confidence,  one  may  rest  assured 
that  there  is  little  to  worry  about  the  fundamental 

soundness  of  that  future.  It  is  petty  and  of  no  use 
to  point  to  existing  conditions  as  arguments  again.,t 
the  optimistic  opinions  of  these  men.  Their  present 
importance  and  value  in  the,  industrial  scheme  was 
achieved  by  the  keenest  sort  of  foresight.  It  is  as 
keen  today  as  it  ever  was.  Perhaps  even  keener. 

Upon  what  do  these  men  base  their  optimism  ? 

Such  a  question  may  seem  a  bit  incongruous  after 
granting  them  a  sort  of  foresight  not  possessed  by 
the  average  man.  There  is  no  way  of  knowing  upon 
what  they  have  based  their  opinions.  But  there  are 
salient  facts  in  the  industrial  situation — the  price 
problem,  for  example — which  could  be  taken  as  a 
basis  for  industrial  optimism  by  any  man  possessed 
of  common  sense  and  that  sort  of  reasoning  power 
which  sees  more  than  the  printed  word  or  price. 

The  table  shown  below  represents  wholesale  com- 
modity prices  for  17  commodities  which  have  been 
chosen  for  their  representative  character  and  their 
relation  to  fundamental  business  conditions.  The 
figures  were  compiled  by  the  National  Bank  of  Com- 
merce in  New  York,  and  are  but  a  small  part  of  a 
chart  presented  by  that  bank  in  its  January  house 


Commodity.  Jan. 


Fair  to  choice  native  steers,  Chi- 
cago1     14.05 

COAL, — 
Anthracite,   No.  1  buckwheat,  f. 

o.  b.  lower  ports,     N.  Y2 

Anthracite,  stove,  f.  o.  b.  mine2 
Bituminous,  run  of  mine,  t.  o.  b. 

mine  Fairmont,   W.  Va2 2.80 

Pittsburgh   District2    2.35 

COPPEK — Electrolytic,    early    de- 
livery, New  York'   19.25 

CORN— No.  2  mixed,  Chicago* 1.49 

Middling,    spot,    New    Orleans3.  ..40.25 

Green  salted  packers,  No.  1  heavy 

native  steers,  Chicago3 40 

Calfskins,  No.  1,  Chicago  city3..      80 

HOGS — Good  merchantable—pigs  & 
rough  stock  excluded,  Chicago1.. 14.70 


Pig  iron,  basic,  Valley  furnace2. 37 .00 
Steel  billets,  open  hearth,  Pitts- 
burgh2     45.00 

LEAD — Pig,  early  delivery,  N.  Y.3  8.75 

PETROLEUM — Crude,  at  well 

Pennsylvania"     5.00 

Kansas-Oklahoma5    3.00 

lit  msKK — 

Plantation,  first  latex  crepe,  N.Y/1    .53% 
Para,  upriver  line,   New  York8...    .49 

SILK— Shinshiu  No.  1,  New  York0. 16.25 

SPELTER — Prime    western,    early 
delivery,  St.  Louis3  9.10 

SUGAR— 96°  centrifugal,   N.  Y3 13.04 

SULPHURIC  ACID — 66°  Be.,  bulk, 
sellers'  tank  cars,  East'n  points7. 20.00 


No.  1  northern  spring,  Chicago*.  3.10 
No.  2  red  winter.   Chicago4 2,65 

WOOL— Clean  basis,  Boston 

Ohio  fine   delaine"   2.30 

Ohio  Vi  blood9  1.07 

Feb.     Mar.      Apr. 
13.35      13.30      13.90 

iaao —  — >   1914 

May.       June       July     Aug.     Sept.      Oct.      Nov.       Dec.      Jan. 
'  12.30      15.90        15.50      14.85      15.50      14.70      11.25        9.50        8.6U 


























18.37%  17.87      18.75      18.62%  18.12%  16.25      14.50      13.75 
2.15         1.82        1.52%     1.60        1.37%     .95          .83%       .72 




39.25      41.00      41.50       40.25      40.75      39.00      34.50      28.50      20.25      18.25      14.75      12.88 




























































































20.00      20.00      20.00      21.00      22.00      22.00      22.00      22.00      22.00      21.00      20.00 

2.22%     1.88%     1.61% 
2.39        2.11%     2.00 






















dollars  per  100  Ibs.    2Dollars  per  gross  ton.    "Cents  per 
per  net  ton. 

Ib.    'Dollars  per  bu.    "Dollars  per  bbl.    'Dollars  per  Ib.    'Dollars 



organ.  Any  architect  would  profit  considerably  in 
a  careful  study  of  that  chart.  There  is  a  great  busi- 
ness sermon  in  it. 

The  writer  would  respectfully  direct  attention  to  a 
careful  comparison  of  the  prices  for  the  commodities 
indicated  in  January,  1914,  and  December,  1920. 

Also  to  a  careful  comparison  of  the  prices  from 
January,  1920,  to  the  end  of  the  year. 

And  next  week  there  will  be  considerably  more  to 
say  about  them.  It  would  be  a  good  idea  to  keep 
this  issue  at  hand  or  to  clip  this  chart.  You  will 
have  occasion  to  refer  to  it  frequently.  It  will  be 
taken  as  a  basis  for  a  series  of  price  discussions,  the 
first  of  which,  "The  Architect's  Relation  to  Price  De- 
clines," will  appear  in  this  department  in  the  issue  of 
January  26. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE. — Optimism,  effervescent  or  otherwise, 
is  not  responsible  for  the  brighter  feeling  in  Pacific 
Coast  business  circles  regarding  the  sudden  change 
in  mental  posture  toward  reconstruction  of  buying 
for  new  commitments  early  in  1921.  Lumber  is  be- 
lieved to  be  at  bottom  from  the  fact  that  wholesalers 
have  begun  to  buy.  jobbers  of  building  hardware  are 
preparing  to  buy  on  the  new  price  list  reached  when 
the  independents  shrunk  away  the  premiums  of  war- 
time and  touched  the  Steel  Corporation  levels,  there 
is  accumulating  evidence  of  the  return  of  confidence 
of  buyers  to  building  materials,  and  the  farthest  pos- 
sible date  at  which  resumption  is  now  placed  by  many 
of  the  keenest  minds  in  this  territory  is  March  1,  with 
proportionate  symptoms  of  recovery  during  January. 

There  is  no  doubt  whatever  that  during  early  De- 
cember not  a  jobber  in  a  hundred  would  have  claimed, 
excepting  for  public  consumption,  that  the  coast  con- 
ditions could  change  before  midsummer.  Revision  of 
figures  with  the  conclusion  of  stock-taking,  increased 
inquiries  with  architects,  larger  activity  of  public 
building  construction  and  homes,  conviction  that  steel 
products  cun  go  no  lower  until  after  the  1921  place- 
ments have  been  cleared  are  factors  that  have  built 
up  the  new  atmosphere  overnight.  This  feeling  is 
increasing  hourly. 

Concededly  among  jobbers,  with  the  facts  at  hand 
rather  than  sentiment  or  personal  opinion,  the  New 
Year  will  be  a  buyers'  and  not  an  order-book  year, 
and  the  educational  trend  and  activity  of  selling  or- 
ganizations in  building  lines  is  being  shaped  to  that 
end.  Men  in  the  field  are  being  warned  that  now, 
as  at  no  time  since  1914,  they  will  be  expected  to 
move  rapidly  and  to  meet  keen  competition  for  busi- 
ness, even  to  searching  out  the  long-neglected  and 
insular  buyers.  The  old-time  zest  of  getting  orders 
has  started. 

Jobbers  of  building  hardware,  nails,  sheets  and 

pipe  are  today  buying  only  light  in  order  to  ride  out 
the  earlier  pauses  during  January,  but  as  for  accept- 
ing the  Steel  Corporation  basis  as  fundamental  and 
not  subject  to  further  change  during  this  year,  the 
thing  is  as  good  as  done,  and  the  jobbing  trade  feels 
its  position  secure  when  treating  problems  of  the 
new  building  season. 

The  factor  that  has  held  off  buying  during  the 
past  30  days,  when  delivery  from  the  mills  has  come 
nearly  to  normal,  is  the  dumping  on  the  market  by 
shipyards  of  pipe,  bar,  cleats,  rivets,  bolts  and  pipe, 
larger  sizes  predominating.  These  huge  stocks,  ac- 
cumulated during  the  speed-up  war  period,  are  being 
offered  under  the  market  as  the  shipyards  that  bought 
them  are  being  dismantled.  The  jobbing  trade  doe; 
not  feel  justified  in  buying  even  on  the  sound  steel 
market  when  all  these  stocks  are  lying  round  loo.-e 
at  the  mercy  of  any  chance  speculator. 

There  is  on  the  coast  today  no  shortage  of  build- 
ing essentials.  Cement,  probably  the  last  to  show 
normal  conditions,  is  being  supplied  in  sufficient 
quantities  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  hour.  None  care 
to  accumulate  stocks  for  the  next  30  days. 

Fully  50  per  cent,  of  the  fir  lumber  mills  that 
closed  for  the  holidays,  supposedly  for  an  indefinite 
time,  will  be  in  operation  by  January  15.  Many  re- 
opened before  New  Year's  day.  A  decline  of  a  dol- 
lar in  common  dimension,  or  to  $13.50  to  the  trade 
this  week  had  been  discounted  in  advance,  and  this, 
it  is  now  felt  certain,  will  be  the  last  fall  in  prices  for 
some  time. 

Wholesalers  believe  the  time  is  ripe  for  buying, 
and  will  start  doing  so  during  January.  Should  a 
drop  of  another  dollar  occur,  as  a  minority  now  pre- 
dicts, wholesale  buyers  say  it  will  only  be  necessary 
to  hold  their  purchases  past  the  next  soft  spot  in 
order  to  realize  a  profit.  Their  conviction  that  re- 
covery in  the  lumber  market  is  now  due  is  their  foun- 
dation for  proposed  buying  activity. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO,  Jan.  17. — It  is  becoming  increasingly  ap- 
parent that  the  only  obstacle  in  the  path  of  a  great 
building  revival  in  the  Chicago  district  is  the  matter 
of  price  on  lumber,  labor  and  materials.  And  it  is 
not  so  much  a  question  of  the  actual  cost  as  of  the 
uncertainty  now  attending  the  whole  price  situation. 
Those  who  contemplate  building,  whether  they  be  in- 
dividuals or  corporations,  are  apparently  hesitating 
because  they  have  no  way  of  judging  the  stability  of 
prices  at  this  time  and  do  not  desire  to  make  a  build- 
ing investment  that  will  be  periled  by  early  and  more 
substantial  declines  in  the  cost  of  everything  that 
goes  into  the  finished  building. 

If  this  fog  of  uncertainty  and  distrust  can  be  lifted, 
there  is  no  reason — in  the  view  of  the  best  posted 
men  in  the  building  industry  in  Chicago — why  the 



building- pi ogram,  so  long  talked  of,  cannot  be  suc- 
cessfully instituted  at  once. 

Cost  alone  is  holding  back  the  bandwagon.  Plans 
have  been  made ;  the  need  is  very  great,  the  money  is 
available — only  the  indecision  of  the  market  in  con- 
struction materials  remains  the  unknown  factor  in  the 
building  equation. 

Frankly,  there  is  a  feeling  on  the  part  of  those  who 
are  about  to  invest  in  new  construction  work  that 
prices  have  not  yet  dropped  sufficiently  and  that  a 
little  waiting  will  bring  the  market  to  much  lower 

Lumber,  labor  and  the  minor  materials  have  been 
accused  of  attempting  to  take  a  small  loss  with  such 
loud  acclaim  and  such  a  blare  of  trumpets  that  the 
public  will  immediately  assume  that  the  rock  bottom 
has  been  reached  and  that  there  is  nothing  more  to 
expect  in  the  way  of  price  reduction. 

The  public,  however,  declines  to  take  this  point  of 
view,  and  the  psychological  effect  is  to  produce  a  buy- 
er's strike  which  is  just  as  keenly  felt  in  the  building 
trades  as  in  shoes  or  ships  or  sealing  wax,  or  any 
other  of  the  lines  that  have  suddenly  slowed  up  as 
far  as  consumer  demand  is  concerned. 

The  foregoing  represents  the  darker  side  of  the 
situation,  but  let  a  brighter  point  of  view  be  unfolded. 

The  interests  whose  prosperity  is  gauged  by  the 
amount  of  building  have  seen  the  light  and  are  now 
bringing  themselves  together  with  a  view  to  settling 
the  market  and  of  laying  the  ghost  of  price  uncer- 
tainty, once  and  for  all. 

The  first  step  in  this  direction  was  taken  in  the 
Chicago  territory  by  Edward  Hines,  a  prominent 
lumber  manufacturer,  whose  business  sagacity  and 
foresight  have  made  him  a  leading  figure  in  the  lum- 
ber industry.  Sensing  this  watchful  waiting  attitude 
on  the  part  of  the  building  public,  he  called  a  confer- 
ence of  lumber  manufacturers  from  all  parts  of  the 
country.  They  met  in  Chicago,  January  5-6,  and 
made  a  hasty  summary  of  the  situation,  deciding  in 
very  short  order  that  the  lumber  industry  alone  can- 
not swing  the  pendulum  of  price  back  to  a  normal 
stability.  To  the  end  that  the  mists  of  indecision  may 
be  cleared  away,  however,  the  lumber  interests  have 
called  another  conference — this  to  be  held  in  Chi- 
cago January  21-22,  at  which  all  factors  in  the  build- 
ing materials  field  will  be  represented.  Here  all  the 
manufacturers  whose  products  go  into  the  building 
industry  will  sit  down  in  a  heart-to-heart  fashion  in 
order  to  bring  about  as  complete  a  clarification  of 
price  as  is  now  possible. 

At  this  conference  lumber  manufacturers,  retail 
and  wholesale  lumbermen,  manufacturers  of  paint, 
cement,  stone,  granite,  building  metals,  shingles, 
laths,  lime,  gypsum,  glass,  brick,  sand  and  gravel — 
every  line  in  the  building  list  will  be  present  and  the 
whole  building  impasse  will  be  thoroughly  considered, 

with  price  of  materials  as  the  crux  of  the  whole  con- 

That  the  meeting  is  going  to  be  an  Armageddon 
of  disputatious  views  is  thoroughly  expected.  Each 
trade  is  going  to  point  out  the  utter  impossibility  of  a 
further  decline  in  its  product,  but  out  of  the  whole 
mass  of  conflicting  opinion  seems  sure  to  come  a 
concord  of  action  that  may  give  the  desired  result 
of  stability  of  prices. 

Labor  is  not  going  to  share  very  prominently  in 
the  conference,  but  the  element  of  labor  is  bound  to 
come  in  for  a  great  deal  of  discussion,  and  the  gen- 
eral feeling  is  that  the  industry  is  going  to  be  much 
nearer  a  normal  basis  of  opinion  after  the  meeting 
than  is  now  the  case. 

Not  content  with  engineering  a  general  conference 
on  the  building  situation,  the  lumber  manufacturers, 
acting  in  concert  with  the  National  Lumber  Manu- 
facturers' Association,  have  recently  sent  a  delegation 
of  their  leaders  to  Marion,  where  a  conference  was 
granted  by  President-elect  Harding.  The  committee 
was  given  a  two  hours'  audience,  during  which  the 
side  of  the  lumber  industry  in  the  housing  shortage 
and  the  willingness  of  that  industry  to  co-operate  in 
a  return  to  normalcy  were  presented  to  Senator 

No  program  of  tangible  facts  was  presented  at  the 
Marion  conference,  and  President-elect  Harding  did 
not  express  his  views  upon  the  pros  and  cons  of  the 
building  situation,  but  he  asked  a  great  many  ques- 
tions indicating  his  very  great  interest  and  his  anxi- 
ety to  be  thoroughly  posted  on  the  technical  points 
of  the  discussion. 

Another  tangible  result  of  the  conference  of  the 
lumber  interests  recently  held  in  Chicago  is  the  an- 
nouncement that  a  fund  is  to  be  raised  within  the  in- 
dustry to  advertise  lumber  and  its  uses  and  to  build 
up  in  the  public  mind  the  feeling  of  confidence  that 
the  industry  is  not  attempting  to  impose  unreason- 
able prices  on  lumber. 

Another  meeting  of  unusual  interest  is  that  of  the 
Associated  Building  Contractors  of  Illinois,  held  in 
Chicago  during  the  second  week  in  January. 

Although  the  week  has  been  marked  by  meetings, 
conferences  and  discussions  of  lower  prices  for  lum- 
ber and  materials,  the  prices  remain  virtually  un- 

Materials  linger  at  old  figures,  with  business  very 
quiet,  but  with  the  factors  in  the  trade  quite  hope- 
ful as  to  the  outcome. 

Some  reductions  are  in  contemplation,  it  is  said. 
Mixed  paints  are  expected  to  show  an  early  decline, 
following  a  cent  a  pound  reduction  in  all  leads,  an- 
nounced this  week  by  leading  manufacturers.  Cur- 
rent lumber  and  materials  quotations  in  the  Chicago 
market  are: 

Yellow  Pine:— B.  &  B.  1  in.,  $95  to  $130;  13-16, 



3'4  flat  flooring,  $85  to  $90;  2  by  4,  10  to  16  feet, 
No.  1  long  leaf,  $51 ;  2  x  6,  $48  to  $49;  2  x  8,  $49 

1,  i  S50 ;  2  by  10,  $52  to  $54 ;  2  by  12,  $54  and  $56. 

Northern  Hardwoods,  carload  lots,  Chicago: 

liirdi,  four  '4  No.  1  and  2,  $155;  select,  $130  to 
$138 ;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No.  2  common, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $35  to  $40. 

1  lard  .Maple,  four  */4  No.  1-2,  $135  to  $140;  select, 
$115  to  $120;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No.  2, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $32  to  $50. 

Red  gum  four  %  No.  1  and  2,  $148  to  $152; 
No.  1  common,  $88  to  $92 ;  No.  2,  $43  to  $47.  . 

Birch,  four  y4  No.  1  and  2,  $155  to  $160;  select, 
$130  to  $139;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No. 

2,  $60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $35  to  $40. 

Douglas  fir,  12  by  12,  No.  1  up  to  32  feet,  $65  to 
$75 ;  14  by  14,  $68  to  $75 ;  16  by  16,  $70  to  $75 ; 
18  by  18,  $75  to  $80. 

Cement :— Universal,  $3;  Lehigh,  $3.00;  Portland, 

Bulk  lime,  $1.70  to  $1.90;  face  brick,  octagons, 
$68  to  $75;  fire  brick,  $32  to  $40;  12  in.  .24  to  .27, 
18  in.  .46  to  .54. 

Crushed  stone  gravel  $3.40  to  $4;  lake  and  bank 
sand-torpedo,  $3.40  to  $4. 

Present  important  building  operations  in  Chicago : 

Federal  Reserve  Bank  Building;  excavation  and 
preliminary  foundation  work  well  along;  Royal  In- 
surance Building;  three  theatre  buildings  in  the 
Loop;  Chicago  Board  of  Education  Building;  Gov- 
ernment Parcel  Post  Station ;  and  the  Fair's  nineteen 
story  building  on  Monroe  Street. 

The  last  three  represent  an  outlay  of  nearly  $5,- 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON,  Jan.  17.- — If  one  were  asked  to  name  the 
outstanding  features  of  the  business  situation  in 
New  England  today  he  would  be  obliged  to  mention 
all  those  facts  in  our  industrial  life  which  come  under 
the  head  of  business  readjustment.  There  is  the 
slowing  up  in  industrial  and  commercial  activity  as 
reflected  in  reduced  railroad  earnings,  steadily  de- 
creasing bank  clearings  and  increasing  unemploy- 
ment. Many  plants  in  such  centers  as  Bridgeport, 
Waterbury,  Providence,  Fall  River  and  Holyoke  are 

carrying  a  pay  roll  of  one-third  to  one-half  the 
amounts  of  four  months  ago.  In  the  early  months 
of  1920  clearings  were  running  25  to  30  per  cent, 
ahead  of  the  same  months  of  last  year.  Recently 
they  have  in  turn  revealed  a  falling  off  of  10  to  14 
per  cent,  compared  with  a  year  ago. 

A  22l/2  per  cent,  cut  in  textile  wages  in  New  Eng- 
land was  announced  this  week.  In  the  steel  trade, 
which  so  far  has  not  cut  wages,  reduction  is  in  the 

The  so-called  consumer's  strike  will  undoubtedly 
be  called  off  as  soon  as  there  is  any  evidence  that 
commodity  prices  have  again  reached  a  more  stable 
basis.  There  does  not  seem  to  be  as  much  quarrel 
today  with  the  level  of  prices  as  there  is  in  regard 
to  the  uncertainty  as  to  whether  the  decline  in  com- 
modity prices  is  over.  For  instance,'  no  one  will  say 
that  the  fall  in  copper  prices  from  36  cents  in  the 
war  period  to  13%  cents  has  not  been  sufficiently 
drastic.  But  no  one  wishes  to  do  much  buying  a: 
long  as  the  trend  of  prices  is  downward  and  not  up- 

The  Harvard  University  committee  on  economic 
research  says  :  "Evidence  of  approaching  business  re- 
vival are  not  yet  apparent  in  the  news  of  the  day, 
nor  do  we  expect  to  see  any  very  soon.  There  are 
considerations,  however,  which  support  the  forecast 
drawn  from  our  index  chart  that  a  revival  of  busi- 
ness will  begin  next  spring,  one  being  the  fact  that 
a  number  of  raw  materials,  such  as  cotton,  wool  and 
leather,  are  selling  much  below  recent  costs  of  pro- 
duction and  probably  below  costs  that  will  rule  next 
year,  even  with  considerably  reduced  wages ;  another 
being  the  fact  that  the  physical  production,  both 
mining  and  manufacturing,  was  less  in  1919  and 
1920  than  in  1916,  1917  or  1918. 

"Both  of  these  considerations  support  the  forecast 
that  there  will  be  a  recovery  in  some  prices  at  no  di  s- 
tant  date." 

Statistics  of  building  and  engineering  operations 
show  that  contracts  awarded  in  New  England  from 
Jan.  1  to  Dec.  15,  1920,  amounted  to  $297,733,962, 
as  compared  with  $235,356,000  in  1919;  $146,703,- 
000  in  1918;  $195,443,000  in  1917;  $201,259,000  in 
1916;  $171,820,000  in  1915,  and  $159,280,000  in 
1914  for  a  corresponding  period. 


<^i  ?0.>: 






NUMBER  2353 

A  Side  Trip  in  Building 


IN  view  of  the  fact  that  economic  conditions  have 
for  the  present  combined  to  block  all  manner 
of  construction,  any  proposed  addition  to  the  list 
of  building  material  which  may  become  generally 
available  should  receive  thoughtful  consideration. 
No  known  material  is  more  equably  distributed  by 
nature  over  the  surface  of  the  globe  than  common 
earth,  but  few  people  now  believe  that  in  its  crude 
state  it  can  be  made  of  practicable  use  for  building 
purposes.  Modern  science  has  ignored  the  subject 
and  the  modern  house  builder  has  made  no  use  of  it 

First  Course — Shows  form  in  place  and  filled  with  tamped  earth 



whatever,  perhaps  because  manufactured  products 
have  been  easy  to  get  and  cheap.  Earth  building  is 
a  forgotten  art,  yet  history  tells  of  its  use,  extending 
far  back  into  the  early  centuries  of  civilization.  In 
our  day,  war  has  forced  back  again  into  modern  life 
many  of  the  conditions  and  cruder  customs  usual 
only  in  a  more  primitive  social  state,  and  so  perhaps 
a  revival  of  this  ancient  practice  may  prove  of  use  in 
solving  some  of  our  new  and  pressing  housing  prob- 

Our  country  contains  (mostly  in  the  western 
states)  many  picturesque  examples  of  earth  build- 
ing, or  "adobe,"  made  from  puddled  clay  and  straw, 
moulded  into  blocks  and  dried  in  the  sun;  these 
blocks  are  then  laid  in  the  wall  like  ordinary  mason- 

ry. Usually  "adobe"  walls  are  covered  by  a  protec- 
tive coat  of  plaster,  although  frequently  they  may  be 
seen  standing  and  useful  without  covering  of  any 

About  one  year  ago  an  article  appeared  in  an  Eng- 
lish illustrated  journal  called  "The  Sphere,"  which 
contained  a  description  of  "Pise'  de  Terre"  masonry 
and  claimed  that  substantial  walls  could  be  built  by 
simply  ramming  nearly  dry  earth  between  two  forms 
made  of  boards.  These  forms  were  described  as  of 
standard  size,  about  ten  feet  long  and  three  feet  wide, 
and  when  tamped  full,  the  forms  could  then  be 
moved  along  horizontally  and  another  section  of  wall 
laid  in  the  same  manner.  Other  courses  could  be 
laid  by  placing  the  same  form  on  top  of  that  part  of 
the  wall  already  built,  and  the  process  continued. 

Since  the  publication  of  an  article  on  earth  walls 

Shows  completed  walls  ready  for  roof  and  finishing  coat  of  plaster 



in  the  Literary  Digest  some  months  ago,  very  many 
letters  have  been  received  expressing  interest  in  the 
subject  and  for  the  most  part  earnestly  requesting 
further  information.  One  writer  from  Foochow, 
China,  is,  however,  entirely  skeptical  as  to  the  value 
of  earth  for  building.  He  states  that  "mud"  hovels 
are  common  in  many  parts  of  China,  but  they  are 
uniformly  insanitary  and  insecure  when  subject  to 
heavy  rains  or  floods.  In  this  he  is  no  doubt  quite 

Copyright,   1921,    The  Architectural  A   Building  Press  (Inc.) 


correct,  but  our  material  is  not  "mud,  and  it  must 
be  remembered  that  similar  conditions  exist  frequent- 
ly when  more  expensive  materials  are  used.  Another, 
calling  himself  an  "agricultural  missionary,"  writing 
from  Portuguese  South  Africa,  says  that  if  a  practi- 
cable way  of  building  with  earth  could  be  found,  it 
would  solve  one  of  their  most  serious  problems 
Similar  letters  have  come  from  Canada,  Mexico  and 

used  in  testing  cement.  These  specimens  developed 
a  tensile  strength  of  from  80  Ibs.  to  125  Ibs.  per  sq. 
inch  after  six  days'  seasoning  in  the  form.  A  test 
for  compression  developed  a  strength  of  125  Ibs.  per 
square  inch.  Later  on,  a  small  "cube"  of  earth  used 
in  the  little  building  illustrated,  failed  under  com- 
pression at  473  Ibs.  per  square  inch  after  forty-two 
hours'  seasoning. 

!50.",  /IEW 




many  parts  of  the  United  States,  all  tending  to  show 
a  very  general  desire  for  simpler  and  less  costly 
methods  of  building  than  those  commonly  in  use. 

However,  it  seemed  highly  improbable  that  earth 
could  be  compacted  by  hand  sufficiently  to  stand  in  a 
wall  until  the  result  of  a  few  experiments  had  been 
obtained,  made  with  dry  earth  tamped  into  "bri- 
quette" form,  and  tested  in  the  manner  customarily 

Of  course,  these  few  tests  are  of  no  scientific 
value,  but  may  serve,  perhaps,  to  indicate  the  desira- 
bility of  a  more  thorough  investigation  of  the  physi- 
cal properties  of  compressed  earth  by  qualified  ex- 

But  if  such  walls  as  these  had  been  successfully 
used  at  one  time  they  could  be  in  another,  and  the 
evidence  seemed  to  justify  the  making  of  an  experi- 



ment  in  actual  construction  at  the  first  opportunity. 
Fortunately,  there  was  little  difficulty  in  persuading 
the  superintendent  of  the  David  Rankin,  Jr.,  School 
of  Mechanical  Trades  to  permit  the  attempt  to  erect 
with  earth  masonry  a  small  building  for  the  storage 
of  oil  and  gasoline  on  the  school  premises.  While 
this  building  was  to  be  only  ten  feet  by  thirteen  feet 
in  plan,  it  must  be  roofed  and  provided  with  a  door 
and  wjndow  and  so  would  possess  most  of  the  ele- 
ments of  a  larger  house. 

This  experiment  has  convinced  the  author  that 
earth  may  be  used  successfully  for  the  walls  of  small 
dwellings,  for  farm  buildings,  for  fences  and  garden 
walls  or  similar  purposes — possibly  for  army  canton- 
ments. But  the  application  of  this  or  any  new  sys- 
tem of  construction  to  actual  use  will  no  doubt  entail 
considerable  preliminary  study  of  building  processes 
and  may  require  some  slight  modification  of  the  usual 
forms  of  architectural  details. 

There  are  many  advantages  that  would  follow  a 
more  general  use  of  earth  construction,  not  the  least 
of  which  would  be  a  diminution  in  our  enormous  an- 
nual waste  by  fire  and  a  supplementary  saving  in  the 
consumption  of  new  lumber — the  country's  supply 
of  which,  we  are  told,  is  becoming  rapidly  depleted. 
Besides,  there  would  be  no  waste  like  that  in  con- 
crete construction,  for  the  same  wooden  forms  or 
boxing  can  be  used  for  an  indefinite  time  on  any 

Earth  walls,  besides  being  fireproof,  afford  a  very 
efficient  protection  against  extremes  of  temperature 
and  there  may  be  opportunity  for  the  inventor  in  de- 
vising an  equally  cheap  and  effective  construction  foe 
floors  and  roof. 

One  of  our  most  serious  problems  is  that  of  trans- 
portation, which  constitutes  a  large  factor  in  the  cost 
of  building.  Some  of  this  expense  is,  of  course,  un- 
avoidable, because  certain  manufactured  products, 
such  as  iron  pipe,  plumbing  fixtures,  glass  etc.,  must 
be  used  in  any  case.  But  with  earth  already  on  the 
premises  substituted  for  other  manufactured  mate- 
rials used  in  walls,  a  large  part  of  the  transportation 
charges  would  be  eliminated. 

The  possibility  of  improved  artistry  in  earth  build- 
ing seems  unlimited.  The  thicker  walls  permit  an  ef- 
fect of  stability  now  absent  in  most  of  our  house  de- 
signs, particularly  of  the  cheaper  sort,  and  a  know- 
ing use  of,  color  on  the  plaster  covering  might  give 
distinction  to  a  simple  building  at  little  cost.  The  use 
of  plastic  decoration  with  color  added  suggests  the 
possibility  of  an  architectural  development  which 
might  become  distinctively  American. 

While  there  may  exist  at  present  prejudice  against 
the  use  of  earth  as  a  material  fit  only  for  the  dwell- 
ings of  the  very  poor,  it  seems  possible  that  further 
study  by  architects  and  engineers  might  develop  a 
system  of  building  altogether  satisfactory  from  the 

standpoint  of  cost,  construction,  sanitation  and 

The  writer  feels  that  a  single  attempt  at  earth 
buildirfg  has  not  furnished  sufficient  data  for  the 
preparation  of  a  real  specification,  but  perhaps  a  few 
hints  derived  also  from  such  literature  as  was  avail- 
able may  be  useful  to  any  one  wishing  to  undertake 
a  similar  experiment. 

While  in  this  case  a  foundation  of  concrete  extend- 
ing about  8  inches  above  the  surface  of  the  ground 
was  used,  it  is  probable  that  an  earth  foundation 
would  answer  as  well  if  thoroughly  protected  by  a 
waterproof  coating. 

Front   view    showing   finished   building 


The  earth  used  in  building  the  walls  was  obtained 
by  grading  the  site  and  from  the  foundation  trenches. 
The  best  results  were  obtained  with  a  mixture  of 
stiff  yellow  clay  and.  top  soil  in  the  proportion  ap- 
proximately of  one  part  clay  to  two  parts  loam. 

The  earth  should  be  free  from  roots,  twigs  or 
vegetable  substances  and  should  contain  no  lumps  of 
clay  or  gravel  larger  than  will  pass  through  a  1J4 
inch  mesh  screen.  In  tamping  the  gables,  we  used 
earth  sifted  through  a  J4  mcri  mesh  screen,  and  ob- 
tained a  smoother  wall.  When  placed  in  the  form 
the  earth  should  be  only  slightly  damp,  and  until  used 
it  should  be  protected  from  rain  by  a  shed,  tarpaulin 
or  other  means ;  it  should  be  placed  in  the  forms  in 
thin  layers  not  more  than  4  inches  thick,  pressed 
down  with  the  feet  and  rammed  until  solid  with  a 
wooden  rammer,  and  so  on  until  the  boxing  is  filled. 
The  end  of  each  section  of  wall  should  be  tamped  to 
a  slope  which  will  form  the  joint  with  the  next  one 
added  horizontally;  joints  in  successive  courses 
should  not  fall  over  those  in  the  lower  course.  Great 
force  is  not  needed  in  tamping ;  a  quick,  sharp  stroke 



is  the  more  effective.  Strokes  should  not  be  in  uni- 
son Wood  blocks  may  be  placed  in  the  boxing  and 
tamped  into  the  earth  to  serve  as  grounds  for  attach- 
ment of  frames,  wainscoting,  etc.  If  the  top  of  one 
course  is  dry  when  a  second  course  is  laid  it  should 
be  slightly  sprinkled  with  water  to  insure  adhesion. 

Fig.  I  shows  the  form  or  boxing  used,  placed  on 
the  wall,  ready  for  filling.  The  lower  ties  are  first 
placed  at  the  proper  distances  on  the  wall,  then  the 
side  pieces  are  lifted  on  and  the  top  yoke  quickly 
pressed  into  place.  The  steel  plates  on  the  yoke  are 
slotted  and  "halved"  with  the  iron  lugs  screwed  to 
side  pieces  and  hold  the  top  of  the  form  rigidly  in 
place.  A  block  screwed  to  the  top  of  the  tie  holds 
the  lower  part  of  the  boxing  on  one  side,  and  a  simi- 
lar block  on  the  other  end  of  the  tie  is  hinged  in  order 
to  prevent  obstruction  on  extracting  the  tie  from  the 
wall.  For  the  same  purpose  the  tie  is  tapered  and 
made  in  two  parts,  wedged  apart  at  one  end.  On  re- 
moving the  wedge  the  parts  come  together  sufficient- 
ly to  permit  easier  passage  of  the  tie  through  the 
hole.  No  doubt  this  device  may  be  improved.  Tak- 
ing out  the  ties  is  the  only  difficult  part  of  the  whole 
process.  When  the  wall  is  completed  the  holes  may 
easily  be  filled  with  dry  earth  tamped  in  with  a  ham- 
mer or  mallet,  a  little  water  being  first  sprinkled 

around  the  edges  of  the  hole.  Small  defects  arising 
from  accident  may  be  repaired  in  the  same  way. 

No  doubt  with  a  suitable  apparatus  and  more  ex- 
perienced labor  much  greater  speed  in  building  may 
be  accomplished  than  in  this  case.  It  took  two  labor- 
ers eleven  working  days  to  lay  460  cubic  feet  of 
earth,  or  the  equivalent  of  10,000  brick,  and  by  ap- 
plying the  local  price  of  each  type  of  labor,  one  may 
form  his  own  conclusions  as  to  the  comparative  cost. 

It  is  almost  useless  at  this  time  to  attempt  to  make 
accurate  estimates,  but  it  seems  probable  that  earth 
walls,  plastered,  can  be  built  at  from  50  per  cent,  to 
65  per  cent,  less  than  common  brick  walls  without 

In  this  little  building  the  author  has  experimented 
with  various  forms  of  waterproofing;  with  coal  tar 
products  applied  directly  to  the  exterior  surface  of 
the  earth;  with  paint  and  with  waterproofing  mate- 
rial in  the  finishing  coat  of  plaster ;  but  time  will  be 
required  to  determine  the  necessity  of  using  any  of 
these  substances,  or  of  their  relative  usefulness.  The 
author  believes  that  with  improved  apparatus  and 
more  experienced  labor  a  very  smooth  surface  for 
earth  walls  may  be  obtained  and  that  scientific  study 
may  develop  some  means  of  hardening  the  earth  so 
that  a  plaster  coat  would  be  superfluous  even  for 
decorative  purposes. 

Minneapolis  Architects  Have  a  "Colony" 

MINNEAPOLIS  architects  now  boast  of  a 
"colony"  of  their  own.  A  spacious  build- 
ing of  Florentine  design,  located  at 
Second  avenue  S.  and  Twefth  street,  was  recently 
thrown  open  to  the  public. 

"The  exterior  follows  the  Florentine  style  because 
it  lends  itself  peculiarly  well  to  varied  window  ar- 
rangements," Edwin  H.  Hewitt,  architect  stated.  "It 
is  built  of  Indiana  Bedford  stone,  has  a  frontage  of 
65  feet  on  Twelfth  street  and  110  feet  on  Second 
avenue,  and  is  four  stories  high.  The  elevator  well 
terminates  in  a  tower  in  the  upper  story,  and  above 
the  machinery  is  an  artist's  studio.  Even  the  chim- 
ney carries  out  the  design." 

One  of  the  unusual  phases,  according  to  Mr. 
Hewitt's  plan,  is  that  while  each  firm  will  maintain 
its  individual  practice,  many  things  will  be  used  in 
common,  such  as  the  library,  sample  rooms,  stenog- 
raphers' room,  blueprinting  and  specification  print- 

The  third  and  fourth  stories  are  especially  designed 
for  offices,  library,  sample  room,  clients'  room,  con- 
sultation rooms,  blueprinting  room,  contractors'  con- 

sultation and  reference  room,  stenographers'  room, 
a  fireproof  vault  for  permanent  records  and  valuable 
plans,  and  large  drafting  rooms  that  are  subdivided 
by  glass  partitions,  making  them  private  for  each 
firm,  yet  easily  accessible  to  others,  when  consulta- 
tion or  suggestions  are  desired. 

These  two  floors  will  house  a  group  of  professional 
men.  A  special  addition  on  the  first  floor,  and  a  large 
part  of  the  basement,  will  be  occupied  by  profes- 
sional clubs,  such  as  the  Attic  club,  the  Minnesota 
Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects,  the 
Post  and  Lintel  club  and  the  Skylight  club.  The 
basement  also  will  contain  a  model  kitchen  and  tea 
room,  where  meals  will  be  served  at  noon  to  occu- 
pants of  the  building  and  their  friends. 

One  of  the  rooms  in  the  basement  will  be  for  the 
exclusive  use  of  draftsmen  who  desire  to  study  at 
night.  A  professor  from  the  University  of  Minne- 
sota will  be  available  as  instructor  in  design  and  the 
studies  will  be  in  the  nature  of  university  extension 

At  one  side  of  the  building,  away  from  Twelfth 
street,  is  a  large  lot  that  is  to  be  terraced  and  devel- 
oped into  gardens  in  the  spring.  A  colonnaded  veran- 
da opens  on  this  space  from  the  first  floor. 


Two   School   Buildings    in  Syracuse  N.  Y, 

JAMES  A.  RANDALL,  Architect 

(See   plate   form   for   illustrations) 

Delaware  School 

A  TWO-STORY  and  basement  fireproof,  brick 
school,  having  an  anaemic  department  on  the 
roof — containing  an  assembly-hall,  gymna- 
sium, public  library  and  stack-room,  bank,  17  class 
rooms,  2  industrial  class  rooms.  Industrial  manual 
training,  school  manual  training,  draughting  and 
blue  printing  rooms,  lumber  storage  and  finishing 
rooms,  school  cooking,  domestic  science,  dining 
room,  millinery  and  sewing  room,  model  flat  of  four 
rooms,  swimming  pool,  shower  rooms,  boys'  and 
girls'  locker  rooms,  boys'  and  girls'  toilet  rooms, 
kindergarten,  principal's  office,  reception  room,  medi- 
cal and  dental  clinics,  teachers'  rest  room,  reference 
library,  anaemic  department  containing  two  class 
rooms,  clinic  dining  room,  serving  pantry,  store 
room  and  covered  porch ;  store  rooms,  electrical 
room,  boiler  room,  fan  room,  coal  bunkers. 

The  school  will  accommodate  1,000  pupils. 

It  was  built  during  1915-16-17-18  and  opened  in 
September,  1918. 

It  cost  completely  furnished  $343,270. 

Mr.  James  A.  Randall  was  the  architect  for  this 
structure  as  well  as  for  the  Blodgett  Vocational 
School  here  described.  Illustrations  of  these  build- 
ings will  be  found  in  the  plate  form  of  this  issue. 

Blodgett  Vocational  High  School 

A  THREE-STORY  and  basement,  brick  fire- 
*  *•  proof  building  containing  an  auditorium,  li- 
brary, mail  office  and  two  private  offices,  teachers' 
rest  room,  two  ante-rooms,  two  dressing  rooms, 
superintendent's  office,  8  class  rooms,  4  drawing 
rooms;  14  store,  stack  and  locker  rooms;  3  tool 
rooms,  6  janitor's  closets,  kitchen,  lunch  room,  fac- 
ulty lunch  room,  two  physics,  chemistry  and  biology 
.laboratories,  physics^and  chemistry  lecture  rooms, 
boiler  demonstration,  forge  foundry,  steam  fitting 
and  metal  working,  demonstration,  printing,  emer- 
gency, elementary  and  advanced  machine  shops,  pat- 
tern making,  wood  turning,  elementary  and  advanced 
cabinet  making,  wood  working  machinery,  finishing, 
dry  kiln,  lumber  storage,  lecture,  blue  printing  and 
dark  rooms,  two  apparatus  rooms,  dressmaking, 
millinery,  commercial  bookkeeping,  typewriting, 
stenography,  applied  design,  laundry,  domestic 
science  kitchen,  model  flat  of  5  rooms,  motion  picture 
booth,  fan  rooms,  transformers,  electrical,  electrical 
generator,  boiler  room  and  coal  pockets. 

Built  during  1916-17-18,  this  structure  cost,  com- 
pletely furnished,  $545,000.  There  are  1,300  pupils 
accommodated,  and  thirteen  toilets  for  faculty  and 

Experiments  in  Art-Teaching  in  the  Schools 

THE  extremely  practical  side  of  the  arts  was 
ably  emphasized  by  School  Superintendent 
Corson,  of  Newark,  N.  J.,  in  speaking  of  the 
approval  recently  given  by  the  Board  of  Education 
to  his  plan  for  the  extension  of  the  system  of  inten- 
sive teaching  of  the  manual  arts  throughout  the 
entire  school  system. 

"Art,"  said  Dr.  Corson,  "is  of  value  to  all  manu- 
facturing interests.  France  owes  her  preeminence 
as  an  industrial  nation  to  the  fact  that  she  combines 
beauty  and  utility  in  all  her  products.  The  high 
prices  these  products  command  in  the  markets  of  the 
world  are  due  primarily  to  the  element  of  beauty.  It 
would  be  a  mere  venture  to  say  how  much  is  paid 
for  beauty  and  how  much  for  utility,  but  the  ratio  is 
certainly  more  than  half  and  may  be  as  much  as  five 
to  three. 

"The  American  schools  cannot  afford  to  ignore  a 
principle  so  clearly  seen,"  Dr.  Corson  stated.  "The 

schools  must  educate  all  to  an  appreciation  of  beauty 
as  an  element  in  manufactured  goods  of  all  kinds, 
and  must  not  only  develop  a  body  of  consumers,  but 
must  lay  the  foundations  for  training  a  body  of 
workers  for  the  factories  of  the  country." 

Teaching  with  such  a  purpose  was  scarcely  possible 
under  the  old  system.  The  action  taken  by  the  com- 
mittee in  approving  his  recommendation  is  of  very 
great  importance.  It  establishes  a  new  epoch  for  the 
teaching  of  art,  of  domestic  science,  of  domestic  art 
and  of  manual  training  in  the  schools. 

"It  has  been  customary  to  teach  these  subjects 
without  much  relation  to  each  other,"  he  continued. 
"Each  had  its  own  field,  and  each  was  given  approxi- 
mately one  hour  of  time  a  week.  It  is  not  difficult 
for  any  one  to  understand  that  this  was  merely  play- 
ing with  these  important  subjects,  or,  to  put  it  dif- 
ferently, it  was  teaching  subjects  with  very  substan- 
tial educational  value  in  a  dilettante  manner." 


While  Dr.  Corson  felt  that  considerable  gain  was 
made  in  the  manual  arts  when  they  were  more  closely 
related  he  felt  that  the  problem  of  getting  the  whole 
value  of  these  subjects  had  not  yet  been  solved.  As 
he  put  it,  "there  was  still  difficulty  in  the  way  of 
realizing  to  the  full  the  possibilities  in  these  several 
subjects.  A  reasonable  time  was  not  available  to 
teach  them,  for  the  program  of  studies  was  full  to 
overflowing  and  the  demand  for  time  could  not  be 
met  without  a  radical  adjustment  of  the  schedule." 

Having  arrived  at  this  viewpoint,  Dr.  Corson  de- 
cided to  make  another  move  and  requested  four 
schools  to  try  out  a  new  schedule  devoting  a  period  a 
day  for  five  weeks,  alternating  them  with  other  sub- 
jects in  five-week  cycles.  The  theory  was  the  pupils 
would  make  such  great  gain  that  the  loss  in  interven- 
ing cycles  would  be  comparatively  small.  In  one 
school  it  was  worked  out  so  successfully  that  educa- 
tors from  other  cities  have  come  to  see  the  plan  in 
operation  and  the  results  to  be  shown. 

Another  reason  for  satisfaction  in  the  new  move 
expressed  by  Dr.  Corson  was  the  direct  reaction  on 
the  pupils.  He  said : 

"In  all  these  subjects  there  is  the  element  of  do- 
ing. To  make  something  that  is  at  once  useful  and 
beautiful  appeals  strongly  to  every  one.  It  calls 
into  activity  the  ability  of  the  pupil.  The  purpose  of 
an  academic  education  is  largely  to  train  and  to  pre- 
pare for  the  future,  but  these  motor  subjects  have 
an  immediate  purpose  to  accomplish.  There  is  im- 
mediate use  for  the  principles  learned  and  the  mak- 
ing of  things  gives  the  pupils  a  sense  of  accomplish- 
ment and  of  joy  that  adults  have  in  doing  things  that 
are  worth  while. 

"The  time  is  long  past  when  these  subjects  can 
be  called  fads.  It  is  remarkable  that  in  a  great  work- 
ing nation  like  the  United  States  such  rich  subjects 
are  decried.  That  such  has  been  done  is  due  to  the 
strength  of  tradition  and  to  the  aristocratic  notion 
that  education  was  a  process  of  class  selection  and  it 
was  best  accomplished  by  studying  the  useless  or  the 
ornamental  merely. 

"Chinese  education  until  recently  was  an  extreme 
example  of  this  kind  of  an  education.  It  is  my  be- 
lief that  the  schools  of  today  should  train  for  liv- 
ing in  a  modern  world." 

Unwise  Building  Laws — Written  and  Unwritten" 


THE  housing  problem  is  above  all  the  construc- 
tion problem  and  the  construction  problem  is 
the  elimination  of  waste.  And  one  of  the  causes 
of    building    waste    is    arbitrary    and    unintelligent 
regulation- — which  is  what  I  am  asked  to  discuss. 

Now  unwise  laws  are  taxes,  and  fall  like  rain  on 
the  just  as  well  as  on  the  unjust.  And  the  unjust 
fellow  is  the  one  who  usually  gets  the  umbrella !  The 
incidence  of  building  codes  like  the  incidence  of  taxes 
is  apt  to  Work  injustice.  It  is  the  honest  builder  and 
the  innocent  public  who  pay  the  Jerry  Builders 

So  one  is  tempted  to  say  that  all  building  laws  are 
unwise.  But  of  course  that  is  not  quite  true.  In  so 
far  as  they  are  teaching  codes  and  not  taxing  codes 
they  are  beneficial.  And  if  we  could  be  sure  of  hon- 
est and  skilled  administration  our  building  codes 
could  consist  of  just  two  words — "anything  safe." 

But  since  unfortunately  we  cannot  yet  write  our 
building  laws  on  this  basis,  we  must  content  ourselves 
with  certain  obvious  improvements  in  the  existing 
system.  As  far  as  possible  our  codes  should  be 
standardized  throughout  the  country.  "Factors  of 
safety"  should  be  reduced  to  the  basis  of  honest  con- 
struction. And  in  the  last  analysis,  to  lower  our 

"*"  Nati°'Ml  Housin!>  Association',  Conference, 

"Factors  of  Safety"  we  must  raise  our  standard  of 

"One-two-four  concrete"  should  not  have  to  com- 
pete against  "One-five-ten-twenty  Concrete."  The 
$20  ingredient  should  be  eliminated.  This  means 
honest,  well-paid  inspectors. 

Superintendents  of  construction  should  be  licensed 
—like  drug  clerks— and  held  responsible.  The  bur- 
den of  protecting  against  fraudulent  construction 
should  be  transferred  from  the  Building  Departments 
maintained  at  the  cost  of  the  taxpayer,  to  the  build- 
ing— at  the  cost  of  the  dishonest  constructor. 

We  should  have  special  sections  in  our  codes  gov- 
erning the  little  house — the  'laboring  man's  house. 
Generic  laws  are  sure  to  pinch  some  there  and  the 
smallest  house  deserves  the  greatest  consideration. 
In  the  aggregate  it  represents  the  greatest  invest- 
ment, quite  aside  from  its  paramount  importance  in 
welfare  of  the  community. 

But  besides  the  written  building  law,  there  are  cer- 
tain unwritten  laws  that  actually  control  building 
operations  today,  and  I  am  going  to  take  the  privilege 
of  extending  the  content  of  my  subject  so  as  to  in- 
clude these  invisible  codes;  for  the  simple  reason, 
that  in  my  judgment  they  much  more  vitally  affect 
the  cost  of  the  working  man's  home  than  the  written 



The  written  laws  consist  of  the  building  and  hous- 
ing codes  and  the  insurance  regulations,  while  the 
unwritten  law  is  based  on  the  rules  of  the  labor 
union,  the  trade  agreements  of  the  materials  pro- 
ducers, distributors  and  contractors  and  certain  "Un- 
holy Alliances"  between  them  all. 

In  the  last  analysis  our  troubles  are  not  so  much  in 
our  building  code  as  in  our  code  of  morals.  Too 
many  of  our  buildings  are  laid  up  in  graft  instead 
of  honest  old  fashioned  mortar ! 

It  is  the  same  kind  of  malady  that  has  caused  a 
good  deal  of  our  present  business  depression.  I  was 
talking  with  a  banker  the  other  day  and  he  said  the 
same  thing  apropos  of  America's  foreign  trade :  That 
South  American  merchants  would  buy  goods  from 
American  agents  on  sample  and  then  get  goods  that 
were  nothing  like  what  they  bought.  He  said  the 
only  trade  mark  in  the  world  that  was  100  per  cent, 
good  was  the  English  trade  mark.  We  are  losing 
our  foreign  trade,  and  we  will  never  recapture  it  un- 
til we  are  honest  in  our  trademarks  and  deliveries. 

That  is  a  very  unfortunate  thing  to  have  to  say  of 
your  own  country,  but  I  am  afraid  it  is  true.  And  it 
runs  through  many  of  our  industries,  and  much  of 
our  construction  work,  and  the  point  of  incidence 
where  it  hurts  and  pinches  as  much  as  anywhere  else 
is  in  the  workman's  own  housing ! 

The  unwritten  laws  in  my  judgment  are  the  most 
sinister  and  the  greatest  surtax  on  the  small  house. 
The  big  fellow  can  afford  to  pay  those  taxes  perhaps, 
but  the  little  man  cannot. 

Let  us  make  a  guess,  for  example,  at  the  price 
which  the  little  fellow,  usually  the  working  man  him- 
self, is  liable  to  pay  for  all  those  factors  of  dishon- 
esty and  waste — we  might  call  them  "Surtaxes." 
They  might  be  roughly  but  conservatively  appor- 
tioned as  follows : 

To  unwise  Building  Codes — probably  not  more 
than  10  per  cent. 

To  labor — stifled  production —  6  hours  real  work 
for  8  hours  pay,  and  arbitrary  rules  against  eco- 
nomic use  of  labor  and  materials  (the  workingman's 
own  contribution)  let  us  charitably  say  25  per  cent. 

To  material,  through  "Unholy  Alliance"  between 
producer,  distributor,  builders  and  certain  "mislead- 
ers"  of  labor — to  put  it  modestly — 25  per  cent. 

In  short,  for  every  $100  worth  of  home  he  pays 
$160 ;  in  many  instances,  of  course,  a  great  deal  more, 
but  my  figures  are  simply  to  visualize  the  situation. 
And  of  this  surtax  of  $60  the  greater  part,  let  me  re- 
peat, is  not  paid  under  the  written,  but  the  unwritten 
law.  The  great  bulk  of  it  must  be  charged  to  our 
code  of  morals. 

Yet  there  are  certain  sections  in  many  of  our 
building  laws  that  are  disgraceful  to  our  intelligence 
as  these  dishonest  practices  are  to  our  morals. 

I  read  recently  the  intere'ting  statement  that  the 

foundations  normally  placed  under  a  small  house 
would,  if  properly  designed,  support  23  houses  of 
the  same  size.  That  is  a  little  misleading,  because, 
of  course,  the  writer  meant  that  if  you  could  arrange 
the  23  houses  so  as  to  bring  the  load  down  to  a  point 
of  concentration  and  meet  it  with  a  concrete  pillar, 
you  could  put  23  houses  on  a  pillar  containing  no 
more  concrete  than  that  put  in  the  cellar  of  one  of 
the  houses ;  but  it  is  an  illustration  of  the  situation. 

I  read  also  a  discussion  as  to  whether  6-inch  cinder 
concrete  walls  cannot  be  substituted  for  the  8-inch 
wall  of  brick  or  gravel  concrete;  also  as  to  whether 
certain  co-efficients  and  factors  of  safety  could  not 
properly  be  reduced  for  special  cases. 

I  might  add  that,  as  an  illustration  of  what  can  be 
done  in  economy  of  material,  some  years  ago  I  put 
up  15  or  16  houses  with  a  concrete  wall  section  in 
which  there  was  60  per  cent,  of  voids,  the  inner  and 
outer  shells  of  the  sections  being  but  an  inch  and  a 
half  thick. 

As  to  the  "Unwritten  Laws" — we  should  have  a 
trade  union  reformation.  We  should  have  member- 
ship on  the  basis  of  efficiency  like  the  old  Guilds.  We 
should  substitute  leveling  up  for  leveling  down,  and 
in  place  of  the  slogan  "An  injury  to  one  is  the  con- 
cern of  all,"  we  should  put  "the  benefit  of  all  is  the 
concern  of  each  one."  Obviously  we  should  eliminate 
all  rules  restricting  output  in  construction. 

To  sum  up.  there  are  a  half  dozen  very  obvious 
things  for  us  to  do : 

1.  Standardize    Building    Codes    throughout    the 

2.  Base  co-efficients  on  honest  construction  and 
engineering  practice. 

3.  Put  the  burden  of  "protecting  the  public"  on 
the   builder — license   the   building   constructor    and 

4.  Eliminate  the  "Unwritten  Laws"  of  waste,  lim- 
ited production  and  graft. 

5.  Provide  a  special  section  in  the  building  code 
covering  the  little  house — the  laboring  man's  home. 

6.  Secure  the  aid  of  the  Government  in  scientific 
research  and  study  for  the  housing  industry. 

And  in  explanation  of  this  last  item  on  the  pro- 
gram, let  me  add  that  we  do  not  want  subsidies 
from  the  government  to  build  houses.  But  on  the 
other  hand,  we  are  entitled  to  the  same  kind  of  aid 
in  the  housing  problem  that  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture gives  to  the  farmer.  Let  us  hope  that  when 
they  organize  a  Department  of  Social  Welfare  or 
whatever  they  choose  to  call  it,  they  will  co-ordinate 
the  various  useful  agencies  now  functioning  in  dif- 
ferent government  bureaus,  in  such  a  way  that  they 
can  all  be  brought  to  bear  on  the  problem  of  home 
construction.  The  efforts  of  this  association  might 
well  be  exerted  toward  influencing  the  Government 
to  take  that  action. 



Doorway,  Trinity  Church, 

Newport,  Rhode  Island 

(See  reproduction  of  original  drawing  by  O.  K.  Eggers  on  opposite  page) 

In  a  preceding  issue  a  general  view  of  Trinity  Church 
was  presented.  Mr.  Eggers'  admirably  executed  sketch  of 
the  doorway  shown  herewith  offers  excellent  suggestions. 
The  quiet  dignity  of  this  old  church,  as  it  stands  surrounded 
by  its  graveyard,  will  impress  the  visitor. 

Trinity  was  built  in  IJ26,  but  by  whom  designed  no  one 
has  yet  been  able  to  discover.  In  1^62  the  church  was 
sawed  in  two  and  lengthened  so  as  to  about  double  its 
original  capacity.  But  so  reverently  was  this  church 
regarded  that  nothing  was  done  then,  or  since,  to  impair 
the  original  effect  and  character  of  the  interior. 

This  doorway  indicates  the  conscientious  attention  with 
which  the  Colonial  builder-architect  worked.  Its  moldings 
and  fluted  pilasters  show  the  handmade  work  that  makes 
a  Colonial  detail  a  thing  of  art  and  beauty  as  opposed  to 
the  machine  cut  moldings  of  the  present. 

"In  their  narrow  beds,  forever  laid,  the  rude  forefathers 
of  the  hamlet  sleep."  Their  resting  place  is  in  the  shadow 
of  the  church,  and  the  whole  locality  is  one  to  make  for 
quietness  and  thoughtfulness. 

The  two  story  meeting  houses  in  New  England  are  of 
unusual  interest,  and  while  many  of  them  architecturally 
present  a  better  result,  we  doubt  if  any  of  our  early  churches 
have  received  more  solicitous  care  or  have  been  more 
reverently  regarded  than  Trinity  at  Newport. 


4     *~-'    ' 

TEE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  Serin  at  Early  Ameritar,  AriHtectur, 


More     Skilled    Workmen     for     the 
Building  Trades 

man of  the  Senate  Special  Committee  on  Re- 
construction and  Production,  has  recently  completed 
a  nation-wide  survey  of  the  housing  situation  of  the 
country.  As  a  result  of  his  investigations  he  believes 
that  one  of  the  most  important  problems  confronting 
the  construction  field  today  is  the  matter  of  securing 
skilled  workmen  in  the  building  trades.  It  is  almost 
commonplace  to  refer  to  the  demand  for  building 
now  impending.  It  would  be  most  unfortunate  if 
that  demand  were  augmented  by  a  lack  of  skilled 
workmen  after  other  deterrent  factors  had  been  ad- 

With  this  in  mind,  Senator  Calder  has  addressed  a 
letter  to  the  Governor  of  every  State  in  the  Union, 
urging  that  steps  be  taken  to  establish  trade  schools 
in  the  several  states  for  the  purpose  of  encouraging 
young  men  to  learn  the  building  trades. 

The  young  American  has  shown  a  tendency  to  ally 
himself  with  trades  which  require  a  certain  amount 
of  skill.  Hence  we  find  among  the  electricians,  the 
plumbers  and  the  masons  numerous  young  men  of 
American  birth.  This,  however,  is  not  the  case  in  the 
other  building  trades.  These  have  been  left  more 
largely  for  men  from  foreign  lands,  who,  dissatisfied 
with  the  conditions  in  their  fatherland,  have  come 
to  this  country,  and,  without  training  or  technical  ap- 
prenticeship, have  started  at  the  foot  of  the  ladder 
to  try  for  success.  The  war  has  cut  off  this  source 
of  supply.  Without  trained  workmen,  and  in  suffi- 
cient numbers,  the  building  program  will  be  unneces- 
sarily delayed. 

It  is  therefore  reasonable  to  consider  Senator 
Calder's  suggestion  to  foster  building  trades  schools. 
Technical  training  is  always  useful,  and  to  get  it  in- 
tensively and  systematically  in  a  recognized  school 
is  equivalent  to  a  large  amount  of  experience. 

A    NOTHER  fact  which   Senator  Calder's  com- 
mittee  has  revealed  is  that  the  supply  of  labor 
depleted    through    over-specialization.      Certain 


trades,  such  as  paper  hanging,  have  a  busy  season 
and  a  dull,  with  the  result  that  these  trades  must  be 

highly  paid,  or  else  the  men  engaged  therein  must  be 
competent  to  function  in  other  trades  in  the  off  sea- 
sons. If  apprentices  might  be  trained  in  trade  schools 
in  a  sufficiently  wide  range  of  related  activities  to 
enable  them  to  adjust  themselves  to  changes  in  in- 
dustrial conditions  and  seasonable  demands  of  the 
construction  industry,  it  would  be  a  direct  benefit  not 
only  to  the  tradesmen  themselves  but  to  the  general 
public.  The  constant  leaving  of  affairs  to  chance  is 
one  of  the  deplorable  tendencies  of  American  life. 
The  way  in  which  we  chose  our  professions,  or  the 
way  in  which  the  humbler  trades  are  entered — arbi- 
trarily and  with  no  thought  of  the  larger  needs  or 
the  larger  results,  is  shiftless  and  un-American. 
When  the  cry  is  for  skilled  workmen  for  the  building 
trades,  the  answer  must  be  to  train  the  workmen,  and 
not  leave  the  fulfilment  of  our  enormous  building 
program  to  accident  and  the  whims  of  workers. 

The  American  Specification  Institute 

THAT  the  subject  of  specifications  is  one  that 
receives  the  serious  consideration  of  architects 
is  evidenced  by  the  many  communications  received  in 
response  to  the  editorial  printed  in  THE  AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT  of  November  17,  1920.  Excerpts  from 
a  few  of  these  have  been  printed  in  the  issues  of 
December  15-22.  Unexpectedly,  but  not  without 
reason,  communications  have  been  received  from 
manufacturers  of  building  materials.  These  inter- 
ests are  concerned  with  proper  specifications,  as  they 
often  suffer  damage  through  those  improperly  writ- 
ten. The  owner  can  also  suffer  a  loss  from  the  same 
cause.  When  the  specification  is  capable  of  human 
interpretation  and  execution,  the  contractor  becomes 
an  implement  of  construction  and  in  a  measure  an 
impersonal  element.  Responsibility  is  the  attribute 
of  the  architect  alone,  as  he  produces  the  specifica- 
tion and  supervises  its  fulfillment. 

The  importance  of  the  person  who  writes  the  speci- 
fication is  becoming  better  appreciated.  Anything 
which  will  aid  him  in  improving  his  product  should 
receive  the  hearty  support  of  all  parties  to  the  con- 
struction of  buildings  and  other  structures. 

THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  would  presume  to 
suggest  to  those  having  in  hand  the  formation  of  The 
American  Specification  Institute  a  consideration  of 



those  organizations  that  are  engaged  now  in  work 
that  is  an  element  of  specifications.  The  very  im- 
portant work  of  the  American  Society  for  Testing 
Materials  very  wisely  can  be  left  in  charge  of  that 
organization.  In  like  manner  the  same  applies  to 
the  specifications  of  the  American  Societies  of  Il- 
luminating Engineers,  Heating  and  Ventilating  Engi- 
neers, Mechanical  Engineers,  Civil  Engineers;  the 
American  Institutes  of  Electrical  Engineers,  Mining 
and  Metallurgical  Engineers,  The  American  Con- 
crete Institute,  The  National  Fire  Protection  Associ- 
ation, The  American  Railway  Engineering  Associa- 
tion and  others  produce  very  excellent  and  valuable 
specifications  for  construction  and  the  assemblage  of 

The  American  Institute  of  Architects  and  the  in- 
dependent state  and  local  architectural  organizations 
also  have  rendered  valuable  service  in  adding  to  speci- 
fication knowledge  and  standards. 

In  fact,  a  close  and  intimate  relationship  between 
The  American  Specification  Institute  and  all  these 
organizations  is  essential  that  it  may  become  the 
clearing  house  of  their  efforts  in  so  far  as  the  writing 
of  specifications  is  concerned.  Having  in  hand  only 
one  thing,  it  can  take  the  findings  of  these  organiza- 
tions and  reduce  them  to  exact  and  specific  data  for 
actual  use.  There  is  no  reason  why  a  hearty  co-op- 
eration should  not  obtain  between  them. 

The  plan  and  scope  of  The  American  Specification 
Institute,  which  it  is  understood  will  soon  be  ready 
for  general  publication,  will  be  studied  with  interest. 


TODAY'S  problem  is  the  price  problem. 
On  page  107  of  this  issue  there  appears  Part  1 
of  an  important  article  by  Edmund  D.  Fisher,  vice- 
president  of  Bank  of  Detroit.     It  is  "A  Study  of 

Mr.  Fisher  shows  just  what  prices  are  and  what 
affects  them.  It  may  seem  a  trifle  curious  to  a 
reader  of  this  journal  to  intimate  that  it  is  neces- 
sary to  have  explained  to  him  such  a  subject,  but 
if  is  only  too  true  that  architects,  as  well  as  other 
business  men,  are  sometimes  apt  to  explain  a  great 
many  things  by  that  old  and  time-honored  "supply 
and  demand"  catchword. 

Supply  and  demand  is  a  real  factor,  no  doubt, 
but  is  it  thoroughly  understood? 

What  Mr.  Fisher  has  to  say  is  fact,  based  upon 

fundamental  economic  principles.  To  read  his  ar- 
ticle is  to  understand  better  the  so-called  price 
trend.  And  what  is  of  more  interest  and  real  "dol- 
lars and  cents"  value  to  the  architect  at  the  present 
moment  than  that  thing  which  will  further  help 
him  to  gain  a  better  perspective  of  prices  and  which 
will  increase  his  knowledge  of  the  factors  neces- 
sary to  bring  about  an  orderly  decline? 

Fine  Arts  in  the  Government 

A  SECRETARY  of  the  fine  arts  has  been  ru- 
mored as  a  possibility  for  the  Harding  Cabinet. 
The  Arts  Club  of  Washington  has  started  a  move- 
ment to  induce  Congress  to  create  a  Department  of 
the  Fine  Arts. 

Precedent  for  such  an  office  is  furnished  by  the 
French  cabinet,  where  the  minister  of  education  is 
also  minister  of  fine  arts. 

This  would  involve  the  establishment  by  the  gov- 
ernment of  a  great  national  school  of  music,  drama, 
painting,  sculpture,  architecture  and  their  allied 

That  such  a  school  under  the  protection  of  the 
national  government  would  improve  art  education1  all 
over  the  country  is  without  doubt.  Every  art  school 
would  have  to  raise  its  standard  of  instruction  in  or- 
der to  be  eligible  to  become  an  authorized  branch  of 
this  great  national  school. 

It  would  be  able  to  develop  an  appreciative  atti- 
tude toward  art  among  those  vast  groups  of  the 
general  public  where  now  such  an  appreciation  is  al- 
most negligible.  By  proper  educational  publicity 
methods,  much  good  might  be  accomplished.  The 
numerous  organizations  now  independently  further- 
ing the  progress  of  the  fine  arts  could  unite  their 
forces  and  exchange  experiences  in  a  manner  that 
would  enble  each  to  reach  a  far  larger  audience  than 
individual  efforts  now  make  possible. 

Politicians  will  undoubtedly  raise  the  objection 
that  this  should  not  come  to  pass  at  a  time  when 
retrenchment  of  governmental  expense  is  in  progress, 
especially  in  view  of  the  fact  that  we  do  not  even 
maintain  a  Secretary  of  Education.  But  if  it  were 
possible  to  take  that  important  step  it  would  be 
fitting,  and  an  augury  of  hope,  if  extended  official 
attention  were  given  specifically  to  the  fine  arts. 
The  amount  of  constructive,  valuable  work  that 
could  be  accomplished  by  a  competent  executive 
mind  would  far  overbalance  the  financial  outlay. 


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VOL.   CXIX,   No.   2353 


JANUARY   26,    1921 



VOL.  cxix,  NO.  2353  THE     AMERICAN     ARCHITECT 

JANUARY  26,    1921 




VOL.  cxix,  NO.  2353  THE    AMERICAN    ARCHITECT 

JANUARY  26,    1921 









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Heating  and  Ventilating  Industrial  Buildings 

Part  III.  (Continued] 

Hot-Blast  Systems 

By  CHARLES  L.  HUBBARD,  Heating  Engineer. 

A  TYPE  of  building  frequently  used  for  machine 
work  and  similar  manufacturing  processes  is 
shown  in  Fig.  1,  and  is  well  adapted  to  hot- 
blast  heating.  In  small  and  medium  size  buildings 
a  single  fan  and  heater  unit  is  placed  near  the 
center,  and  main  distributing  ducts  run  in  both 
directions  toward  the  ends.  In  the  case  shown, 
two  heating  units  would  be  used,  one  on  either  side 
of  the  central  bay,  near  the  center,  in  order  not  to 
interfere  with  the  traveling  crane  beneath  the  mon- 
itor. The  main  distributing  ducts  are  run  through 
the  roof  trusses  and  branches  are  brought  down  on 
posts  to  within  5  or  6  feet  of  the  floor  and  turned 
so  as  to  discharge  at  a  slight  angle  toward  the  outer 
walls.  The  galleries  are  supplied  through  shorter 
branches  as  indicated.  The  arrangement  for  a  one 
story  building,  without  galleries,  would  be  the  same 
as  shown  in  Fig.  1,  by  omitting  the  upper  inlets. 


Arrangements  of  this  kind  work  well  when  the 
horizontal  distance  from  the  air  inlet  to  the  outer 
wall  is  not  greater  than  20  feet.  When  the  distance 
exceeds  this  the  air  may  be  blown  straight  downward 
from  the  inlets  instead  of  at  an  angle  and  another 
row  of  inlets  should  be  ranged  along  each  outer  wall 
or  near  it.  Another  way,  for  a  wide  building,  is  to 
place  the  warm  air  inlets  as  shown  in  Fig.  1,  and 
carry  return  ducts  along  the  outer  walls  with  open- 
ings near  or  in  the  floor.  In  this  way  the  warm  air 
is  drawn  over  toward  the  outer  walls  where  it  is 
most  needed. 

In  machine  shops,  where  most  of  the  occupants  are 

actively  engaged,  a  normal  temperature  of  60  to  65 
degrees  is  considered  ample,  while  the  offices  and 
drafting  room  should  be  maintained  at  68  to  70 
degrees  in  the  coldest  weather.  It  often  happens 
that  while  the  lowest  continued  temperature  does  not 
fall  below  -(-  10  degrees,  or  possibly  zero,  there  may 
be  infrequent  periods  when  it  falls  to  —  10  or  —  20 


degrees.  It  is  usually  sufficient  in  cases  of  this  kind 
to  proportion  the  heating  equipment  for  zero  and 
take  chances  on  the  short  duration  of  colder  weather 
in  plants  where  the  men  are  more  or  less  actively 
engaged,  as  in  machine  shops,  foundries,  forge  shops, 
etc.  For  example,  a  shop  designed  for  a  tempera- 
ture of  60  degrees  in  zero  weather  will  only  fall 






to  52  degrees  when  it  is  10  degrees  below  zero,  which 
will  not  prove  especially  uncomfortable  in  any  cases. 
The  air  volume  to  be  supplied  in  a  building  of  this 
general  type  is  more  commonly  based  on  heating  with 
re-circulated  air  in  zero  weather.  In  cases  of  this 
kind  the  total  heat  loss  by  transmission  and  leak- 
age is  first  computed  for  zero  outside,  and  sufficient 
air  circulated  to  offset  this  with  a  temperature  range 
of  80  or  90  degrees. 


The  total  heat  loss  from  a  shop  is  1,000,000 
thermal  units  per  hour  in  zero  Weather.  The  build- 
ing is  to  be  warmed  by  recirculating  the  air,  return- 
ing it  to  the  heater  at  60  degrees  and  delivering  it 
through  the  warm  air  inlets  at  60  -)-  80  =  140 
degrees.  What  volume  of  air  must  be  moved 
by  the  fan  per  minute  to  supply  the  required  amount 
of  heat?  Here  we  have 

H  =  1,000,000;  T  =  80;  to  find  V. 

Substituting  these  in  the  formula  previously  given 
we  have 

STOR     mm  nmr 


55  x  1,000,000 
V  =  —  —  =  687,500  cubic  feet  per  hour  or 

687,500  -f-  60  =  =  11,460  cu.  ft.  per  minute. 

When  there  is  an  abundance  of  exhaust  steam, 
or  the  number  of  workmen  is  large  compared  with 
the  cubic  contents  of  the  building,  a  volume  of  out- 
side air  equal  to  one  to  three  complete  changes  per 
hour  should  be  supplied  in  the  coldest  weather,  in- 
creasing this  to  30  or  40  cubic  feet  per  occupant  per 
minute  as  the  outside  temperature  rises. 


Foundries  contain  more  or  less  steam  and 
irritating  gases,  and  are  best  ventilated  by  a  pair 
of  fans,  one  for  the  supply  of  air  and  one  for  its 
removal.  Ventilation  by  means  of  skylights  or  mon- 

FIG.     4.      ANOTHER     ARRANGEMENT     FOR 

Both    supply  and   exhaust  ducts   are   carried  on   ceilings 

itor  windows,  except  in  warm  weather,  causes  the 
steam  to  condense  in  the  presence  of  the  cooler  air 
entering  through  the  windows,  thus  making  condi- 
tions worse  rather  than  better.  For  the  best  results 
the  air  should  be  admitted  and  discharged  near  the 
floor,  as  shown  in  Fig.  2,  as  this  maintains  a  zone 
or  layer  of  fresh  air  in  the  space  occupied  by  the 
workmen.  Furthermore,  the  gases  which  are  present 
are  heavier  than  air  and  must  be  drawn  off  from  the 
lower  part  of  the  room.  When  the  work  is  such  that 
steam  and  gas  are  present  only  in  small  amounts, 
the  exhaust  fan  may  be  shut  down;  also  in  warm 
weather  exhaust  ventilation  may  be  through  the  mon- 
itor, with  a  portion,  at  least,  of  the  fresh  air  ad- 
mitted by  way  of  the  lower  windows.  The  same  gen- 



eral  method  of  ventilation  may  be 
employed  for  a  forge  shop. 

The  equipment  for  buildings  of 
this  kind  is  usually  designed  for 
maintaining  a  temperature  of  50  to 
55  degrees  in  zero  weather.  Suffi- 
cient fresh  air  should  be  supplied  at 
all  times  to  keep  the  building  clear 
of  smoke,  and  may  be  based  on 
four  or  five  changes  per  hour  for  a 
stratum  10  or  12  feet  high,  over  the 
entire  floor,  for  iron  foundries  and 
forge  shops,  and  twice  that  amount 
for  brass  foundries. 

Shoe  shops,  jewelry  factories  and 
buildings  of  this  general  type  carry- 
ing   light    machinery,    are    usually 
several  stories  in 
height    and     re- 
quire    a     some- 
w  h  a  t    different 
treatment.    Two 
general  plans  are 

e  m  p  1  o  y  e  d,  as     FIG   s    AN  ARRANGEMENT  OF 

shown    in    Figs. 

3    and    4.      The 

first  of  these   is 

known  as  the  "stand  pipe"  method,  and  is  adapted 

to  buildings  not  over  60  feet  in  width,  unless  a 

double  row  of  supply  pipes  is  provided.     The  ver- 




tical  flues,  or  stand  pipes,  are  carried  up  every  80 
to  100  feet  and  discharge  warm  air  in  four  direc- 
tions on  each  floor.  In  Fig.  4  fresh  air  and  vent 
ducts  are  carried  on  the  ceilings,  as  shown  in  the 
cut,  and  the  warm  air  discharged  downward  at  an 
angle  of  30  to  40  degrees  from  the  horizontal  toward 
the  outer  walls.  With  smooth  ceilings  and  ordinary 
working  velocities,  the  heat  will  be  evenly  distributed 
by  this  arrangement  for  a  considerable  distance,  even 
up  to  100  feet  or  more,  if  a  return  duct  is  provided 
at  the  center  for  removing  the  cooler  air  from  the 
lower  part  of  the  room. 


There  are  two  or  three  standard  methods  of  in- 
stalling heating  and  ventilating  apparatus  in  build- 
ings of  this  general  character  which  may  be  modi- 
fied to  meet  quite  a  variety  of  conditions. 

One  of  these  is  illustrated  in  Fig.  5,  in  which  case 
the  apparatus  is  located  in  the  basement  and  a  main 
supply  duct  is  carried  along  the  outer  wall  as  shown 
in  section  in  the  cut.  The  uptake  flues  are  of  mason- 
ry and  project  from  the  outside  of  the  wall  in  order 
not  to  encroach  upon  the  space  within.  The  warm  air 
is  all  delivered  at  one  side  of  the  room  and  usually 
toward  the  colder  or  more  exposed  wall.  The  up- 
takes are  spaced  from  40  to  70  feet  apart  and  deliver 
the  air  to  each  story  through  inlets  about  8  feet  from 
the  floor.  The  smooth  ceilings  commonly  found  in 
buildings  of  this  kind  offer  but  little  obstruction  to 
air  flow,  and  the  moving  belts  and  pulleys  tend  to 
break  up  the  currents  and  assist  in  the  distribution. 
The  flue  area,  as  will  be  noted  in  the  cut,  is  reduced 
at  each  story  and  the  air  quantity  for  each  floor  is 
proportioned  by  an  adjustable  deflecting  damper. 
Another  flue  arrangement  adapted  to  standard  mill 
construction  is  shown  in  Fig.  6,  in  which  case  a  sep- 




arate  flue  is  carried  from  the  main  air  duct  through 
piers  between  the  windows.  This  has  the  advantage 
of  avoiding  outside  pilasters,  but  increases  the  num- 
ber of  flues  somewhat. 

With  the  piers  12  feet  apart,  it  will  be  36  feet  be- 
tween inlets  in  three-story  buildings  and  48  feet  in 
those  four  stories  in  height. 

Textile  mills  illustrate  a  class  of  buildings  in  which 

the  humidity  of  the  air  must  be  considered  as  well 
as  its  temperature  and  volume.  In  this  particular 
case,  if  the  air  becomes  dry,  frictional  electricity  is 
generated  by  the  movement  of  belts  and  machinery, 
and  this  in  turn  has  a  decided  effect  upon  the  quality 
and  evenness  of  the  finished  goods.  This  condition 
may  be  practically  overcome  by  maintaining  a  rela- 
tive humidity  of  60  to  70  per  cent,  at  the  normal 
temperatures  carried  in  buildings  of  this  kind.  The 
air  may  be  moistened  by  means  of  steam  jets  or  a  fine 
spray  of  water  blown  directly  into  the  room  when 
direct  heating  is  employed,  or  by  evaporating  pans 
or  air  washers  in  the  case  of  hot-blast  heating. 

"Air  conditioning,"  which  includes  the  control  of 
humidity  is  an  important  branch  of  engineering,  and 
equipment  of  this  kind  should  be  installed  under  the 

~    Air  disc/large  '   _ 

Air  intake 

r.    H 







direction  of  a  specialist.  In  connection  with  the  con- 
trol of  humidity,  the  matter  of  dust  removal  must  be 
taken  care  of  not  only  in  certain  departments  of  tex- 
tile mills,  but  also  in  other  industries,  such  as  those 
requiring  polishing,  grinding,  etc.  This  is  best 
handled  by  means  of  a  hot-blast  heating  system, 
either  taking  the  full  air  supply  from  outside  or  re- 
circulating  it  through  an  air  washer  or  wet  filter. 


In  buildings  of  this  kind  the  special  problem  is 
the  removal  of  large  quantities  of  vapor  before  it 
has  a  chance  to  condense  on  ceiling  and  walls.  As 
is  well  known  to  those  familiar  with  dye  house  venti- 
lation, the  greatest  trouble  comes  from  the  conden- 
sation of  the  vapor  which  is  continually  rising  in 
clouds  from  the  dye  kettles  and  tubs.  When  the 
steam  comes  in  contact  with  the  cool  air  which  is 
flowing  in  from  doors,  windows  or  roof  ventilators 
it  condenses  rapidly,  sinking  "toward  the  floor,  and 
thus  obscuring  the  view.  The  method  of  ventila- 
tion employed  in  cases  of  this  kind  is  to  provide  a 



sufficient  volume  of  warm  air  to  absorb  the  moisture 
by  evaporation  and  then  exhaust  it  before  it  becomes 
saturated.  The  volume  of  air  required  for  this  pur- 
pose will  depend  upon  the  amount  of  vapor  given 
off,  which  is  at  a  maximum  when  the  dye  is  kept  at 
the  boiling  point  and  the  cloth  passed  through 
it  from  reels  located  above  the  vats.  It  is  common 
practice  to  provide  for  a  complete  change  of  air 
every  2  to  10  minutes,  according  to  the  processes 
carried  on  in  the  room,  once  in  four  minutes  being 
about  the  average.  The  best  method  of  admitting 
and  removing  the  air  in  cases  of  this  kind  will  depend 
somewhat  upon  circumstances,  but  in  general  the 
greater  part  should  be  admitted  near  the  floor  at  as 
high  a  temperature  as  is  possible  without  over- 
heating the  room,  and  should  be  removed  through 
openings  in  the  ceiling.  When  supplied  in  suffi- 
ciently large  quantities  this  air  carries  the  steam 
with  it  in  a  rising  current  and  absorbs  a  greater  part 
of  it  at  an  elevation  above  the  heads  of  the  workmen, 
thus  maintaining  a  zone  of  fairly  dry  and  comfort- 
able air  in  the  lower  part  of  the  room.  In  addition 
to  the  general  supply  mentioned  above,  it  is  well  to 


admit  a  small  amount  in  thin  sheets  at  a  compara- 
tively high  velocity  along  the  ceiling  for  driving  the 
steam  toward  the  outlets.  A  false  (hung)  ceiling, 
with  air  space  between  it  and  the  roof,  is  advisable 
in  case  of  one-story  buildings.  A  typical  duct  ar- 
rangement for  a  dye  house  is  shown  in  Fig.  7.  While 
the  air  should  always  be  supplied  by  a  fan.  the  dis- 
charge may  be  by  gravity  when  the  vent  shafts  can 
be  carried  to  a  sufficient  height  to  produce  the  neces- 
sary draft.  Otherwise  an  exhaust  fan  should  be 

employed.  The  vents  should  not  be  more  than  20 
feet  apart,  and  should  be  properly  insulated  and 
drained  to  prevent  any  dripping  upon  the  fabrics  in 
process  of  manufacture,  or  upon  the  workmen. 

Laundries,  in  contrast  with  dye  houses,  are  apt  to 
become  overheated,  and  as  the  air  contains  a  high 
percentage  of  moisture,  the  conditions  are  very 
enervating  to  those  employed  there.  While  open 
windows  and  roof  ventilators  may  answer  all  pur- 
poses in  warm  weather,  the  free  admission  of  cold 




air  in  winter  causes  dangerous  drafts  and  excessive 
condensation.  A  typical  layout  for  a  laundry  is 
shown  in  Fig.  8,  in  which  the  warm  air  and  steam 
are  removed  through  hoods  placed  directly  over  the 
machines  where  they  are  generated.  In  addition  to 
these  are  a  number  of  vents  near  the  ceiling  for  gen- 
ral  room  ventilation,  all  of  which,  including  the 



hoods,  connect  with  ducts  leading  to  an  exhaust  fan. 
Fresh  air,  for  replacing  that  discharged  by  the  fan 
is  admitted  through  "induction"  heaters,  which  may 
be  either  steam  coils  or  sectional  cast  iron  radiators 
enclosed  in  galvanized  iron  casings  so  arranged  that 
the  air  will  come  thoroughly  in  contact  with  the  heat- 
ing surface  in  passing  through  them. 

The  rooms  are  kept  warm  enough  during  the 
night  to  prevent  freezing,  either  by  special  direct 
radiators  or  by  providing  dampers  of  such  design 
that  inside  air  may  be  re-circulated  through  the  in- 
duction heaters  when  ventilation  is  not  required.  In 
the  arrangement  shown  in  Fig.  8  the  induction  heat- 
ers are  designed  simply  for  ventilating  purposes  and 
all  heating  is  done  by  direct  radiation. 


Loft  buildings  are  included  in  a  class  used 
principally  for  mercantile  and  light  manufacturing 
purposes.  The  varied  character  of  the  work-  and 
more  or  less  frequent  changing  of  tenants  makes  it 
necessary  to  install  a  ventilating  system  of  a  semi- 
portable  character  rather  than  a  permanent  one  as  in 
case  of  a  shop  or  factory.  The  heating  is  done  by 
direct  radiation,  it  being  customary  to  place  a  radia- 
tor under  each  window  so  that  partitions  may  be 
shifted  at  any  time  to  suit  tenants  without  interfer- 
ing with  the  heating  system.  The  ventilating  scheme 
generally  used  is  shown  in  Fig.  9  and  consists  of  fan 
and  heater,  made  up  as  a  single  unit  and  enclosed 
in  a  steel  plate  casing.  This  is  usually  hung  from 
the  ceiling  so  as  not  to  infringe  on  the  floor  space. 
The  fresh  air  is  taken  from  the  top  of  a  window  and 
warmed  to  70  degrees,  then  distributed  through  a 
ceiling  duct,  as  indicated  in  the  cut.  If  the  space  is 
divided  by  partitions,  then  the  branches  from  the 
main  duct  should  be  extended  so  as  to  reach  each 
room  requiring  ventilation.  Discharge  ventilation  is 
generally  accomplished  by  leakage  through  windows, 
stairways,  elevator  wells,  etc. 


Unit  heaters  are  one  of  the  latest  devices 
to  be  developed  for  the  heating  of  industrial  build- 
ings and  should  receive  brief  mention  in  closing  the 
present  series  of  articles.  A  unit  heater  of  this  kind 
consists  of  motor,  fan  and  heater  mounted  together 
as  a  single  self-contained  unit.  Air  is  drawn  in  from 
the  room,  passed  through  the  heater,  and  discharged 
at  a  fairly  high  velocity  through  specially  formed 
outlets  which  diffuse  it  through  a  considerable  space. 
This  air  movement  produces  a  more  comfortable  con- 
dition for  the  workmen  than  when  direct  radiation  is 
employed.  When  used  in  new  buildings  a  sufficient 
number  of  these  are  installed  to  produce  the  required 
amount  of  heat,  spacing  them  according  to  size  and 
heating  power.  They  are  especially  convenient  for 

additions  where  it  is  not  practicable  to  extend  the 
present  heating  system. 

A  typical  heater  for  placing  on  the  floor  is  shown 
in  Fig.  10,  and  one  for  suspending  from  the  ceiling 
in  Fig.  1 1 .  An  outfit  of  this  type  adapted  to  the  heat- 
ing and  ventilation  of  offices  and  drafting  rooms  is 
illustrated  in  Fig.  12. 

(The  End.) 

Flat  Slab  Floors 

FLAT  slab  floor  construction  is  fast  replacing 
the  beam  and  girder  type  of  floor,  and,  gen- 
erally speaking,  has  advantages  in  appearance  and 
economy.  However,  there  will  be  places  where  the 
beam  and  girder  system  will  show  a  lower  cost- 
Where  panels  between  columns  are  square  or  nearly 
so,  the  flat  slab  usually  works  to  advantage.  When 
columns  are  spaced  unequally  or  irregularly,  it  is 
often  more  economical  to  resort  to  the  beam  and 
girder  type  of  floor.  If  the  column  spacings  may 
be  laid  out  with  economy  in  view,  the  square  bay 
and  the  flat  slab  will  generally  be  selected.  How- 
ever, this  selection  should  not  always  be  made  with- 
out a  proper  check  by  comparative  cost  estimates. 
Assume,  for  instance,  that  a  concrete  storage 
building  is  required,  the  width  of  which  may  be 
anywhere  from  55  to  65  feet  and  sufficient  in  length 
to  give  a  certain  specified  area  of  floor  space.  The 
design  is  to  be  a  flat  slab  system  and  the  build- 
ing is  to  be  built  as  economically  as  possible.  The 
engineer  will  usually  make  a  design  for  a  flat  slab 
system  with  the  columns  spaced  at  distances  he  be- 
lieves will  show  economical  results.  Two  more 
flat  slab  designs  should  now  be  made  with  the 
column  spacings  one  foot  more  and  one  foot  less 
respectively.  Comparative  costs  made  on  these 
three  designs  will  show  the  economical  standing  of 
the  various  spacings  for  the  specified  live  load. 

It  will  be  necessary  to  make  typical  cross-section 
designs  showing  the  column  spacings  considered 
and  then  calculate  the  comparative  costs  of  each  de- 
sign for  a  length  of  building  equal  to  one  bay.  It 
is  a  simple  matter  to  calculate  the  required  length 
of  the  building  for  each  type  of  cross  section  con- 
sidered in  order  that  the  proper  amount  of  floor 
space  be  obtained.  The  total  length  of  the  various 
buildings  should  be  calculated  to  the  nearest  multiple 
of  the  length  of  their  respective  bays.  This  being 
done  and  the  cost  of  one  bay  of  each  type  of  build- 
ing being  already  calculated,  the  total  approximate 
cost  of  each  type  of  building  is  easily  found.  Add- 
ing to  these  respective  estimates  the  cost  of  clos- 
ing in  the  two  extreme  ends  of  the  building,  the 
engineer  has  a  very  good  idea  of  the  comparative 
costs  of  the  designs  he  has  made. — Economy  in  the 
Design  of  Reinforced  Concrete  Buildings. 


How  Wrought  Iron  Is  Made 

A  Novel  Campaign  for  the  Education  of  Laymen.    Moving  Pictures  of  the 

Iron  Industry 


N  the  past  it  has  been  customary  to  regard  all 
galvanized  sheet  metal  as  galvanized  iron  be- 
cause the  old  fashioned  hand  made  sheet  iron 
was  formerly  in  great  demand  for 
these  purposes. 

Architects  and  builders  now  find 
it  necessary  to  give  special  attention 
to  the  rust  resisting  qualities  of  the 
sheet  metal  which  they  specify  for 
use  in  ventilating  shafts,  cornices, 
leaders  and  down  spouts,  tanks  and 
other  articles  of  a  similar  nature. 

If  the  galvanized  sheet  metal  used 
is  galvanized  steel  and  not  gal- 
vanized iron,  there  will  be  great 
difference  in  the  service  of  the 
product-  When  modern  steel  was 
made  to  replace  the  old-fashioned 
hand  made  iron  it  was  found  that 
the  material  did  not  give  the  service 
under  certain  conditions  and  its  use 
became  a  real  problem  in  modern 
building  construction. 

For  many  years  metallurgists 
sought  to  find  why  steel  would  not 
stand  up  as  well  as  did  the  old  iron, 
in  meeting  the  weather  and  climatic 
conditions.  It  was  finally  proved 
by  these  government  scientists  that 
the  impurities  which  creep  into  the 
steel  as  made  today  set  up  an 
electrolytic  action  which  cause  the 
metal  to  pit,  flake,  and  disintegrate 

in  the  presence  of  moisture.    The  problem  then  was 
for  a  pure  iron  that  would  resist  rust.    How  to  make 
this   iron   pure   and  at  the   same   time  make   it   in 
commercial    quantities    that    would 
keep  its  price  within  reason  was  the 
big  task  taken  over  by  the  experts 
of  the  large  steel  companies. 

Eventually  a  way  was  found  for 
making  pure  ingot  iron  on  a  com- 
mercial scale  that  in  every  respect 
resembled  the  old-fashioned  iron. 
In  the  years  that  have  passed  it  has 
measured  up  to  the  claims  for  it  in 
a  manner  to  insure  its  use  when 
greater  permanency  in  sheet  metal 
construction  is  desired. 

Several  views  of  various  stages 
of  the  process  are  shown  with  this 
article.  These  pictures  were  taken 
in  the  plant  of  the  American  Roll- 
ing Mill  Company,  Middletown, 
Ohio.  Recently  this  company  has 
undertaken  an  educational  campaign 
for  the  purpose  of  acquainting 
manufacturers,  engineers  and  archi- 
tects with  the'  problems  and 
processes  in  the  manufacture  of 
Armco  ingot  iron.  The  making  of 
this  iron  is  interestingly  shown  in 
moving  pictures  which  have  been 
made.  The  "movie"  is  soon  to  start 
on  a  tour  of  architectural  and  engi- 
neering societies,  technical  schools, 






and  sales  conventions  where  the  study  of  results 
in  modern  metallurgy  is  of  paramount  interest. 

Comparatively  few  laymen  have  ever  seen  the 
sight  of  metal  heated  to  3000  degrees  Fahrenheit. 
This  temperature  is  necessary  in  the  making  of  a 
pure  iron.  It  is  too  hot  in  the  vicinity  of  the  boil- 
ing metal  in  the  interior  of  the  open  hearth  furnaces 
for  the  comfort  of  most  visitors  and  the  intense  light 
from  the  mass  is  too  blinding  for  the  naked  eye. 
Heretofore  it  was  necessary  to  look  through  specially 
colored  glasses  at  the  iron  when  it  was  hot  enough 
to  flow  like  water. 

When  the  "Armco"  picture  was  proposed  the 
movie  concern  was  told  it  had  an  opportunity  to  make 
a  record.  They  said  that  a  close-up  scene  of  boiling 

iron  had  never  been  made.  And  steel  men  said  it 
could  not  be  done. 

Veteran  steel  workmen  watched  intently  when  the 
camera  man  set  up  his  camera,  wondering  if  he  would 
stick  it  out  or  if  the  heat  would  crack  the  camera 
lens  or  set  fire  to  the  explosive  film  inside.  The 
camera  man  himself  was  not  sure,  but  there  were 
two  husky  men  back  of  him  ready  to  jerk  him  out 
of  the  way  in  case  anything  happened. 

The  result  was  an  entire  success.  This  scene, 
together  with  the  rest  of  the  3,000  feet  of  film  is 
equivalent  to  a  trip  through  a  great  steel  and  iron 
plant.  The  film  will  be  shown  in  all  parts  of  the 
world  and  the  entire  process,  from  the  arrival  of  the 
iron  ore  at  the  blast  furnaces  to  the  final  inspection 
of  the  finished  products,  is  visualized. 

The  great  value  of  wrought  iron  lies  in  its  ability 



to  resist  corrosion.  While  steel  gives  entire  satis- 
faction for  structural  shapes,  such  as  I-beams, 
angles,  etc.,  wrought  iron  has  been  found  more  prac- 
tical for  plain  or  corrugated  sheets  and  metal  lath. 
The  use  of  wrought  iron  is  almost  universal  in  pipe 
where  its  non-corrosive  qualities  give  long  life  and 

In  the  puddling  process  of  manufacture  the  molten 
iron  is  stirred  continually  until  the  carbon  and  othei 
impurities  are  burned  out,  leaving  the  iron  in  a 
plastic  condition  and  saturated  with  slag.  The  slag 
is  squeezed  out  before  the  material  is  rolled  into 
billets.  The  slag  is  present  in  alternate  layers  with 
iron  and  gives  a  fibrous  structure.  These  layers  of 
slag  form  a  protective  coating  against  corrosion  and 
serve  as  a  means  of  easy  identification  of  wrought 
iron  from  steel. 


Current    News 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Field  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

Industrial  Art  at  the  Museum 

The  fifth  exhibition  of  industrial  art  is  now  in 
progress  at  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.  It 
will  continue  until  Jan.  30.  The  object  as  heretofore 
is  to  show  a  selected  group  of  objects  of  current 
manufacture,  the  designs  of  which  are  based  upon 
sources  in  the  museum.  These  pieces,  brought  to- 
gether from  factories  and  shops,  cover  a  wide  range 
of  arts  and  craft  goods,  rugs,  furniture,  textiles,  and 
many  others.  They  serve  both  to  reflect  and  to  stimu- 
late better  standards  among  the  layman,  and  are  a 
further  indication  of  the  ever  expanding  influence  of 
the  museum  on  public  taste. 

Construction  Division  of  U.  S.  A.  to 
Hold  Reunion 

The  annual  reunion  of  those  who  were  identified 
with  the  Construction  Division  of  the  army  during 
the  war  will  be  held  at  the  Morrison  Hotel,  Chicago, 
on  February  25  and  26.  The  afternoon  of  the  first 
day  will  be  devoted  to  business  sessions  and  the 
annual  banquet  will  be  held  on  the  evening  of 
February  26. 

The  membership  of  the  Construction  Division  As- 
sociation consists  of  those  who  served  in  the  Con- 
struction Division  of  the  army  during  the  war,  either 
in  uniform  or  as  civilians.  The  officers  are :  Presi- 
dent, Col.  Clark  C.  Wright,  of  George  C.  Nimmons 
&  Co.,  122  South  Michigan  avenue,  Chicago;  Vice- 
President,  Col.  J.  N.  Willcutt,  of  R.  D.  Willcut  & 
Sons  Company,  Boston,  Mass.;  Secretary  George 
Gibbs,  Jr.,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  Assistant  Secretary, 
William  Kennedy,  office  of  Colonel  Evan  Shelby,  63 
Wall  street,  New  York  City,  and  Treasurer,  Major 
A  C.  King,  8  South  Dearborn  street,  Chicago,  111. 
Colonel  E.  C.  Stockdale,  of  Page  &  Hill,  19  South 
La  Salle  street,  Chicago,  is  chairman  of  the  Enter- 
tainment Committee. 

Institute  of  Architects  will  hold  an  architectural  ex- 
hibition, according  to  an  announcement  made  by  Mr. 
Philip  N.  Arnold,  chairman  of  the  Real  Estate 
Board's  Real  Estate  and  Building  Exposition  com- 

Arrangements  for  an  architectural  exhibition  are 
being  made  by  the  joint  exhibition  board  of  the  T- 
Square  Club  and  the  Philadelphia  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  of  which  George 
Howe  is  chairman.  This  board,  in  addition  to  Mr. 
Howe,  consists  of  R.  J.  Wadsworth,  William  C.  Sten- 
ton,  H.  Bartol  Register,  Donald  M.  Kirkpatrick,  Jo- 
seph P.  Sims  and  Clarence  C.  Zantzinger.  It  is  as- 
sisted by  a  special  advisory  committee  consisting  of 
Edward  A.  Crane,  president  of  the  Philadelphia 
Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects; 
John  P.  B.  Sinkler,  city  architect  Nicola  D'Ascenzo, 
Grant  M.  Simon,  D.  Knickerbacker  Boyd  and  Emile 
G.  Perrot. 

In  addition  to  the  architects  there  will  also  be  ex- 
hibits by  the  Atlantic  City  real  estate  board,  the 
Camden  real  estate  board,  the  North  Philadelphia 
realty  board,  the  Master  Builders'  Association  and 
other  similar  organizations. 

The  co-operation  of  the  architects,  the  trades  and 
business  organizations  and  a  large  list  of  manufac- 
turers, merchants,  material  men  and  others,  will  make 
the  exposition. 

The  architectural  exhibition,  which  will  be  in  com- 
plete charge  of  the  joint  exhibition  board  of  the  T- 
Square  Club  and  the  Philadelphia  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  promises  to  be  the 
largest,  most  varied  and  most  artistic  ever  seen  in 
Philadelphia.  In  addition  to  holding  their  own  ex- 
hibition, the  joint  exhibition  board  of  the  architects 
also  will  supervise  the  artistic  features  of  the  main 

Philadelphia  Architects  to  Join  in 
Building  Exposition 

In  conjunction  with  the  Philadelphia  Real  Estate 
Board's  Real  Estate  and  Building  Exposition,  which 
will  be  held  at  the  First  Regiment  Armory  during 
the  week  of  March  28  to  April  2,  the  T-Square 
Club  and  the  Philadelphia  Chapter  of  the  American 

Henry  Reinhardt,  Art  Dealer,  Dead 

Henry  Reinhardt,  art  dealer,  head  of  Henry  Rein- 
hardt &  Son,  Fifth  avenue,  New  York,  died  Jan. 
13  after  a  short  illness.  He  was  62  years  old  and 
began  his  art  career  in  Milwaukee  when  still  a  youth. 
In  the  course  of  forty-five  years  he  established  gal- 
leries in  New  York,  Chicago  and  Paris  as  well  as 
in  his  native  city. 

Among  his  chief  interests  was  the  development 
of  art  appreciation  in  the  West,  and  to  this  end  he 



helped  organize  several  museums;  notably  the  one 
at  Toledo,  for  which  he  bought  at  auction  for  $20,- 
000  the  now  famous  landscape  "Moonlight,"  by  the 
tragically  fated  Blakelock.  It  was  Mr.  Reinhardt, 
too,  who  arranged  the  loan  exhibition  of  Blakelock's 
works  to  raise  part  of  the  fund  for  the  painter's 

Mr.  Reinhardt  gathered  what  is  said  to  be  the  fin- 
est collection  of  the  works  of  George  Inness,  that 
which  is  now  in  the  Art  Institute  of  Chicago.  Dur- 
ing the  war  his  Paris  gallery  was  given  over  to  the 
Red  Cross  for  a  medical  library. 

Civic  Federation  Will  Discuss  Labor 

Outstanding  industrial  problems,  with  which  the 
American  people  are  confronted  today,  from  both  the 
national  and  the  international  viewpoints,  will  be  dis- 
cussed at  the  twenty-first  annual  meeting  of  the  Na- 
tional Civic  Federation  to  be  held  at  Hotel  Astor, 
New  York  City,  February  14,  15  and  16,  1921. 

Kitchen  Marathon  Two  Miles 

Preparation  of  meals  for  an  average  family  means 
a  two-mile  daily  kitchen  marathon  for  the  housewife, 
statistics  compiled  for  the  conference  of  vocational 
workers  of  the  South,  in  session  at  Montgomery, 
Ala.,  disclosed. 

A  pedometer  attached  to  students  in  the  kitchen 
of  the  model  home  in  Livingstone  School  showed  that 
,  measurement   for  stove-sink-and-pantry  route  cov- 
ered during  the  preparation  of  the  three  daily  meals. 

Vast  Forests  in  Northwest 

More  than  30,000,000  acres  of  commercial  timber 
now  stands  in  the  private  and  national  forests  of 
Washington  and  Oregon,  according  to  compilations 
of  Thornton  T.  Munger,  of  the  district  forest  service, 
Portland,  recently  received  by  Supervisor  William 
G.  Weigle,  of  the  Snoqualmie  national  forest  in 

What  this  vast  stand  of  timber  means  to  the  North- 
west as  an  economic  asset  was  pointed  out  by  Su- 
pervisor Weigle,  who  estimates  that  Washington 
alone  cuts  between  5,000,000,000  and  6,000,000,000, 
feet  of  timber  annually.  For  every  thousand  feet  of 
timber  sawed  and  finished  labor  is  paid  $16,  or  $16,- 
000,000  in  wages  for  every  billion  feet. 

Of  the  total  area  of  standing  commercial  timber 
in  both  states,  15,047,000  acres  is  under  private  own- 
ership and  the  remaining  15,428,000  acres  under  Fed- 
eral control.  This  stand  of  merchanable  timber  rep- 
resents 745,000,000,000  feet.  The  original  forest 
area  in  both  states  was  48,000,000  acres,  with  4,330,- 

000  acres  having  been  logged  off  and  7,500,000  acres 
destroyed  by  fire.  The  annual  area  being  cut  over 
at  present  is  estimated  at  260,000  acres. 

Lumbermen  Launch  Campaign  to 
Reduce  Building  Costs 

A  national  campaign  to  reduce  building  costs  was 
launched  by  lumber  manufacturers  from  all  sections 
of  the  country  at  a  recent  meeting  in  Chicago. 

"Lumber  has  come  down  in  price  an  average  of 
30  per  cent.,"  said  R.  B.  Goodman,  of  Marinette, 
Wis.,  chairman  of  the  session.  "The  lumber  indus- 
try has  absorbed  its  wartime  inflation  and  we  feel 
that  it  is  up  to  other  building  commodities  to  follow 
suit.  Lumber  represents  only  about  30  per  cent,  of 
the  cost  of  the  average  building  and  not  more  than 
35  per  cent,  of  the  cost  of  a  wooden  building." 

France  Plans  Home  for  Married 
Women  Only 

A  mothers'  home,  where  women  may  have  the  nec- 
essary care  that  they  themselves  could  not  afford,  is 
to  be  established  in  Bordeaux,  France,  with  funds 
given  by  Madame  Dutsch  de  la  Muertha.  It  will  be 
opened  only  to  married  women.  Buildings,  a  park 
of  82  acres  and  $200,000  were  given  for  the  work. 

Brooklyn's  Plymouth  Church 

The  famous  Plymouth  Church  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y., 
which  suffered  considerable  damage  from  a  fire  last 
November,  is  now  being  repaired  and  restored  by 
William  Gompert,  architect.  The  work  will  prob- 
ably be  completed  in  time  for  Easter  services. 

It  was  to  this  church  that  Henry  Ward  Beecher 
came  as  pastor  in  1847.  In  the  pulpit  of  Plymouth 
Church  he  acted  as  auctioneer  one  Sunday  morning 
in  Feb.,  1860,  and  sold  a  slave  girl  into  freedom.  In 
this  building,  twenty-eight  windows  set  forth  the  in- 
fluence of  Puritanism  upon  the  liberties  of  the  Re- 
public. Rev.  Newell  Dwight  Hillis,  of  international 
fame,  is  the  present  pastor.  This  is  one  of  the  struc- 
tures that  has  helped  to  give  Brooklyn  a  reputation 
as  a  city  of  churches. 

Mr.  Gompert  stated  that  when  the  construction  is 
completed  the  building  will  be  modern  in  every  re- 
spect, although  it  is  the  aim  to  retain  the  original 
lines  and  structures  as  far  as  possible  in  order  not 
to  interfere  with  old  associations  or  to  mar  the  senti- 
ment of  the  old  members. 

Housing  in  Germany 

In  Cassell,  a  city  of  170,000  population,  5,400  per- 
sons are  without  homes,  according  to  the  report  of 



the  city  housing  commission,  which  is  "rationing" 
rooming  houses  and  hotels  in  an  effort  to  shelter 
everybody  during  the  winter  months. 

Because  of  the  great  shortage  of  houses,  due  to 
suspension  of  building  operations  during  the  war, 
it  has  been  necessary  to  house  large  numbers  some- 
times in  a  single  room.  Regardless  of  ability  to  pay, 
the  citizens  now  are  compelled  to  occupy  only  such 
room  as  is  absolutely  essential  and  the  extra  space  is 
apportioned  among  the  homeless. 

The  "housing  problem,"  while  under  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  a  special  commission,  really  is  controlled  by 
the  police  who  keep  a  record  of  dwellings  and  the 
number  of  occupants  and  report  their  findings  to  the 

Owing  to  the  high  price  of  building  material  and 
the  labor  shortage,  unrelieved  in  spite  of  the  an- 
nouncement that  there  is  a  large,  undiminishing 
number  of  unemployed,  building  operations  virtually 
are  at  a  standstill. 

Trying  to  Save  Gobelins 

Representatives  of  all  the  Austrian  associations 
devoted  to  science  and  art  have  protested  to  Chan- 
cellor Mayr  against  the  contemplated  pledging  of  the 
priceless  Gobelin  tapestries  owned  by  the  Govern- 
ment as  security  for  food  supplies.  It  has  been  pro- 
posed that  the  tapestries  be  pledged  for  $1,000,000 
to  secure  two  months'  flour  rations  from  the  United 

Steamboat  service  on  the  lakes  of  Upper  Austria 
and  in  the  Salzkammergut  region  of  Upper  Austria, 
Styria  and  Salzburg  were  recently  suspended  because 
of  the  excessive  overhead  expenses. 

Rare  Rembrandt  Stolen 

Rembrandt's  landscape,  "After  the  Thunder- 
storm," is  stolen  from  a  private  owner  in  Hamburg, 
Germany.  It  supposedly  was  shipped  to  the  United 
States  on  board  the  steamer  Mongolia,  which  sailed 
the  day  after  the  theft. 

The  painting  is  on  wood.  It  is  sixty-five  centi- 
metres in  length  and  forty-nine  centimetres  high.  It 
is  said- to  be  valued  at  $2,000,000. 

For  a  Bureau  of  Housing 

A  bill  proposing  the  creation  of  a  Bureau  of  Build- 
ing Construction  and  Housing  in  the  Department  of 
Commerce  has  been  introduced  by  Senator  Calder  of 
New  York  on  recommendation  of  the  special  com- 
mittee which  has  been  considering  reconstruction 
problems,  especially  the  nation-wide  housing  situa- 

"The  bill,'  said  Senator  Calder,  "provides  for  a 
bureau  in  the  Department  of  Commerce,  which  will 
be  a  clearing  house  for  all  information  concerning 

building  construction  matters  and  particularly  hous- 
ing. It  is  recommended  by  the  leading  architects 
and  builders  of  the  country,  and  it  is  believed  that 
its  operation  will  bring  about  a  standardization  of 
structural  units  and  material  and  conservation  in 
general  building  matters  that  will  be  most  helpful  in 
cheapening  construction." 

City  Bureau  to  Plan  Homes 

In  anticipation  of  a  great  home-building  boom  in 
the  spring,  the  appointment  of  an  architectural  bu- 
reau is  being  urged  in  one  of  the  larger  cities  accord- 
ing to  the  Concord  (N.  H.)  Monitor. 

It  would  be  the  duty  of  this  bureau  to  consult  with 
prospective  builders  in  any  locality  and  to  give  what- 
ever aid  and  advice  it  could  to  insure  a  fine  general 
appearance  of  the  entire  neighborhood ;  to  see  that 
building  restrictions  were  complied  with,  and  where 
former  restrictions  are  not  sufficient  for  present 
needs,  to  urge  adaptations  of  plans  so  that  adjacent 
property  need  not  be  harmed  by  cheapening  struc- 

Persons  interested  in  establishing  the  bureau  hold 
that  five  groups  of  people  are  to  be  considered  when 
a  new  structure  is  contemplated.  They  are : 

Those  who  live  in  the  building. 

Those  who  will  live  in  the  neighborhood  of  the 

Those  who  invest  their  money  in  the  building. 

Those  who  have  invested  their  money  in  the  neigh- 
boring buildings  or  land. 

All  who  see  the  building  or  are  affected  by  it  day 
by  day. 

A  committee  which  co-operated  to  harmonize  all 
these  interests,  even  though  its  action  be  purely  ad- 
visory, could,  with  the  aid  of  public  opinion,  become 
a  valuable  adjunct  to  any  community.  Its  counsel 
would  help  to  make  a  city  beautiful.  Beauty  is  al- 
ways a  boost  to  real  estate  values  as.  well  as  a  source  ~ 
of  civic  pride,  and  many  of  the  architectural  blunders 
which  result  from  innumerable  individual  operations 
might  be  avoided  in  making  a  harmonious  whole. 

Important  Housing  Conference 

A  housing  conference  will  be  held  by  the  National 
Council  of  the  Chmber  of  Commerce  of  the  United 
States  at  the  New  Willard  Hotel,  Washington,  Janu- 
ary 27  and  28. 

The  Origin  of  "Checks" 

A  few  centuries  ago,  when  the  ability  to  read  and 
write  was  the  exclusive  property  of  a  very  few,  the 
business  men  of  Europe,  many  of  whom  could  not 
even  write  the  figures  in  which  they  dealt,  employed 
a  system  of  computation  something  on  the  principle 



of  the  Chinese  Abacus  or  counting  frame.  A  check- 
erboard, it  is  learned,  was  placed  between  the  two 
parties  to  the  transaction  and  payment  was  made  by 
matching  one  row  of  coins  against  another.  In  this 
way,  even  if  the  merchants  were  unable  to  count  to 
a  sum  larger  than  ten,  large  transactions  could  be 
accurately  negotiated  by  checking  the  coins,  row 
after  row,  upon  the  checkerbord.  From  this  prac- 
tice accounts  between  business  men  came  to  be  known 
as  checks. 

This  was  the  origin  of  the  name  of  the  little  pieces 
of  paper  which  today  are  used,  according  to  the  esti- 
mate of  bankers,  in  fully  90  per  cent,  of  all  business 

News  Notes  in  the  Chicago  Field 

The  Chicago  city  council  rent  committee  is  con- 
sidering a  plan  for  state  legislation  making  resi- 
dences and  apartments  public  utilities  and  subject, 
therefore,  to  rate  rulings  of  the  public  utilities  com- 
mission. The  plant  was  originally  suggested  by  Dean 
John  H.  Wigmore  of  the  Northwestern  University. 

The  Bestwall  Manufacturing  Company,  manufac- 
turers of  wall-board,  is  moving  its  Chicago  offices 
to  the  main  office  at  Buffalo,  New  York.  The  Chi- 
cago location  was  at  332  South  Michigan  avenue. 

The  so-called  "building  trust"  inquiry  is  now  go- 
ing before  a  federal  grand  jury  in  Chicago.  The 
probe  relates  to  the  alleged  illegal  arrangement  be- 
tween manufacturers,  contractors  and  unions  to  for- 
bid the  use  of  non-union  sash  and  door  materials 
from  other  cities  in  Chicago  construction. 

B.  J.  Rosenthal,  president  of  the  Chicago  Housing 
Association,  estimates  that  500,000  Chicagoans  are 
poorly,  some  of  them  miserably  housed. 

Efforts  to  save  the  Fine  Arts  Building  of  the  old 
World  Fair  group,  because  of  its  architectural  beau- 
ty are  not  proving  very  successful.  The  Illinois 
Chapter  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects  is 
preparing  an  estimate  as  to  the  cost  of  putting  the 
building  into  condition  necessary  to  its  preservation. 
In  the  meantime,  the  use  of  the  building  has  been 
given  to  an  American  Legion  post  which  proposes 
to  use  it  as  an  inside  rifle  range. 

The  Woodworkers'  Employers'  Association  has 
proposed  to  union  carpenters  that  they  accept  a  wage 
reduction  of  85  cents  an  hour  on  the  premise  that 
it  is  better  to  work  all  week  for  85  cents  an  hour 
than  two  days  a  week  at  $1.10  an  hour.  The  unions 
rejected  the  suggestion. 


Arthur  S.  Millinowski  and  John  F.  Druar  have 
become  associated  under  the  firm  name  of  Druar  & 
Milinowski,  consulting  engineers,  St.  Pual,  Minn. 

Guy  A.  Carpenter  has  opened  an  office  for  the 
practice  of  architecture  in  the  Leggett  Building, 
Fairfield,  la. 

P.  J.  Rocker,  architect,  formerly  at  15  East  40th 
street,  New  York  City,  has  moved  his  office  to  6 
East  46th  street,  that  city. 

Roger  H.  Bullard,  architect,  formerly  connected 
with  the  firm,  Goodwin,  Bullard  &  Woosley,  is  now 
practicing  on  his  own  account  at  15  West  33d  street, 
New  York  City. 

James  V.  Tjhetford,  architect,  formerly  of  71 
Bremona  street,  Belleville,  N.  J.,  is  now  practicing 
at  86  Malone  avenue,  that  city. 

Walter  Williams,  architect,  is  now  located  at  301 
Fifth  avenue,  New  York  City.  He  was  formerly  at 
420  Madison  avenue. 

Gregory  B.  Webb,  architect,  who  was  at  104  West 
42d  street,  New  York  City,  is  now  found  at  1358 
Broadway,  that  city. 

A.  J.  Fisher,  architect,  has  moved  his  office  from 
4011  North  Robey  street,  Chicago,  111.,  to  2001 
Greenleaf  avenue. 

Tilden  &  Register,  architects,  have  moved  from 
the  Franklin  Bank  Building,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  to 
1525  Locust  street,  that  city. 

Marchetti  &  D'Avino,  architects,  who  were  for- 
merly located  at  756  Main  street,  Hartford,  Conn., 
are  now  practicing  at  Room  58,  721  Main  street, 

Herman  D.  Roller,  architect,  has  opened  an  office 
at  64  East  Van  Buren  street,  Chicago,  111. 

Reilly  &  Hall  have  moved  from  749  Fifth  avenue, 
New  York,  to  405  Lexington  avenue,  New  York. 

Morrell  &  Nichols,  landscape  architects  and  engi- 
neers, are  now  located  at  1200  Second  avenue,  South, 
Minneapolis,  Minn. 

George  M.  Landsman,  architect,  has  moved  his 
moved  his  office  from  the  Bowery  Bank  Building, 
New  York  City,  to  105  West  40th  street,  that  city. 


Weekly  Review  of  the  Construction  Field 

With  Reports  of  Special  Correspondents  in   Regional  Centers 

Average   Prices,    1914-1920 
(Note   the   Swift  Decline) 

A  Study  of  Prices* 


The  Reasons  Leading  to  Advance  and  What  Is  Neces- 

cessary  to   Bring  About   Their   Orderly   Decline; 

the    Manner   in    Which    Prices    Affect 

Credit   Conditions 




Editor's  Note:   Prices  are  the  problem  of  the  day. 

In  our  issue  of  January  19  we  stated  that  an  article  on  "The 
Architect's  Relation  to  Price  Declines"  would  appear  in  this  issue. 
The  article  which  follows  is  an  authoritative  discussion  of  the  funda- 
mental principles  of  price  advances  and  declines.  It  is  intended  as  a 
basic  introduction  to  "The  Architect's  Relation  to  Price  Declines," 
which  will  appear  in  an  early  issue. 

AN  old  school  rhetoric  gives  the  following  coup- 
let as  an  example  of  figurative  expression : 
"The    dashing    waves    with    fury    driven 
Mount  up  and  wash  the  face  of  Heaven." 

During  a  storm  at  sea  the  power  of  the  wind 
makes  successive  series  of  waves,  the  causes  of 
which  the  observer  is  usually  in  no  condition  to  an- 
alyze. It  is  only  in  the  peaceful  period  that  follows 
the  storm  that  the  thoughtful  mind  might  study 
the  subject  of  wave  formation  and  develop  a  the- 
ory based  upon  the  direct  force  of  the  wind  in  its 
relation  to  the  reaction  from  the  water,  the  bottom 
of  the  ocean,  and  the  distant  shore. 

Similarly  it  is  perhaps  now  possible,  with  the 
storm  of  war  subsided  and  with  the  experience  of 
a  period  of  inflation  and  some  measure  of  deflation, 
to  analyze  the  causes  which  make  the  successive 
waves  of  price  movement  which  characterize  our 
economic  life.  It  may  also  be  possible  to  develop 
some  principles  of  action  to  stabilize  our  govern- 
mental and  business  relations  in  the  period  of  defla- 
tion before  us. 

In  studying  price  relations  in  order  to  make  the 
analysis  as  simple  as  possible,  it  may  be  well  to  em- 
phasize in  advance  that,  as  in  the  formation  of  the 
waves  of  the  ocean,  there  is  a  single  initial  force, 
the  varying  power  of  the  wind ;  so  in  the  price 

•Copyrighted   1920  by  Edmund  B.   Fisher. 

changes  of  our  business  life  there  is  also  a  single 
initial  force,  the  varying  spending  power  of  gov- 
ernments and  the  people.  It  will  be  necessary, 
therefore,  to  consider  the  direct  changes  in  the 
amount  of  money  and  credit  used  as  spending 
power  in  relation  to  a  given  volume  of  commod- 
ities, and  the  relative  amount  so  used  when  the 
volume  of  commodities  change. 

Reference  is  frequently  made  to  two  forces  af- 
fecting prices — one  the  buying  power  (demand), 
dependent  upon  the  supply  of  actual  money,  bank 
deposits,  or  the  latent  power  of  credit  supporting 
the  purchaser;  the  other  the  selling  power  (sup-- 
ply),  dependent  upon  the  volume  of  cmmodities 
or  the  amount  of  service  to  be  sold.  Both  of  these 
tendencies  are,  of  course,  affected  by  a  temporary 
indisposition  to  either  buy  or  sell  at  a  given  level 
of  prices,  as  we  well  know  from  present  conditions. 

But  as  price  grows  out  of  a  definite  relation  to 
the  standard  of  value  (gold),  it  should  be  consid- 
ered as  the  result  of  a  spending  power  which  in- 
creases or  diminishes  directly  (increase  or  decrease 
of  money  or  credit),  or  relatively  (increase  or  de- 
crease of  commodities),  to  the  volume  of  trade. 
Thus,  although  the  standard  remains  fixed,  the 
value  of  the  dollar  in  actual  use  increases  or  dimin- 
ishes in  relation  to  its  own  volume  used  as  a  spend- 
ing power. 

The  principle  to  be  established,  therefore,  is  that 
the  average  level  of  prices  is  determined  by  the 
amount  of  money  available  as  spending  power. 
This  is  effected  by  the  amount  of  gold  in  reserve, 
the  volume  of  credit  or  currency  which  the  gold 
supports,  and  the  actual  amount  of  money  in  the 
hands  of  the  people.  The  greater  the  volume  of 
money  or  credit,  the  higher  will  be  the  price  level, 
production  being  relatively  the  same. 

On  the  other  hand,  assuming  production  rela- 
tively the  same,  the  reverse  is  also  true — the  weaker 
the  spending  power,  as  when  money  is  hoarded  or 
when  loans  are  called  or  paid,  the  lower  will  be 
the  price  level.  The  operation  of  the  principle  to 
which  reference  has  been  made  is  easily  lost  sight 
of  in  the  history  of  business  experience,  because, 
although  spending  power  is  the  dominant  factor,  it 
is  frequently  confused  with  what  are  seemingly  new 
conditions,  such  as  war  and  the  variations  in  pro- 
duction and  selling  power. 

THE    entire    subject    may,    perhaps,    be    better 
understood  by  a  study  of  the  following  analysis : 







Stated  volume  of 
commodities  at 
prices  then  fixed 

If     money     or 
credit   increases 

Prices   go   up 

Reduced     volume 
of   commodities 

Amount  of  mon- 
ey or  credit  then 
relatively  in- 

Prices   go   up 

Increased  de-      Amount   of  mon-         Prices  go  up 
m  a  n  d     reducing      ey  or  credit  then 
commodities  relatively   in- 


During  such  a  movement  as  the  foregoing,  as 
prices  go  up,  the  amount  of  credit  and  currency 
also  directly,  as  well  as  relatively,  increases,  made 
necessary  by  the  growing  dollar  amount  of  goods 
to  be  moved,  until  restrained  by  diminishing  gold 
reserves  or  bank  policy,  impelled  by  increasing  re- 
discount rates. 


Stated  volume  of      If     money      or       Prices   go    off 
commodities       at      credit  decreases 
prices   then    fixed 

Increased  volume      Amount    of   mon- 
of  commodities          ey  or  credit  then 

relatively      d   e  - 


Reduced  demand,       Amount   of   mon- 
relatively  increas-      ey  or  credit  then 
ing    commodities      relatively     d    e    - 

Prices   go    off 

Prices   go    off 

During  such  a  movement,  as  prices  go  off,  the 
amount  of  credit  and  currency,  directly  as  well  as 
relatively,  decreases,  made  possible  by  the  lessen- 
ing dollar  amount  of  goods  to  be  moved,  until 
stmiulated  by  increased  gold  reserves  and  a  more 
liberal  bank  policy,  impelled  by  lowering  redis- 
count rates. 

A   PERIOD   of   inflation   and   deflation   may   be 
pictured  as  a  definite  wave  of  price  move- 
ment; but  like  the  ocean,  there  are  short  waves  and 
long  waves.    The  price  waves  range  from  the  move- 
s  that  grow  out  of  the  day  to  day  fluctuations 
of  the  market  to  the  long  "ground  swell"  that  seems 
us  extends  over  a  long  period  of  years     These 
movements  are  all  operating  constantly,  are  com- 
plexly  interrelated,  and  grow  out  of  the  variations 
of  spending  power  with  the  reactions  from  varia- 
tions m  production  and  demand.     A  disintegration 
of  these  movements,  however,  would  seem  to  de- 

natiL%rIy  C°mprehensive  classification,  elimi- 
nating all  temporary  and  superficial  day  to  day  price 


Seasonal  Movement:  Reactions  from  seasonal  varia- 
tions in  production  and  demand. 

Anuual  Movement:  Reactions  from  variations  in  an- 
nual production. 

Credit  Movement :  Direct  result  of  varying  amounts 
of  bank  credit  and  currency. 

Gold  Movement:  Direct  result  of  variations  of 
world  gold  production. 

Seasonal  variations  in  prices  are,  of  course,  famil- 
iar to  the  business  and  buying  world.  Business 
men  are  also  vitally  interested  in  the  statistics  of 
annual  production,  as  the  increase  or  decrease  of 
the  principal  crops  in  the  reaction  on  spending 
power  frequently  makes  important,  though  tem- 
porary price  changes. 

The  credit  movement  is  a  short  period  swing  in 
prices.     Without  direct  relation  to  the  increase  or 
decrease  of  gold,  a  spending  power  develops  and 
recedes  through  the  expansion  and  contraction  of 
credit  and  currency.     Beginning  at  a  period  when 
bank   reserves   are   high   and   money   is   "easy,"   a 
growing   business   activity    in    all     lines    fosters   a 
growth  of  loans  made  on  both  a  sound  and  un- 
sound economic  basis.    While  individual  loans  made 
in   such   a  period   of   expansion   may   be   perfectly 
good  from  the  standpoint  of  ultimate  payment,  the 
composite  influence  of  many  loans  that  are  not  self- 
liquidating,  such  as  mortgages,  loans  on  stocks  and 
bonds,  and  government  securities,  merely  adds  to 
the  spending  power  of  the  period  and  directly  op- 
erates to  increase  prices.    The  higher  level  of  prices 
thus  established  necessarily  increases  the  dollar  vol- 
ume needed  to  conduct  future  trade,  and  so  an  end- 
less chain  of  increased  loans  and  higher  prices  is 
established.   The  emergency  brake  is  finally  jammed 
on,  and  the  financial  gears  thrown  into  reverse,  and 
there  occurs  the  liquidation  of  loans  and  the  reduc- 
tion of  currency,  with  the  consequent  diminishment 
of  spending  power. 

The  gold  movement,  a  long  swing  period  in 
prices,  is  usually  very  sluggish,  and  is  characterized 
by  the  basic  variations  in  spending  power  caused 
by  the  economic  effect  of  variations  in  gold  pro- 
duction. As  gold  is  the  basis  of  bank  reserves  and 
currency  issues,  its  gradual  change  in  volume  has 
an  ultimate  under-current  effect  upon  all  price 

(To  be  continued.) 
(Special  Correspondence  to  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE.— Jobbers  of  the  Pacific  Coast  terri- 
tory report  that  the  outside  steel  mills  have  hori- 
zontally met  the  Corporation  price  and  are  trying 
to  -convince  the  retail  and  investment  construction 
ade  that  rock-bottom  has  been  struck  for  the  sea- 
on  and  that  a  delay  in  placements  bevond  May  1 
will  mean  higher  prices  for  them.     Stocks  on  hand 
are  now  well  balanced.     The  overstock  is  sufficient 



to  meet  any  sudden  movement  in  early  spring 

The  feeling  toward  building  for  1921  is  changing 
rapidly.  Optimism  has  replaced  the  pessimism  of 
December,  and  there  is  increasing  evidence  of  con- 
fidence among  investors  and  builders.  Architects 
.  report  that  builders  are  now  convinced  that  the 
"holding  off"  policy  for  lower  prices  is  now  futile. 
Building  labor  is  producing  at  normal  per  capita, 
new  projects  are  slowly  being  released,  the  lumber 
market  has  undoubtedly  struck  bottom  (as  shown 
in  the  stationary  bottom  for  the  past  two  weeks), 
mill-;  are  resuming  operations,  and  labor  costs  have 
been  reduced. 

Wholesale  and  jobbing  interests  are  co-operating 
in  the  tail-end  liquidation,  now  believed  to  be  well 
over.  Minor  reductions  in  building  hardware  dur- 
ing the  week  are  putting  the  finishing  touches  on 
the  orderly  process.  Larger  operators  believe  steel 
will  sustain  itself,  in  view  of  demand  and  fair  gross 
margins  instituted  by  the  mills  after  the  war. 

Representatives  of  eastern  roofing  who  sent  out 
flunkeys  with  order  books  during  the  war  to  look 
over  the  territory  and  book  orders  merely  because 
the  demand  far  exceeded  the  supply  are  to  come  in 
for  castigation  by  jobbers.  The  houses  which  took 
unfair  advantage  during  the  war  are  in  process  of 
elimination  from  the  territory. 

Roofing  prices  are  now  on  the  past  four  months' 
levels.  There  is  an  oversupply,  and  liberal  offerings. 
Three  cement  plants  are  now  in  full  operation  after 
two  had  been  closed  wholly  or  in  part  for  six 
months.  One  attended  to  the  export  production, 
one  closed  entirely,  and  the  third  was  on  half  time. 
This  represents  the  total  cement  production,  nor- 
mally heavy,  in  the  North  Pacific  territory. 

Average  prices  received  at  the  fir  mills  during  the 
week  at  the  mill  were  $59  to  $54  for  vertical  grain 
flooring,  $29  for  No.  2  slash  grain  flooring,  $51  for 
finish,  $25  to  $28  for  ceiling,  $31  for  drop  siding, 
$15  to  $20  for  boards  and  shiplap  based  on  sizes, 
$23.50  to  $14.50  for  dimension,  $19.50  to  $21.50 
for  plank  and  small  timbers,  and  26  for  big  timbers. 
The  fir  log  market  declined  this  week  from  $18,  $24 
and  $32  to  $12,  $14  and  $20,  and  wages  in  the  fir 
mills  and  logging  camps  are  down  25  per  cent.,  with 
no  remonstrance  from  the  men  due  to  the  unem- 
ployment situation. 

Red  cedar  shingles  are  steady  on  a  speculative 
rather  than  an  order  basis,  and  stocks  on  hand  in 
British  Columbia,  Washington  and  Oregon,  the 
scene  of  production,  are  under  normal  at  500,000,000 
shingles,  exclusive  of  transits  and  held  for  disposal 
at  reconsigning  points.  Manufacturers  are  refusing 
to  sell  on  the  present  price  to  the  trade  of  $1.85  to 
$1.95  for  stars  and  $2.00  to  $2.10  for  clears,  20-20 

or  "square"  pack  basis,  which  has  superseded  the  old 
per  1,000  basis. 

Seattle's  building  record  for  1920  fell  little  short 
of  that  of  1919  according  to  the  figures  of  the  city 
building  department.  With  the  issuance  of  the  per- 
mit for  the  10-story  Class  A  structure  now  in  the 
last  steel  stages  by  the  Pacific  Telephone  and  Tele- 
graph Company  the  total  for  the  year  was  brought 
up  to  $13,500,000,  as  against  $15,000,000  for  1919. 

The  contract  for  construction  of  the  nurses'  build- 
ing at  the  Puget  Sound  navy  yard,  Bremerton  (17 
miles  from  Seattle),  was  let  to  Swennson  &  Co., 
contractors,  of  Seattle. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO. — The  building  public  here  is  indulg- 
ing in  a  "buyers'  strike"  and  is  waiting  for  the  actual 
materialization  of  the  now  famous  rock-bottom 
basis.  The  endless  circle  of  cause  and  effect — lum- 
bermen blaming  materials  men,  materials  men  blam- 
ing labor,  and  labor  blaming  the  high  cost  of  living 
— is  blocking  building  here  for  a  while,  at  least. 
When  this  is  disposed  of,  and  actual  materialization 
of  rock-bottom  prices  comes  into  existence,  there  is 
no  doubt  that  building  will  go  forward  in  Chicago 
in  a  manner  never  before  witnessed. 

The  principal  hope  for  this  stabilization  of  the 
condition  lies  in  the  conference  of  all  the  varied 
industries  in  the  building  trades,  which  will  take 
place  here  January  21-22  and  in  which  keen  interest 
is  shown  on  every  hand.  President-elect  Harding 
has  written  John  H.  Kirby,  president  of  the  Na- 
tional Lumber  Manufacturers'  Association,  recalling 
the  recent  visit  made  to  him  by  officials  of  the  as- 
sociation and  expressing  the  hope  that  the  confer- 
ence will  result  in  a  plan  which  will  serve  to  revive 
building  and  lessen  unemployment.  Mr.  Harding 
also  points  out  that  this  conference  may  very  well 
inspire  other  lines  of  industry  to  do  likewise. 

Labor  is  contributing  its  share  to  readjustment  a 
trifle  more  readily  than  in  the  past.  Far-seeing 
labor  leaders  are  encouraging  labor  leaders  to  bear 
some  of  the  shock  of  the  readjustment  period.  Un- 
employment is  unconsciously  helping  in  this,  but 
there  is  distinctly  a  tendency  toward  more  active 
participation,  a  "day's  work  for  a  day's  pay"  now 
coming  more  generally  into  favor.  Wages  remain 
upon  about  the  same  levels,  though  longer  working 
days  are  announced  by  several  firms,  notably  the 
Pullman  Company,  the  nine-hour  schedule  having 
been  established  in  some  of  the  construction  depart- 
ments, over  the  protest  of  the  employes.  This  af- 
fects two  thousand  men  in  Chicago,  and  possibly 
some  in  the  Pullman  works  in  Buffalo  and  Wil- 
mington, Delaware. 

Unemployment  here  has  been  exaggerated  by  va- 



rious  sources,  some  putting  the  number  of  unem- 
ployment at  200,000.  But  George  H.  Burns,  in 
charge  of  the  Chicago  District  of  the  Department 
of  Labor,  maintains  that  his  figures  show  about 
90,000  men  out  of  work  in  this  district. 

Excellent  progress  is  reported  in  connection  with 
the  new  union  station.  It  is  intended  now  to  com- 
plete the  building  in  two  years.  The  completed 
building,  trackage  and  the  like  will  cost  about 

The  Wrigley  building,  which  for  a  time  at  least 
is  to  be  Chicago's  most  conspicuous  office  building, 
is  now  almost  ready  for  tenants. 

Plans  are  under  way  for  a  new  $1,500,000  build- 
ing in  the  so-called  "Link  District,"  which  is  an 
extension  of  Upper  Michigan  Avenue.  The  build- 
ing will  be  twelve  stories,  at  Erie  Street  and  Mich- 
igan Avenue,  will  contain  shops  of  the  smarter  sort 
on  the  ground  floor,  and  will  be  one  of  the  units 
designed  to  cause  New  Yorkers  to  grow  green  with 
envy  when  they  contemplate  the  beauties  of  the 
upper  reaches  of  aristocratic  Michigan  Boulevard. 

Chicago  is  to  have  a  million-dollar  temple  to 
Bahai,  if  present  plans  mature.  It  will  be  an  ar- 
chitectural novelty,  situated  on  an  eight-acre  tract 
in  Wilmette,  an  exclusive  North  Shore  suburb,  will 
be  160  feet  high,  with  a  round  base  160  feet  in 
diameter.  There  will  be  nine  sides,  with  a  door  in 
each  side,  typifying  the  doors  by  which  the  devotees 
of  the  nine  principal  faiths  may  enter  the  temple 
and  the  faith  of  Bahai.  Henry  J.  Burth,  of  Hola- 
bird  &  Roche,  architects,  is  structural  engineer  for 
the  temple.  Application  has  been  made  for  a  build- 
ing permit. 

Costs  of  lumber  and  other  building  materials 
have  undergone  no  recent  change  of  importance. 
Present  Chicago  quotations  are: 

Yellow  Pine:  B.  &  B.  1-in.,  $95  to  $130,  depend- 
ing on  thickness;  2x4,  No.  1,  10  to  16  ft.  length, 
$51  to  $53;  2x6,  $48;  2  x  8,  $50;  2  x  10,  $53; 
2  x  12,  $55 ;  13-16  x  3>4  z  &  b  flat  flooring,  $85  to 
$90;  1x6,  No.  2  common,  $48  to  $90.  Douglas 
Fir:  2  4  S,  in  sizes  up  to  12  x  12.  in  length  up  to 
32  ft.,  $65  to  $70;  14  x  14,  $68  to  $73;  16  x  16, 
$72  to  $75;  18  x  18,  $75  to  $80.  Hard  Maple: 
Four,  %  No.  1  and  2,  $135;  select,  $120;  No.  1 
common,  $100;  No.  2  common,  $65  ;  No.  3  common, 
$32.  Birch:  Four  l/4  No.  1  and  2,  $160;  select,  $133 
to  $138 ;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100 ;  No.  2  common, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3  common,  $40.  Red  Gum:  Four 

14  No.  1  and  2,  $150;  No.  1  common,  $90  to  $92; 
No.  2  common,  $45. 

Face  Brick— Standard,  vitrified  red,  $32.00@ 
34.00;  Smooth,  Indiana  red,  $38.00@40.00 ;  Smooth 
Ohio  red,  $38.00@40.00 ;  Smooth,  Pennsylvania  red, 
$46.00@48.00;  Smooth,  buff,  $45.00@47.00; 
Smooth,  gray,  $47.00@49.00 ;  Rough,  buff,  $44.00 
@46.00;  Rough,  gray,  $47.00@49.00 ;  Variegated, 
rough  texture,  $34.00@49.00. 

Common  brick,  $16.00  per  M.  Portland  cement, 
$3.00  per  bbl.  Torpedo — Lake  and  bank  sand,  $3.50 
per  yd.  Crushed  stone,  gravel  screenings,  $3.50  per 
yd.  Hydrated  lime,  Ohio,  paper,  $22.00  per  ton. 
Hydrated  lime,  Ohio,  cloth,  $29.00  per  ton.  (In- 
cludes sacks  at  30c.  each.)  Hydrated  lime,  Wis. 
paper,  $20.00  per  ton.  Bulk  lime,  $1.75  per  ton. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  AMERICAN   ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON. — The  optimistic  tone  noted  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  new  year  was  justified  in  a  great 
many  instances,  but  there  is  still  much  ground  to 
be  recovered. 

The  opening  of  many  of  the  larger  textile  mills, 
a  better  sentiment  in  the  woolen  market  in  Boston, 
a  return  of  confidence  in  the  shoe  and  leather  in- 
dustries, all  point  to  better  things.  Shoe  sales 
amounting  to  $10,000,000  during  the  recent  National 
Shoe  Retailers'  Association  in  Milwaukee  indicate 
the  beginning  of  the  end  of  the  so-called  "retailers' 
strike"  which  curtailed  buying  for  a  long  period. 

One  cloud  in  the  bright  building  outlook  in  New 
England  loomed  up  recently,  when  the  United  Build- 
ing Trades  Council  of  Boston,  representing  about 
30,000  building  mechanics,  voted  to  reject  the  pro- 
posed 90-cent  per  hour  agreement  offered  by  the 
Building  Trades  Employers'  Association,  a  cut  of 
ten  cents  an  hour  from  the  old  agreement.  Contrac- 
tors interviewed  by  your  correspondent  see  little  to 
worry  about  in  the  situation,  considering  the  move 
ill-timed  just  now,  when  there  exists  a  large  excess 
of  workers,  due  to  scarcity  of  building  projects. 
General  opinion  looks  for  a  satisfactory  settlement 
of  the  matter  before  spring  building  starts. 

Your  correspondent  finds  that  contracts  awarded 
for  the  week  ending  January  11  would  appear  to 
indicate  a  typical  situation.  For  1920,  for  that  week, 
contracts  awarded  amounted  to  $2,175,000  as  com- 
pared to  $5,145,000  for  the  corresponding  period  in 
1920;  $722,000  for  1919;  $2,602,000  for  1918; 
$2,048,000  for  1917,  and  $3,248,000  for  1916. 












NUMBER  2354 



The  Work  of  N.  Max  Dunning 

THE  practice  of  architecture  is  of  two  classes 
considered  as  to  its  location.  One  may  have 
his  work  confined  to  one  locality,  another 
may  have  his  work  widely  distributed  throughout 
the  country.  In  the  former  case  fellow  architects  and 
the  public  are  familiar  with  his  work  and  his  posi- 
tion is  well  defined ;  in  the  latter  this  condition  may 
not  exist  and  then  it  is  by  assemblage  that  study  and 
appraisal  is  possible.  It  is  in  this  latter  class  that 
the  work  of  N.  Max  Dunning,  F.  A.  I.  A.,  is  placed, 
as  his  work  is  widely  distributed,  literally  from  Hali- 
fax to  Los  Angeles.  Here  are  illustrated  several 
examples  of  Mr.  Dunning's  work,  indicating  its  scope 
and  character. 

The  -great  mail-order  corporations  in  America  are 
'but  few  in  number.  The  two  largest  in  the  United 
States  have  their  headquarters  in  Chicago  and  prac- 
tically all  of  their  buildings,  including  numerous 
large  branch  plants,  have  been  designed  by  archi- 
tects. The  buildings  of  the  great  Canadian  mail- 
order house.  The  Robert  Simpson  Company,  Ltd., 
have  been  designed  by  Mr.  Dunning.  The  main 
plant,  located  at  Toronto,  is  characteristic  of  the 
branch  homes  located  at  Regina  and  Halifax.  The 

Toronto  building  is  eleven  stories  and  basement  in 
height  and  of  sufficient  ground  area  to  present  an 
imposing  appearance.  The  greater  portion  of  the 
wall  surface  is  entirely  composed  of  glass,  excepting 
the  spandrels.  This  scheme  always  presents  a  diffi- 
cult problem  for  architectural  treatment.  The  main 
exposed  exterior  structural  members  are  made  of 
concrete  with  brick  paneled  spandrels. 

At  each  end  of  the  principal  elevation  is  a  three 
bay  pavilion,  the  center  bay  projecting.  The  vertical 
members  are  heavy  and  of  substantial  proportions, 
with  an  attendant  reduction  of  the  glass  areas,  pro- 
vision for  shadow  effects,  concentration  of  ornamen- 
tation and  emphasized  cornice.  The  three  principal 
divisions  of  the  elevation  are  well  balanced,  the 
extremely  plain  central  area  is  relieved  by  the 
more  pronounced  end  pavilions  and  withal  a 
simplicity  of  designing  which  satisfies.  The 
five  story  building  at  Halifax  is  designed  with  the 
same  central  portion  of  glass  excepting  the  spandrels. 
In  the  Regina  building,  one  half  of  which  has  been 
constructed,  all  of  the  vertical  structural  members 
are  expo'-ecl.  The  corner  pavilions  are  designed  with 
great  simplicity  and  effectiveness.  This  building  of- 

Cofyright,   1931,   The   Architectural  <f  Building  Press   (Inc.) 


fers  an  excellent  opportunity  to  compare  the  effect 
of  the  exposed  vertical  structural  members  with  the 
buildings  in  which  these  members  are  behind  the 

In  connection  with  the  Toronto  project  a  dormi- 
tory building  was  erected  to  house  the  female  em- 
ployees of  The  Robert  Simpson  Company,  Ltd.,  and 
the  surplus  accommodations  allotted  to  art  and  other 
students.  It  is  quite  an  extensive  building  but  the 
funds  available  limited  its  design  to  service  only  and 
with  little  attempt  to  secure  exterior  architectural  ef- 
fect. The  dormitory  was  constructed  at  the  rear  of 
extensive  grounds  surrounding  an  old  mansion  on 
Sherhourai  Street.  The  residence  was  remodelled 

cers  are  located  on  the  first  floor,  the  general  office- 
on  the  second  floor  and  in  the  basement  are  the  mul- 
tigraphing,  stationary,  mailing,  filing  and  exhibit 
rooms.  In  addition  there  is  a  men's  and  women's 
lunch  room  with  kitchenette,  a  nurse's,  examination 
and  quiet  rooms  for  the  social  service  department; 
barber  shop,  shower  baths,  boiler  and  fan  rooms; 
large  vaults  are  provided  on  each  floor. 

The  Stromberg  Motor  Device  Building,  Chicago, 
has  a  special  roof  construction  over  the  sixth  story 
which  is  used  as  a  brass  foundry.  A  description  of 
this  roof  was  published  in  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHI- 
TECT/Sept.  1,  1920,  page  291. 

To  adapt  a  plan  to  an  irregular  shaped  area  is  al- 




and  with  the  extensions  provides  the  occupants  of 
the  dormitory  with  reception  rooms,  club  rooms  and 
grounds,  comprising  a  most  satisfactory  plant. 

The  buildings  of  the  National  Cloak  and  Suit 
Company  at  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  are  designed  along 
similar  lines.  The  plant  is  being  constructed  in  sec- 
tions with  detached  power  house.  Ample  ground 
space  permits  the  arrangement  of  complete  railroad 
and  vehicular  transportation  service.  The  office 
building  for  the  Simmons  Manufacturing  Company 
at  Kenosha,  Wis.,  is  a  good  example  of  the  modern 
detached  office  building  of  a  large  manufacturing 
company.  The  private  offices  of  the  executive  offi- 

ways  an  interesting  problem,  especially  when  the 
floors  are  divided  for  different  purposes.  The  Hotel 
Winton  faces  two  streets  which  are  not  parallel  and  • 
an  adjoining  property  cuts  out  a  corner  on  the  rear. 
Being  located  on  inside  lots  it  was  necessary  to  use 
three  courts  to  provide  light  to  guest  rooms.  The 
typical  floor  plan  shows  a  large  number  of  rooms 
equally  well  lighted.  The  public  rooms  are  in  the 
basement,  first  and  mezzanine  floors.  The  power 
plant  and  laundry  are  located  in  an  adjoining  build- 
ing. The  lobby,  lounge  and  various  dining  rooms 
are  large,  well  proportioned  and  very  conveniently 
arranged.  The  decorative  details  are  generally  in 



low  relief  and  simple.  The  colors  applied  and  the 
woods  and  marbles  used  are  quiet  in  tone  and  very 
harmonious.  The  principal  elevation  is  of  a  red  brick 
and  light  colored  terra  cotta.  There  are  no  extreme 
projections  in  any  of  the  parts  and  the  satisfactory 
impression  produced  is  due  to  the  disposition  of  the 
well  proportioned  openings  and  the  well  placed  hori- 
zontal members. 

The  Bethany  Bible  School  is  designed  to  be  a  com- 
plete institution  in  which  there  are  provided  dormi- 
tories, lecture  halls  and  a  chapel.  The  buildings  are 
arranged  about  a  city  block  with  a  large  quadrangle 
in  the  center.  Thece  buildings  were  erected  during 




a  period  of  years  and  are  of  sufficiently  varied  design 
to  present  an  interesting  appearance. 

The  building  of  the  American  Book  Company, 
Chicago,  is  a  very  substantial  and  well  proportioned 
structure.  The  offices  are  located  in  the  top  story 
and  the  balance  of  the  building  used  for  the  storage 
of  books,  shipping  and  receiving  departments.  The 
exterior  is  faced  with  a  rough  faced  red  brick  com- 
bined with  very  simple  and  effective  terra  cotta  sills, 
caps  and  belt  courses.  The  designing  is  simple, 
slight  projections  of  the  vertical  members,  the  heavy 
projections  of  the  belt  courses  and  deep  window  re- 
veals provide  excellent  shadow  effects.  The  treat- 

ment of  the  first  and  fifth  stories  provides  the  needed 
additional  surface  effects.  In  the  tower  are  placed 
the  sprinkler  and  house  service  tanks. 

Among  other  buildings  designed  by  Mr.  Dunning 



,are  the  Dixon  National  Bank  and  the  Dixon  Home 
Telephone  Company  buildings  at  Dixon,  111. ;  the 
Kenosha  Hospital  and  the  Newell  Memorial  Chapel 
at  Kenosha,  Wis. ;  the  Fourteenth  Church  of  Christ, 
Scientist,  and  the  Oak  Park  Baptist  Church,  de- 
signed in  association  with  C.  A.  Jensen  and  E.  E. 





Roberts,  respectively.  Of  the  residences  designed 
by  Mr.  Dunning,  that  of  Mr.  Robert  J.  Thorne  at 
Lake  Forest,  111.,  is  the  most  important.  This  was 
designed  in  association  with  John  W.  McKecknie 














of  Kansas  City.    These  it  is  proposed  to  illustrate  in 
succeeding  issues. 

It  is  apparent  that  the  hasis  of  Mr.  Dunning's  de- 
signs is  a  careful  study  of  the  elementary  require- 
ments of  the  project.  On  these  is  erected  the  de- 
sign in  a  simple  and  logical  manner,  with  careful 

consideration  being  given  to  the  materials  employed. 
There  is  no  striving  for  effects  not  consistent  with 
the  requirements  of  the  building,  neither  is  there 
evidence  of  adaptations  from  other  works.  Sim- 
plicity, charm  and  dignity  characterize  the  work  as 
they  are  characteristic  of  the  designer. 



Architectural  Registration  Matters 

HAVING  received  from  E.  I.  Du  Pont  De 
Nemours  &  Co.,  Inc.,  of  Wilmington,  Del., 
certain  inquiries  as  to  the  various  states  in 
which  there  are  registration  laws  or  other  legislation 
controlling  the  practice  of  architecture,  we  referred 
the  letter  to  the  secretary  of  the  National  Council 
of  Architectural  Registration  Boards. 

The  reply  to  this  letter  was  so  thoroughly  pre- 
pared that  we  are  presenting  it  herewith  in  the  belief 
that  it  will  be  of  wide  interest: 

"Gentlemen : 

"Your  letter  of  December  16,  1920,  addressed  to 
the  Architectural  &  Building  Press,  Inc.,  243  W. 
39th  street,  New  York  City,  has  been  referred  to  me 
for  reply  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Crocker,  editor  of  THE 

"A  list  of  the  states  having  laws  regulating  the 
practice  of  architecture  is  regularly  published  in 
the  Journal  of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects, 
see  latest  list,  December,  1920,  page  VII.  The  re- 
quirements of  the  laws  in  the  different  states  vary 
greatly.  A  digest  of  these  laws  would  involve  labor 
so  extensive,  that  I  am  sure  that  you  would  not  ex- 
pect anyone  to  furnish  you  with  such  information 
without  adequate  remuneration. 

"On  November  18  and  19  there  was  held  in  St. 
Louis,  Missouri,  a  meeting  of  the  registration  officers 
of  the  various  states  having  registration  laws.  And 
there  were  in  attendance  at  this  meeting  representa- 
tives from  seventeen  states  out  of  the  twenty  having 
registration  laws.  And  there  were  also  present  rep- 
resentatives from  a  considerable  number  of  states 
which  have  laws  pending  in  their  respective  legisla- 



tures.  As  a  result  of  this  conference,  which  lasted 
two  days,  the  meeting  unanimously  resolved  to  form 
a  National  Council  of  Architectural  Registration 
Boards,  which,  among  other  duties,  should  act  as  a 
clearing  house  for  information  regarding  architects 
who  might  desire  reciprocal  transfer  from  one  state 
to  another. 

"I  am  enclosing  copy  of  Constitution  and  By-Law.-; 
of  this  organization,  and  beg  to  say  that  the  organiza- 
tion will  be  completed  and  ready  to  function  on  or 
about  the  second  of  January,  1921.  This  organiza- 
tion will  be  able  to  offer  a  great  convenience  to 
architects  doing  interstate  business.  Of  course,  as 
it  is  purely  a  voluntary  organization,  and  no  state 
board  can  surrender  its  function  under  the  various 
state  laws,  it  must  depend  for  its  value  largely  upon 
the  spirit  of  co-operation,  which  was  manifest  in  the 
council  meeting  held  in  St.  Louis. 

"One  may  be  entitled  to  practice  architecture  under 
the  registration  laws  in  a  particular  state  and  not 
entitled  to  transfer  to  another  state,  due  to  the 
stringent  requirements  of  the  laws  in  the  state  to 
which  the  architect  desires  transfer.  To  eliminate 
this  difficulty  and  avoid  taking  a  number  of  examina- 
tions, the  council  proposes  to  issue  a  standard  N.  C. 
A.  R.  examination,  which  when  one  has  taken  will 
be  deemed  sufficient  evidence  of  competency  to  en- 
title that  person  to  registration  in  any  state  in  the 
United  States ;  due  to  the  fact  that  the  standard  N.  C. 
A.  R.  examination  questions  will  require  the  candi- 
date to  pass  an  examination  at  least  equivalent  to  the 
requirements  of  every  state  in  the  United  States. 
I  would  strongly  recommend  every  architect  who 
expects  to  engage  in  interstate  business  to  prepare 
and  take  the  standard  N.  C.  A.  R.  examination. 

"It  is  expected  that  these  examinations  will  be 
given  by  the  state  examining  committee  in  the  state 
where  the  man  resides  or  in  the  state  nearest  to  his 
residence.  But  the  questions  will  be  prepared  by  the 
National  Council.  The  procedure  will  be  about  as 
follows : 

"The  applicant  for  a  standard  N.  C.  A.  R.  exam- 
ination will  file  a  fee  of  twenty-five  dollars  and 
apply  to  the  National  Council  of  Architectural  Reg- 
istration Boards  for  a  standard  N.  C.  A.  R.  examina- 
tion, and  will  designate  the  state  nearest  his  residence 
where  he  wishes  to  be  examined.  The  council  will 
then  investigate  the  examination  requirements  of 
that  particular  state  and  prepare  additional  questions 
to  cover  the  requirements  of  other  states  in  addition 
to  the  requirements  of  that  state,  make  an  investiga- 
tion of  the  applicant's  record  in  practice,  certify  to 
same  and  turn  over  to  the  officials  where  the  appli- 
cant wishes  to  be  examined.  The  applicant  will 
then  file  an  application  for  examination  in  the  state 
where  he  wishes  to  be  examined,  stating  that  he 
wishes  to  take  a  N.  C.  A.  R.  standard  examination. 

He  will  then  appear  before  the  local  state  committee 
and  take  the  regular  state  examination  and  the  addi- 
tional N.  C.  A.  R.  examination;  and  if  successful  in 
the  examination,  the  local  state  examining  committee 
will  certify  that  he  has  passed  the  state  examination, 
also  the  standard  N.  C.  A.  R.  requirements. 

"A  certificate  of  this  kind  and  an  application  from 
the  National  Council  of  Architectural  Registration 
Boards  will  entitle  the  applicant  to  registration  in 
any  state  in  the  United  States  upon  the  payment  of 
fees  without  appearing  or  examination,  provided  he 
keeps  his  record  clear  as  to  honesty,  integrity  and 
discreet  caution  in  practice.  Thus  a  competent  archi- 
tect may  dispose  once  for  all  of  examination  require- 
ments. Should  an  architect  not  wish  to  take  the 
standard  N.  C.  A.  R.  examination,  but  wish  to  be 
transferred  from  one  state  of  registration  to  an- 
other state  of  registration,  his  procedure  would  be 
about  as  follows : 

"He  would  apply  to  the  National  Council  of  Archi- 
tectural Registration  Boards  for  an  application  blank 
and  pay  a  fee  of  fifteen  dollars,  fill  out  this  applica- 
tion blank  and  return  to  the  National  Council.  The 
council  would  then  carefully  investigate  his  record 
of  practice  in  the  state  where  he  resides  or  in  any 
other  state  where  he  is  registered  to  practice.  This 
would  include  correspondence  with  his  clients,  the 
local  architectural  societies,  fellow  architects  and  a 
transcript  of  his  record  with  his  own  state  examining 
committee.  This  material,  carefully  collected, 
collated  and  certified  to,  would  be  transferred  by  the 
council  to  the  registration  officials  of  the  state  where 
he  wishes  to  enter  practice  and  would  be  used  by  the 
examining  committee  of  that  state  as  evidence  to 
determine  his  eligibility  for  registration  in  that 
state.  If  his  previous  examination  was  equal  in 
standard  to  the  state  where  he  wished  to  be  trans- 
ferred and  his  record  in  practice  without  blemish, 
he  would  in  all  probability  be  granted  a  certificate 
showing  his  right  to"  practice  architecture  in  the 
state  receiving  the  report  of  the  council.  And  would 
thus  be  saved  the  time,  expense  and  delay  of  a  per- 
sonal appearance  at  an  examination  in  the  state  in 
question.  Should  he  fail  in  the  examination  in  ques- 
tion and  so  desire,  the  council  would  refund  his  appli- 
cation fee.  Should  he  wish  to  be  transferred  to  still 
another  state,  he  should  file  an  application  for  addi- 
tional transfer  to  the  council  and  pay  a  fee  of  five 
dollars,  upon  which  the  council  would  investigate 
his  record  during  the  interim  between  his  former 
investigation  and  the  time  of  second  application, 
make  a  transcript  of  his  complete  record  and  trans- 
mit to  the  additional  state  where  he  may  desire  reg- 
istration. And  this  procedure  would  be  followed  in 
as  many  transfers  as  the  applicant  might  wish  to 

"In  the  case  of  an  architect  who  had  received  regis- 



tration  in  the  state  where  he  resided  on  account  of  the 
'exemption  clause'  and  because  of  years  of  practice 
at  the  time  the  law  went  into  effect,  he  would  not  be 
entitled  to  registration  in  another  state  without  ex- 
amination, as  no  other  state  would  be  under  legal 
obligation  to  accept  him  without  examination.  In 
consequence,  architects  who  have  received  registra- 
tion under  the  'exemption  clause'  are  urged  to 
waive  that  right  and  be  registered  in  their  home 
state  by  examination.  The  council  is  recommending 
that  in  all  such  cases  the  form  of  examination  for 
architects  of  ten  or  more  years'  independent  practice 
of  the  profession  of  architecture  as  principal  in 
charge  of  an  architectural  office,  that  these  architects 
be  given  a  special  examination  by  exhibits  in  which 
they  shall  submit  to  the  examining  committee  plans, 
specifications  and  detail  of  a  number  of  their  more 
representative  buildings  and  appear  before  the  com- 
mittee with  these  exhibits,  answering  such  questions 

as  shall  be  put  to  them  tending  to  indicate  that  they 
were  the  real  authors  of  the  work,  notwithstanding 
the  fact  that  the  drafting  and  clerical  work  may  have 
been  executed  by  others  under  their  supervision. 
And  if,  in  the  judgment  of  the  examining  committee, 
they  show  a  record  in  practice  indicating  competency 
equal  to  or  in  excess  of  the  competency  that  might 
be  indicated  by  a  written  examination  prepared  in 
accordance  with  the  law,  they  should  certify  to  the 
proper  authorities  their  right  to  registration  by 

"Architects  of  ten  or  more  years'  practice  residing 
in  states  where  there  are  no  laws  regulating  the 
practice  of  architecture  should  take  such  an  examina- 
tion as  above  indicated  in  the  state  having  registra- 
tion laws  nearest  to  where  they  reside. 

"E.  S.  HALL,  Secretary. 

"National  Council  of  Architectural  Registration 
Chicago  Boards." 



American  Specification  Institute 

We  are  heartily  in  favor  of  the  movement  sug- 
gested in  your  editorial  of  November  17.  Such  an 
organization  as  "The  American  Specification  Insti- 
tute," whose  object  should  be  to  increase  the  knowl- 
edge of  its  membership,  in  relation  to  the  prepara- 
tion of  definite  specifications,  should  receive  the 
hearty  support  of  every  practicing  architect. 

Your  editorial  in  November  17,  of  THE  AMERICAN 
ARCHITECT  speaks  the  truth  in  relation  to  altogether 
too  many  specifications  when  you  charge  that  "The 
preparation  of  specifications  receives  less  study  and 
attention  in  proportion  to  their  importance  than  any 
other  phase  of  architectural  or  engineering  practice." 

The  growth  and  development  of  the  very  compli- 
cated work  of  the  present  day  architect  calls  for  the 
fullest  development  of  every  branch  of  his  service. 
Heretofore  much  effort  has  been  put  upon  the  de- 
velopment of  carefully  wrought  drawings  and  de- 
tails covering  all  the  various  parts  of  the  work.  This 
is  as  it  should  be,  and  in  so  doing  the  architect  has 
kept  pace  with  the  almost  abnormal  requirements. 
The  work  of  preparing  the  specifications  was  pushed 
aside  as  of  not  much  importance ;  however,  it  has 
been  found  that  as  a  companion  of  complete  and  ac- 
curate drawings  which  together  form  the  basis  of 
every  contract,  the  specifications  should  have  the 
same  careful  consideration  and  be  prepared  by  those 
experienced  and  skilled  in  specification  work. 

As  the  work  under  the  care  of  the  architect  be- 
comes more  and  more  complicated  and  important, 
the  necessity  of  perfect  (if  possible)  specifications 
will  be  more  and  more  apparent. 

Too  often  the  specifications  only  meant  so  many 
typewritten  pages  to  be  discarded  by  the  builder  be- 
cause of  their  discrepancies  and  meaningless  and 
impossible  requirements,  indicating  a  lack  of  knowl- 
edge of  good  construction  principles,  the  proper  use 
of  materials  and  equipment. 

Specifications  should  be  accurate  and  definite  the 
same  as  is  required  of  the  drawings. 


Cincinnati,  O. 

Replying  to  your  letter  of  November  24,  I  have 
been  greatly  interested  by  your  editorial  of  Novem- 
ber 17.  on  the  American  Specification  Institute. 
Specification  writing  has  undoubtedly  lagged  far  be- 
hind the  advancing  standard  of  architectural  prac- 
tice generally.  Your  proposal  to  give  prominence  to 
this  work  is  exactly  in  the  right  direction. 


San  Francisco,  Cal. 

I  concur  in  almost  every  detail  with  your  editorial 
and  feel  that  there  is  need  for  a  better  set  of  specifi- 
cations than  is  now  adopted  by  the  average  archi- 
tects' offices,  and  it  appears  to  me  that  the  formation 
of  a  specification  institute  would  be  a  much  needed 
service  that  can  be  rendered  to  architects. 

Augusta,  Ga. 

We  are  in  receipt  of  your  letter  of  November  24 
asking  our  opinion  of  The  American  Specification 

We  cannot  entirely  indorse  the  statement  that 
the  specifications  are  the  least  creditable  part  of  an 
architect's  production.  The  object  of  both  drawings 
and  specifications  is  to  form  a  definite  basis  for  esti- 
mating and  construction,  and  in  our  experience  ques- 
tions arise  due  to  the  defects  in  one  as  much  as  the 
other.  It  is  axiomatic  that  better  information  and 
education  are  desirable. 

As  to  The  American  Specification  Institute,  how- 
ever, your  article  does  not  give  sufficient  particulars 
on  which  an  opinion  may  be  formed.  Is  this  an  as- 
sociation of  specification  writers?  If  so,  who  is 
getting  it  up?  What  are  the  objects  and  how  may 
membership  in  it  be  obtained?  We  should  be  glad 
to  receive  further  information  on  the  subject. 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

In  answer  to  yours  of  November  24  in  regard  to 
the  American  Specification  Institute,  I  am  much  in- 
terested and  would  like  to  know  more  about  this. 

I  thought  that  our  Structural  Service  Committee 
of  the  American  Institute  of  Architects  was  doing 
this  work  and  doing  it  well.  At  present  I  see  no  rea- 
son for  a  rival  organization. 

I  await  your  next  letter  with  interest. 


Boston,  Mass. 

Your  letter  of  November  24  referring  to  editorial 
of  November  17  received,  and  we  are  glad  to  inform 
you  that  we  heartily  approve  of  the  plan. 

Whether  the  formation  of  an  institute  is  the  ideal 
thing  to  do  we  are  unable  to  state,  but  some  good, 
sound  articles  on  specification  work,  in  your  maga- 
zine, will  certainly  be  of  great  value  to  every  archi- 


per  C.  WM.  PALMER. 

Detroit,  Mich. 



Old  State  House,  Newport 

(See  reproduction  of  original  drawing  by  O.  R.  Eggers  on  opposite  page) 

The  public  buildings  designed  during  our  early  Colonial 
period  are,  in  general,  excellent  in  design. 

While  simple  in  style  they  have  a  certain  elegance  that 
may  properly  furnish  inspiration  to  modern  builders.  It 
is  in  its  disciplined  and  almost  universal  refinement  and 
dignity  that  lies  the  chief  beauty  of  this  work.  Even  when 
the  early  builders  sought  to  venture  on  display  they  seemed 
to  possess  an  innate  sense  of  good  breeding  which  taught 
them  to  avoid  the  vulgar  and  the  eccentric. 

This  rugged  refinement  is  shown  in  the  fact  that  classic 
detail  was  a  common  language,  and  even  the  humblest 
carpenter  was  able  to  use  it  with  intelligence  and  appro- 
priateness to  express  the  joy  he  evidently  found  in  his  work. 

The  State  House  at  Newport  was  built  in  IJ43>  ana 
Richard  Munday  was  its  architect.  Olaff  C.  Revin,  writing 
in  the  Georgian  period  of  Munday  and  his  work,  states: 
"This  building  is  symmetrical,  well  proportioned  and  quiet. 
For  suggestion  Munday  depended  on  the  type  then  in 
vogue.  The  dimensions  are  forty  feet  by  eighty. 

Honestly  constructed  of  brick  and  stone,  it  bravely  promises 
to  weather  the  seasons  for  many  generations  to  come." 

Some  critics  of  the  architecture  of  our  Colonial  period 
have  contended  that,  while  its  purity  and  classic  beauty 
cannot  be  questioned,  it  was  nevertheless  based  purely  on 
domestic  types.  This  State  House  at  Newport  is  cited  as 
a  case  to  prove  this  contention. 



THE   AMERICAN   ARCHITECT  S.ri,,  of  Etrl,   Amtri,,n  ArthiMtur, 

Ignoring  Our  American  Art 

ELSEWHERE  in  this  issue  there  appears  a  news 
item  stating  that  Frank  Brangwyn,  the  English 
painter  and  etcher,  has  accepted  a  commission  to 
decorate  the  dome  of  the  state  capitol  in  Jefferson 

The  Missouri  press,  seeing  only  the  obvious  result, 
passes  by  the  deeper,  more  subtle  one,  and  enthusias- 
tically congratulates  Missouri  on  its  selection  of  an 

We  do  not  challenge  Mr.  Brangwyn's  competence 
to  carry  forward  the  work  in  hand.  He  will  doubt- 
less undertake  it  with  that  same  spirit  and  skill 
which  has  been  at  the  base  of  his  success.  But  the 
question  must  be  asked,  why  was  this  important  work 
not  assigned  to  some  American  artist.  It  would  have 
been  an  opportunity  that  might  with  advantage  to 
American  art  have  been  availed  of,  for  if  the  Ameri- 
can spirit  is  to  prevail  anywhere,  surely  an  American 
cSpitol  building  would  suggest  itself. 

American  art  will  be  slow  to  arouse  world  interest 
if  Americans  themselves  give  such  evidence  of  lack- 
ing confidence.  If  America  herself  is  indifferent 
to  her  genius,  where  can  she  hope  for  the  respect  she 
craves  from  the  old,  sophisticated  nations  across  the 
seas?  Why  should  the  decoration  in  an  American 
capitol  building  express  the  feeling  of  one  whose 
traditions  have  nothing  in  common  with  American 
traditions  and  whose  work  is  necessarily  colored  by 
other  and  foreign  ideals  ?  This  great  country  is  not 
without  its  genius,  but  genius  needs  to  be  appreciated. 
It  is  an  injustice  to  American  artists  to  deny  them 
the  opportunity  for  service.  It  is  against  the  spirit 
of  American  art  to  assign  so  typically  American  a 
commission  to  one  without  "America  first"  in  his 
heart.  It  is  against  the  interests  of  America  to  ignore 
its  home  product  and  go  so  far  afield  for  talent. 

This  country  is  famous  for  the  way  it  has  adver- 
tised its  own  powers.  It  has  developed  its  resources, 
encouraged  its  commerce,  cheered  and  boosted  every- 
thing American.  It  would  seem  a  duty  for  those  in 
charge  of  art  matters  to  do  their  part  to  stimulate 
American  art  also  and  help  it  to  those  heights  which 
give  us  pride  in  other  things  American. 

Where  Does  the  "Evil"  Lie? 

/T^HE  New  York  American  of  February  14 
•*-  printed  a  long  and  misleading  editorial  on  the 
"evils"  of  the  so-called  Esch-Cummins  law.  "Each 
day,"  this  newspaper  stated  in  a  headline,  "Reveals 
New  Evil  in  the  Esch-Cummins  Law." 

Now,  there  is  much  that  is  good  and  much  that 
is  bad  in  that  editorial.  It  is  of  vital  interest  to  every 
architect  in  the  country,  because  an  architect's  bread 
is  buttered  by  no  one  factor  more  than  efficient  trans- 
portation. The  so-called  Calder  Committee  (the 
Senate's  Special  Committee  on  Reconstruction  and 
Production)  very  clearly  proved  that.  Housing  all 
over  the  country  progressed  or  stopped  in  direct  ratio 
to  the  effectiveness  of  the  transportation  facilities  to 
and  from  any  given  point.  This,  of  course,  was  a 
self-evident  fact  before  the  investigation  was  begun  . 
by  the  Committee.  Whatever  Senator  Calder  and 
his  colleagues  unearthed  merely  substantiated  a  fact 
of  which  all  architects  were  only  too  well  aware.  In 
any  industrial  scheme  as  complex  as  ours,  transporta- 
tion necessarily  must  play  one  of  the  most  important 

Knowing  that,  architects  should  be,  and  undoubt- 
edly are,  familiar  with  the  provisions  of  the  Esch- 
Cummins  law.  The  point  most  at  issue  just  now  is 
the  recent  contracts  which  the  private  managers  have 
made  with  private  repair  companies  for  the  repair 
of  locomotives  and  cars.  It  is  contended  that  the 
railroads  have  always  maintained  their  own  repair 
.shops,  and  have  kept  the  accounts  of  the  average 
costs  of  repairing  engines  and  cars.  This  average 
cost  was  between  $4,000  and  $5,000  for  a  locomo- 
tive, but  today  the  repairs  are  said  to  cost  about  $20.- 
000  per  locomotive,  due  to  the  fact  that  the  repairs 
are  done  by  private  companies,  not  directly  con- 
nected with  the  railroads,  but  "controlled"  by  the  fi- 
nancial interests  which  maintain  the  Class  1  rail- 
roads [the  Pennsylvania  and  other  large  systems]. 

If  this  be  true,  the  railroads  are  most  certainly  at 
fault  and  should  be  made  to  continue  their  repairs 
under  the  old  scheme,  because  under  this  new  ar- 
rangement, the  total  cost  of  repairs  to  locomotives 
and  to  cars  is  more  than  $750,000,000  a  year. 



THIS  would  be  all  right,  if  the  railroads  them- 
selves met  this  huge  expense.  But  they  do  not 
meet  it.  The  Esch-Cummins  law  provides  that  the 
stockholders  of  the  railroads  shall  have  6l/2  per  cent, 
dividends,  but  under  the  "guarantee"  system  and 
the  high  rates  made  necessary  to  meet  that  arbitrary 
dividend,  the  American  ]>eople  must  pay  out  more 
and  more  until  the  6^2  per  cent,  level  is  reached. 

If  all  these  charges  are  true,  and  if  it  is  actually 
found  that  the  repair  factor  in  the  operation  of 
American  railroads  is  being  artificially  and  deliber- 
ately increased  because  of  a  desire  to  profiteer,  then 
the  officials  of  whatever  railroad  companies  are  in- 
volved in  such  practices  should  not  only  be  com- 
pelled to  explain  every  detail,  but  also  to  go  back 
to  whatever  order  of  things  is  best  suited  for  rigid 

As  indicated  above,  this  is  of  extreme  importance 
to  every  architect.  Everything  that  goes  into  any 
building  or  arch  or  memorial  or  anything  else  is 
directly  affected  by  the  cost  of  transportation.  The 
price  and  the  availability  of  the  smallest  nail,  as  well 
as  of  the  largest  beam,  are  both  immediately  and 
directly  affected  by  the  efficiency  of  the  transporta- 
tion facilities  of  a  community. 

Now,  where  does  the  "evil"  lie  ? 

You  will  find  this  journal's  answer  to  that  ques- 
tion in  our  next  issue. 

The  Holy  Land  in  1920 

NEITHER  stuffy  tenements  nor  dirty  factories, 
narrow  streets  nor  sullied  slums  will  be  toler- 
ated in  Jerusalem  and  other  urban  centers  of  Pales- 
tine, "the  Jewish  Homeland." 

Anticipating  a  heavy  influx  of  Jews  back  to  the 
Holy  Land,  a  city  and  town  planning  commission 
has  been  appointed  to  regulate  the  distribution  of 
population,  and  prevent  a  mushroom  growth  from 
spoiling  forever  the  beauty  of  the  ancient  cities. 

All  town  plans  will  have  to  be  approved  by  the 
commission.  Civic  commissions  with  full  authority 
will  control  building  development  in  Jerusalem,  Jaffa, 
Haifa  and  Tiberias,  working  on  plans  approved  by 
a  central  commission.  This  body  may  be  headed 

by  Sir  Patrick  Geddes  of  the  University  of  Edin- 
burgh, town-planer  of  Bombay  and  other  cities  of 
India.  Landowners  have  been  advised  to  consult 
with  the  local  commissioners  before  attempting  new 

Palestine  is  now  half  empty  and  there  is  ample 
room  for  new  communities  and  modern  quarters. 
In  building  them  the  poor  must  not  be  huddled  in 
crowded  settlements  while  th'e  rich  enjoy  spacious 
houses  and  delightful  gardens. 

It  is  the  duty  of  the  government  to  supervise  such 
things.  It  is  hoped  to  have  here  noble  cities  with 
parks  and  open  spaces,  designed,  not  in  the  foreign 
extraneous  style,  but  breathing  the  spirit  of  the  land, 
representing  the  best  ideals  of  those  who  work  for 
its  upbuilding. 

IT  is  interesting  to  learn  that  concessionaires  have 
applied  to  General  Ronald  Storrs,  governor  of 
Jerusalem  since  the  city  was  captured  by  Lord  Al- 
lenby,  for  permission  to  run  a  street  car  line  to  the 
Mount  of  Olives  and  an  interurban  to  Bethlehem. 
There  is  a  shock  in  the  news ;  it  seems  like  some  of 
the  more  objectionable  fooling  in  "Innocents 
Abroad,"  but  it  is  a  sober  fact.  Remembering  that 
Palestine,  the  Holy  Land  and  the  center  of  the  reli- 
gious aspiration  cf  so  large  a  part  of  humanity,  is 
still  an  ordinary  inhabited  country  with  citizens  who 
want  to  do  business  and  manage  their  affairs  like 
other  communities,  serves  to  give  some  idea  of  the 
difficulty  of  the  task  of  the  British  governor.  Drink- 
ing bars  have  been  forbidden  in  the  city ;  the  street 
railways  to  the  holy  places  have  been  refused  fran- 
chises; modern  building  of  all  sorts  is  forbidden,  as 
the  feeling  is  that  the  country  should  preserve  as 
much  of  its  patriarchal  look  as  can  be  saved. 

The  conflict  between  historical  and  artistic  inter- 
est and  the  economic  development  of  a  country  is  an 
ancient  one.  Italy  suggests  itself  for  comparison, 
and  seems  to  show  that  compromise  is  possible.  The 
Italians  developed  their  industries  as  much  as  they 
could,  but  still  with  attention  to  the  tourist  values, 
the  only  thing,  incidentally,  that  enabled  the  Italian 
nation  to  come  through  each  year  with  a  credit  bal- 
ance on  the  national  books. 










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The  coal  unloading  tower  is  seen  to  the  right 

Steel  Sheet  Piling 

Application,  Design  and  Methods  of  Construction  in  Foundations 


STEEL  sheet  piling  has  found  application  in 
foundations  in  many  ways.  Its  growth  has 
dated  from  its  first  use  as  curtain  walls  driven 
along  the  foundations  of  buildings  adjacent  to  new 
foundations  requiring  deeper  excavations  for  the 
purpose  of  holding  securely  the  foundations  of  old 
buildings  and  materials  under  them.  This  use  has 
now  developed  so  that  sheet  piling  has  found  suc- 
cessful and  growing  application  in  underpinning  of 
these  older  foundations  of  adjacent  building  and  in 
underpinning  the  building  foundations  along  route 
of  subway  construction.  Its  next  application  was 
in  general  cofferdam  work  surrounding  a  building 
site  or  in  small  pier  cofferdams  to  unwater  these 

areas  in  which  to  construct  the  foundations  as 
planned.  This  application  of  this  type  of  piling  to 
foundation  work  is  generally  understood. 

During  twelve  years  of  study  in  the  design  and 
development  of  sheet  piling,  however,  the  possibili- 
ties of  its  use  in  deep  open  cylindrical  cofferdams  or 
caissons  for  building  pier  foundations  as  well  as  for 
bridge  pier  and  other  deeper  foundations  have  been 
very  apparent.  The  progress  in  this  direction,  how- 
ever, has  been  slow,  due  to  the  necessity  for  a  com- 
plete change  and  for  abandoning  old  plants  and 
erecting  new  plants  for  a  method  the  merits  of  which 
were  not  thoroughly  understood. 

It  is  not  uncommon  now  in  bridge  pier  design 




Steel   pipe    holds   cylinder   of   piling   vertical    for  driving 

to  make  pier  excavation  in  open  cofferdams  of  steel 
sheet  piling,  seventy  to  ninety  feet  in  depth,  using 
telescopic  cofferdams  of  two  or  more  leaves,  each 
leaf  of  thirty  to 
fifty-foot  lengths 
of  sheet  piling. 
Single  pieces  fif- 
ty to  seventy- 
five  feet  long 
have  been  used 
in  a  number  of 
instances  in  va- 
rious construc- 
tion jobs.  It  has 
also  been  demon- 
strated by  im- 
proved methods 
of  installation, 
and  by  assem- 
bling the  piling 
in  wall  form, 
splicing  piles  for 
longer  lengths  is 
entirely  practi- 

Experience  has 
thoroughly  de- 
monstrated the 
water  tightness 
of  single  wall 



I  Permanent  fyinkn  of  Lackawarm  I2$c$' Bent-Vteb 
5M  Shut  Pito.  (16  Piles  per  ytirder) 


sheet  piling,  both  straight  and  circular  construction, 
by  side  contact  or  by  compression  and  side  contact. 
A  preconceived  plan  and  method  in  building  pier 
foundations  in  open  caissons  of  steel  sheet  piling,  as 
in  other  types  of  building  foundations,  is  necessary, 
particularly  in  large  power  house  foundations.  The 
Buffalo  General  Electric  Company's  River  Station, 
Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  the  power  house  of  the  Phila- 
delphia Electric  Company,  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  and 
part  of  the  foundations  of  the  new  power  house, 
Lackawanna  Steel  Company,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  were 
constructed  by  this  method,  using  Lackawanna  steel 
sheet  piling. 

The  new  power  plant  of  the  Lackawanna  Steel 
Company,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  recently  completed,  has 
an  interesting  foundation,  inasmuch  as  steel  sheet 
piling  was  used  in  four  distinct  and  separate  appli- 

This  power  house  was  constructed  on  a  site  pre- 
viously excavated  for  a  canal  slip  in  Buffalo  Harbor 
to  23  feet  of  water.  The  materials  as  shown  by  a 
cross  section  below  were  mud  and  silt,  sand  and 
gravel  and  hardparr  to  rock. 

This  foundation  required  first  a  single-wall  braced 
cofferdam  within  which  to  construct  intake  and  pump 
well.  This  required  14  x  ^-in.  arched-web  Lacka- 
wanna steel  sheet  piling,  44  ft.  in  length. 

This  cofferdam  was  constructed  by  first  excavat- 
ing the  remaining  materials  from  the  slip.  The 
bearing  piles  were  driven  and  followed  to  grade  and 
the  cage  of  bracing  was  framed,  the  bottom  tier  first 

and  building  up- 
on this  until 
complete,  allow- 
ing the  cage  to 
sink  of  its  own 
weight.  Addi- 
tional weight 
sunk  cage  to 
water  level.  The 
piling  was  then 
around  the  peri- 
meter of  this 
cage  and  the 
closure  pile  set 
when  all  the 
steel  sheets  were 
driven.  The 
steam  pile  driv- 
ing hammer  was 
suspended  from 
end  of  derrick- 
boom.  Upon 
placing  of  pumps 
the  cofferdams 
were  ready  to  be 
pumped  out. 


This  improvement  also  required  a  bulkhead  or 
dock  wall  adjacent  to  and  on  both  sides  of  power 
house  to  hold  in  place  soft  materials  and  a  fill  place 
to  bring  the  site  to  yard  level.  The  bulkhead  re- 
quired 14  x  ^-in.  arched-web  piling,  53  ft.  in  length. 

To  make  bulkhead  continuous,  a  cut-off  wall  of 
14  x  %-in.  arched-web  piling  about  22  ft.  long  had 
to  be  constructed  under  the  intake  well.  This  was 
accomplished  by  driving  piling  in  the  cofferdam  after 
it  was  unwatered  and  by  moving  one  timber  in  each 
of  four  tiers  of  braces  at  one  time. 

Since  the  loading  on  partition  wall  between  power 
house  and  boiler  house  was  heavier  and  since  the 
foundation  was  also  in  canal  slip  area,  five  cylin- 
drical piers  to  bedrock  were  needed.  These  were 
constructed  within  walls  of  14  x  ^  in.  arched-web 
piling,  42  ft.  in  length. 

The  method  of  constructing  these  cylinder  piers 


Cylinder   at   the   left    has   been    driven 

here  used  differed  only  in  that  a  fixed  leader  pile 
driver  rig  was  blocked  in  position  to  hold  the  mast 
vertical.  The  method  of  doing  this  will  be  described 

The  building  is  approximately  240  x  223  ft.  in 
plan,  with  a  floor  level  about  40  ft.  above  bedrock 
and  about  5  ft.  above  water  level.  A  series  of  bore 
holes  developed  that  bedrock  lay  almost  horizontal 
and  about  35  ft.  below  the  surface  of  the  ground. 
From  5  ft.  to  7  ft.  of  mud  and  silt,  25  ft.  to  28  ft. 
of  sand  or  quicksand,  and  3  ft.  of  clay,  containing 
large  gravel  and  small  boulders,  lay  on  the  rock. 

The  plan  called  for  157  cylinder  piers  varying  in 
diameter  from  33  to  81  inches.  The  maximum  com- 
pressive  stress  allowed  anywhere  on  the  reinforced 
concrete  was  500  pounds  per  square  inch.  The 
larger  piers  carry  as  high  as  874  tons  per  pier. 
These  foundations  were  constructed  in  open  cylinder 
caissons  of  steel  sheet  piling,  12^  *  %-in.  straight- 
web  and  bent  web  sections  being  used. 


Excavation    has    not    been    started 


Number  of  Piles 
18         ... 


0  deg 

fERS   FOR   BEN! 
ngle  of  Bend 
eb  of  Steel  Pile 
rees  straight  web 
bent  web 

[•-WEB    PILING. 

5'    4  15/15" 
4'    8  13/16" 
4'        11/16" 
3'    4    9/16" 
2'    8    7/16" 
2'          3/8" 
Four  90  degrees  bends 






.    11 


.   17 



6    . 




Cylinders  of  8,  12  and  14  piles  of  bent  web  piling 
and  cylinders  of  18  and  20  piles  of  straight-web 
piling  were  used.  In  these  cylinders  1,296  tons  of 
piling  in  33-ft.  lengths  were  used.  The  piling  re- 
mains permanently  in  position  as  part  of  the  struc- 
ture. The  accompanying  plan  shows  the  general 
arrangement  and  size  of  the  piers. 

The  pier  foundation  work  consisted  essentially  in 
driving  closed  cylinders  of  sheet  piles,  excavating 
the  enclosed  material  by  jetting  it  out,  and  filling 
the  opening  left  with  reinforced  concrete.  The  con- 
struction of  these  cylindrical  piers  is  novel  and  orig- 
inal, both  in  design  and  execution.  Two  cableways 
with  two  portable  timber  towers  70  ft.  in  height, 
built  on  skids,  were  placed  over  the  center  lines  of 
two  rows  of  piers  and  were  used  to  handle  the  piling, 
timber  mast,  steam  pile  driving  hammers,  wooden 
assembling  tower,  etc. 

A  timber  pile  was  first  driven  on  the  exact  center 





of  each  pier.  These  piles  were  later  dressed  at  the 
top  and  a  hole  bored  at  the  center  of  pier.  Excava- 
tion proceeded  around  this  pile  to  a  point  near  the 
water  level,  when  the  lower  templet  was  set  in  posi- 
tion and  secured  to  the  center  pile.  The  timber 
assembling  tower  was  then  placed  over  the  lower 
template,  and  the  upper  template  and  guide  ring 
were  centered  in  this  tower  in  correct  position  over 
the  lower  template. 

The  steel  sheet  piling  was  handled  by  the  cable- 
ways  and  assembled  one  piece  at  a  time  around  these 
templates,  the  cableway  being  of  sufficient  height  to 
raise  the  pieces  above  the  33-ft.  sheeting  already 
assembled.  Thus,  the  piles  could  be  interlocked  at 
the  top.  The  position  of  the  cableways  also  per- 
mitted all  of  the  piles  in  one  cylinder,  or  all  the  cyl- 
inders in  the  row,  to  be  assembled. 

This  method  of  assembling  allowed  the  entire  cyl- 
inder to  be  set  and  held  vertical,  and  the  closure  pile 
assembled  for  its  entire  length.  A  14  x  14-in.  wood 
mast,  43  ft.  long,  was  then  mounted  and  held  in 
position  on  top  of  the  wooden  pile  by  a  2-in.  steel 
pin.  This  was  guyed  at  the  top  by  four  5^-in.  wire 
cables,  the  mast  being  free  to  move  within  the  top 

A  No.  7  McKiernan-Terry  steam  pile  driving 
hammer,  weighing  5,500  Ibs.,  was  lifted  by  the  cable- 
way  and  supported  from  the  mast  by  a  steel  A-frame 
so  designed  as  to  allow  the  hammer  and  frame  to 
slide  freely  upon  the  mast.  The  mast  was  free  to 
revolve,  and  the  hammer  was  offset  from  the  mast 
the  required  distance  to  bring  it  centrally  over  the 
pile  walls.  The  hammer  was  lowered  or  raised  by 
a  set  of  double  blocks  provided  on  the  side  of  the 
mast  above  the  hammer,  the  power  line  passing  over 
a  sheave  in  the  top  of  the  mast  to  the  stationary 
hoisting  engines. 

Two  sheet  piles  were  driven  by  this  steam  hammer 
about  3  or  4  ft.  Then  the  hammer  was  raised  and 
placed  upon  two  adjacent  piles,  driving  them  about 
the  same  distance.  This  operation  was  repeated 
until  the  entire  circle  was  driven  into  bedrock.  The 
average  time  of  driving  was  about  6  hours  for  each 


cylinder.  A  large  portion  of  this  time  was  required 
to  drive  the  piles  through  the  glacial  drift  and  into 
the  disintegrated  top  of  bedrock.  Penetration  into 
rock  as  closely  as  can  be  determined  from  original 
borings  was  from  6  to  18  inches.  The  work  of 
assembling  and  driving  the  cylinders  was  entirely 
completed  in  a  total  of  about  70  working  days. 

A  multiple-stage  centrifugal  pump  with  a  capacity 
of  1,500  gal.  per  min.  against  a  pressure  of  125'  Ib. 
per  sq.  in.  was  installed  on  a  timber  pile  trestle  on 
the  shore  of  the  river.  An  8-in.  main  with  a  6-in. 



distributing  pipe  carried  the  water  close  to  the  cyl- 
inders. A  sand  jet  pump  constructed  with  a  6-in. 
pipe  about  40  ft.  long,  having  an  elbow  at  the  top, 
and  a  right  angle  pipe  10  ft.  long  (with  two  water 
jets  fastened  to  opposite  sides  of  this  pipe)  was  used 
as  a  water  jet  pump.  The  two  pipe  jets  had  reducers 
at  the  lower  end.  One  2l/2-in.  reducer  was  turned 
upward  and  toward  the  center  of  the  bottom  of  the 
6-in.  pipe,  the  other  \l/2-\n.  reducer  was  straight  and 
extended  about  12  in.  below  the  end  of  the  larger 
pipe.  These  jets  had  the  effect  of  stirring  the  sand 
and  forcing  it  upward  through  this  larger  pipe.  To 
complete  this  pump  a  2-in.  pipe  connection  was 
made  in  the  elbow,  directly  opposite  the  horizontal 
piece  of  8-in.  pipe.  These  three  jets  were  connected 
to  the  pump  by  fire  hose. 

The  pump  thus  assembled  was  raised  by  the  cable- 
way  and  stood  vertically  in  the  material  within  the 
cylinder,  the  upper  end  of  the  6-in.  tube  being  closed 
by  a  gate  valve.  The  water  was  then  turned  into 
the  jets,  and  as  the  only  avenue  of  escape  was 
through  the  bottom  the  pump  rapidly  settled  under 
its  own  weight  to  the  bottom  of  the  cylinder.  The 
gate  at  the  top  of  the  pump  was  then  opened  and 
the  pressure  from  the  jet  caused  a  large  stream  of 
sand  and  water  to  be  discharged.  This  method  of 
excavation  proved  to  be  so  rapid  that  only  2  hours 
were  required  to  remove  all  the  sand,  the  loose  mate- 
rial from  a  cylinder.  An  independent  jet  was  used 

until  the  hard  formation  was  broken  up  so  that  it 
could  be  removed  by  a  small  orange-peel  bucket. 
The  final  operation  in  cleaning  bedrock  inside  the 
cylinders  was  to  replace  the  large  jets  by  2-in.  jets, 
one  operating  vertically,  the  other  horizontally. 
These  carefully  washed  the  rock  and  the  degree  of 
cleanliness  of  the  bottom  was  thoroughly  tested  with 
a  sounding  rod. 

After  inspection  had  proved  that  the  rock  was 
clean  and  ready  for  concrete,  the  jet  pump  was  re- 
moved and  a  cage  of  reinforcing  steel,  previously 
assembled,  was  lowered  into  the  cylinder.  These 
steel  cages  were  provided  with  stub  guides  which 


Showing    reinforcing    steel    at    floor    beam    level 


Rain    water  collects   on   top   of   concrete 

to  clean  the  sand  and  material  from  near  the  walls 
of  the  cylinder.  Circular  wooden  forms  were  bolted 
to  the  top  of  the  steel  cylinders  to  permit  the  spoil 
to  be  vised  to  raise  the  general  ground  level. 

To  remove  hard  clay  conglomerate,  heavy  gravel 
and  boulders  remaining  in  the  cylinder,  a  14-in. 
arched  web  35  ft.  long,  weighing  1,425  Ibs.,  was 
hung  inside  and  used  as  a  vertical  battering  ram 

held  them  in  proper  position  relative  to  the  sheet 
piling  forming  the  cylinder  shelves. 

Concrete^vas  chuted  to  the  hopper  of  an  ordinary 
tremie  pipe  which  deposited  it  on  the  bottom.  The 
tremie  was  hoisted  and  sections  of  it  removed  as 
the  level  of  the  concrete  rose.  The  lower  end  of 
the  tremie  was  maintained  from  1  to  2  ft.  below 
the  surface  of  the  concrete.  It  was  operated  with 
extreme  care  so  as  never  to  lose  its  seal  in  the  con- 
crete nor  its  charge  of  concrete. 

By  this  method  each  cylinder  was  filled  with  con- 
crete to  a  point  2  to  3  ft.  below  the  top  of  the  sheet 
piling.  After  allowing  sufficient  time  for  the  con- 
crete to  set,  water  was  pumped  out  of  the  top  to 
the  level  of  the  concrete,  and  the  laitance  (usually 
2  to  3  in.  deep)  was  removed. 

The  wooden  forms  were  then  built  for  the  cap 
of  the  pier  and  the  reinforcing  bars  required  for  the 
floor  beams  were  placed  in  position.  All  the  con- 
crete for  top  and  caps  was  poured  at  one  time.  The 
reinforced  concrete  caps  of  piers  were  2  ft.  larger 
in  diameter  than  pier.  The  steel  sheet  piling,  there- 
fore, carried  part  of  load  on  pier. 

This  work  was  designed  by  the  Stone  &  Webster 
Engineering  Corporation,  Boston,  Mass.,  and  was 
executed  by  the  Stone  &  Webster  Engineering  Com- 



pany,  George  Q.  Muhlfeld.  Construction  Engineer. 
S.  L.  Shuftleton,  \Yestern  Manager  in  charge,  and 
E.  C.  Macy,  General  Superintendent.  H.  G.  Stott 
was  Consulting  Kngineer  for  the  Buffalo  General 
Klectric  Company. 

Upon  the  completion  of  this  power  house,  the  con- 
tractors moved  their  forces  and  plant  to  the  site  of 
the  Philadelphia  Klectric  Company's  power  house. 
Philadelphia,  Pa. 

These  foundations  of  the  boiler  house  and  coal 
tower  unloader  were  constructed  in  an  almost  similar 
manner  to  the  foundations  of  the  River  Station  of 
the  Buffalo  General  Electric  Company.  They  dif- 
fered in  the  number  and  size  of  piers,  however, 
there  being  but  four  rows  of  piers,  of  seven  piers 
each  under  the  boiler  house  and  four  piers  only  un- 
der the  coal  unloading  tower,  all  these  on  centers  of 
37  ft.  and  25  ft.  These  piers  were  about  14  ft.  in 
diameter  or  larger  and  made  up  of  38  or  more  pieces 
of  Lackawanna  14-in.  arched-web  piling  in  37  to  55 
ft.  lengths. 

This  foundation  was  constructed  on  the  site  of 
an  old  shipyard  with  old  timbers  and  timber  piles 
buried  in  the  old  .ship  ways.  At  the  center  of  each 
pier  a  timber  pile  was  driven.  In  this  pile  at  the 
exact  center  of  pier  was  bored  a  2-in.  hole  to  receive 
the  pier  at  the  bottom  of  the  timber  ma-t.  The 
ground  timber  templet  was  then  carefully  placed 
and  held  securely.  After  the  upper  templet  was 
set  and  held,  the  steel  sheet  piling  was  assembled 
and  the  timber  mast  was  placed,  set  and  held  at  the 
top  by  steel  cables,  after  being  carefully  pumped. 

The  hammer  drove  two  piles  a  few  feet  at  each 
driving.  Then  it  was  raised  and  placed  on  adjacent 
piles,  continually  driving  in  this  manner  until  the 
cylinder  of  sheet  piling  was  finally  driven  to  bedrock. 

In  cylinders  of  steel  sheet  piling,  the  length  of 
steel  should  be  such  that  when  driven  into  rock  the 
top  of  steel  cylinders  should  be  as  nearly  as  possible 
at  the  level  of  low  water.  The  design  of  the  pier 
should  contemplate  a  reinforced  concrete  cap  of 
larger  diameter  than  the  sheet  piling  cylinders  so 
that  the  piling  can  be  figured  in  the  bearing  value 
of  the  pier. 

The  New  York  City  specifications  for  bearing 
values  of  steel  shells  of  this  character  were  given 
in  a  previous  article  on  foundations,  appearing  in 
THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT,  November  3,  1920. 

A  careful  analysis  will  show  that  one  large  cyl- 

inder of  steel  sheet  piling,  with  possibly  some  rein- 
forcement, will  simplify  any  foundations  where 
otherwise  a  cluster  of  bearing  piles  is  required.  It 
also  has  the  advantage  of  having  a  large  area  in 
bearing  on  bedrock  which  has  been  examined  and 

The  simple  method  of  assembling,  the  driving  in 
one  operation,  the  necessity  of  one  excavation  only, 
the  ability  of  steel  sheet  piling  to  conform  in  its 
bottom  edge  to  the  rock  surface,  the  examination  of 
the  rock  surface  by  steel  ram  or  diver,  the  ability 
of  cylinders  to  retain  their  cylindrical  shape  even 
though  excavated  in  wet  to  considerable  depths,  and 
the  trueness  of  a  cylinder  so  that  a  cage  of  reinforc- 
ing steel  or  steel  bracing  can  be  lowered  through 
the  water  and  the  cylinder  pumped  out  when  bracing 
is  placed,  make  this  form  of  foundation  elastic,  and 
economical  both  in  design  and  execution. 

Fire-Protective    Materials    for    Steel 

TESTS  on  the  fire-resisting  qualities  of  various 
kinds  of  protections  for  steel  columns  have  re- 
cently been  conducted  by  the  Associated  Factory- 
Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Companies,  the  National 
Board  of  Fire  Underwriters  and  the  Bureau  of 

The  results  of  these  tests  show  that  the  period  of 
resistance  for  an  unprotected  column  is  only  ten 
minutes.  Solid  columns  partly  protected  by  filling 
the  re-entrant  spaces  with  concrete  to  the  extreme 
of  the  metal  stood  up  from  one-half  to  three- 
quarters  of  an  hour,  while  open-latticed  columns 
under  the  same  conditions  stood  up  from  2  to  3l/2 

The  best  protective  results  were  obtained  with  a 
limestone  or  calcareous  gravel  concrete  covering  to 
a  depth  of  4  inches.  All  the  columns  so  protected 
withstood  the  eight-hour  fire  test,  and,  while  hot, 
sustained  such  large  additional  loads  as  to  justify 
the  conclusion  that  in  the  lower  range  of  results 
with  similarly  protected  columns  the  working  load 
will  be  maintained  during  an  eight-hour  fire  period. 

Common  surface  clay  brick  laid  on  side  to  form 
a  solid  protection  about  4  in.  thick  resisted  fire  for 
a  period  of  five  hours  and  proved  to  rank  second 
to  concrete  in  this  respect. 


Thick,  of 

2  layers, 
each  %" 
2  layers, 
each  2" 


Fire  Res. 
10      min. 
%  hr. 

3l/o  hrs. 

IV>  hrs. 

8      hrs. 
3      hrs. 

5      hrs. 

Type  of  Column 
Struct.,  steel 



Min.    thick,    of    metal    2". 
Mixt.  1:6.     Vert,  and  horiz.  steel 
Mixt.    1  :6.      Filling  ends  to   out- 
side   rivets    and    covers    lattice 
and  main  members. 
1:1-10:2%    Port,   cement,   hydrat. 
lime,  sand. 
Mixt.   1  :6.    Cone.  tied. 
Motor    joint    bet.    tile    and    col. 
flanges  and  webs,  metal  ties  in 
horiz.  joints. 
Brick  laid   on   side. 

Min.  Sq.  In. 
Solid  Mat'l 





Struct.,  steel,  solid  

Struct.,  steel,  open  lattice.  . 
Struct.,  steel  

entrant  space  with   concrete, 

Struct.,  steel  

Cone     li  Cnt  "  ^ 

Struct.,  steel,  solid  

FI  ill   '      t'l      «      f            1         l,   11 

Struct.,  steel  

tile  flll. 

on      rick,   surtace   clay. 


Current     News 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Field  of  Architecture 
and  the  Allied  Arts 

American  Architects  Invited  to 
Exhibit  in  Paris  Salon 

Through  the  courtesy  of  Monsieur  Maurice  Case- 
nave,  Director  General  of  French  Services  in  the 
United  States,  an  invitation  has  for  the  first  time 
been  extended  by  the  Societe  des  Artistes  Francais 
to  the  American  Institute  of  Architects  to  make  a 
comprehensive  exhibition  of  American  architecture 
at  the  Paris  Salon  which  opens  in  May,  1921.  The 
drawings  will  be  selected  by  the  Committee  on  For- 
eign Building  Cooperation  of  the  Institute  acting  as 
a  jury.  While  this  exhibition  is  gotten  up  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Institute,  it  is  open  to  any  architect 
in  the  country  irrespective  of  Institute  membership. 

A  charge  of  $1.50  per  square  foot  on  drawings 
accepted  will  be  made  to  cover  cost  of  crating,  stor- 
age, hanging,  etc.,  the  French  Government  paying 
the  expenses  of  transportation  to  and  from  Paris. 

Insurance  on  exhibits  can  be  arranged  for  by  the 
Committee  from  the  time  of  their  departure  from 
New  York  until  their  return  at  the  rate  of  $1.50  per 
hundred  dollars  if  desired  by  exhibitors. 

To  allow  sufficient  time  for  transportation  to 
France,  the  date  for  submission  of  exhibits  has  been 
set  for  February  14. 

Those  desiring  to  exhibit  should  apply  to  Mr. 
Julian  C.  Levi,  secretary,  105  West  40th  street.  New 
York  City,  for  entry  slips  which  must  accompany 
all  drawings. 

Brangwyn  to  Decorate  Missouri 

Frank  Brangwyn,  the  English  painter  and  etcher, 
has  accepted  a  commission  to  decorate  the  dome  of 
the  state  capitol  in  Jefferson  City.  The  Kansas  City 
Times  discussing  the  matter  believes  that  if  any 
painter  has  found  the  poetry  of  industry,  it  is  Brang- 
wyn. He  never  has  looked  upon  painting  as  the  toy- 
maker's  art,  to  provide  trifles  or  even  treasures  to 
gratify  individual  whims  and  fashions.  The  picture 
market  never  appealed  to  him.  His  work,  whether 
in  separate  canvas  or  as  a  part  of  an  architectural 
scheme,  is  always  decorative  in  idea,  never  wholly 
divorced  from  architecture,  but  obedient  to  a  scheme 
of  line  and  color  as  music  is  obedient  to  counter- 
point and  harmony. 

Brangwyn's  father  was  an  architect,  which  may 
account  for  the  structural  quality  of  his  painting 

ideas.  And  yet  he  did  not  develop  his  gifts  directly 
under  his  father's  influence.  William  Morris  helped 
him,  but  he  was  shaped  far  more  by  his  love  of  life 
in  its  more  vigorous  aspects. 

In  the  work  he  will  do  in  the  Missouri  capitol,  he 
will  have  free  scope  and  large  spaces  in  which  to 
express  himself. 

The  "eye  of  the  dome,"  which  is  assigned  to  him, 
measures  eight  hundred  square  feet,  and  the  four 
other  spaces  he  is  to  fill  with  mural  paintings  are 
each  650  square  feet  in  size.  Each  painting  will  be 
more  than  thirty-eight  feet  square. 

Westminster  Acknowledges  Ameri- 
can Gift 

The  Carnegie  Endowment  for  International  Peace 
has  received  from  Herbert  E.  Ryle,  Dean  of  West- 
minster, a  message  of  thanks  for  the  gift  of  £10,000 
toward  the  restoration  of  Westminster  Abbey.  The 
letter,  which  -was  made  public  by  Dr.  Nicholas 
Murray  Butler,  chairman  of  the  division  of  inter- 
course and  education  of  the  endowment,  read,  in 

"The  great  American  people  has  always  had  a 
warm  affection  for  Westminster  Abbey,  and  I  re- 
joice to  know  that  this  inheritance  from  early  cen- 
turies of  English  history  is  felt  to  be  one  of  those 
most  hallowed  pledges  of  brotherhood  which  help  to 
unite  the  two  great  nations  in  enduring  harmony  and 
good  will." 

Similar  messages  of  acknowledgment  are  an- 
nounced by  the  endowment  from  Rheims  and  Bel- 
grade, where  the  endowment  is  erecting  libraries  to 
replace  the  structures  destroyed  by  the  German  and 
Austrian  armies. 

The  Neglect  of  the  Back  Door 

So  much  has  been  said  about  the  beauties  of  old 
Colonial  doorways,  the  fan-lights,  the  panels,  the 
knockers  and  the  antique  porticos,  that  the  unobtru- 
sive and  homely  back-door  has  been  grossly  neglect- 
ed. There  is,  however,  a  charm,  an  individuality,  and 
a  human  touch  about  the  humble  back  door,  which 
the  stately  front  door  can  never  claim,  writes  E.  G. 
Babson,  in  the  Boston  Transcript.  The  back-door 
and  its  environs  tell  the  story  of  the  occupants  of  the 
house.  Here  is  one  doorway,  with  a  neat  little  mat 
outside  for  the  iceman  or  the  grocer  boy  to  wipe  his 



feet  on  (he  never  does,  but  it  shows  aspiration )  ;  the 
door-steps  are  swept  daily,  the  garbage  can  under- 
neath is  in  a  good  state  of  preservation,  perhaps  even 
fenced  in.  The  well-washed  dish-towels  hang  in  an 
orderly  row,  and  the  empty  milk  bottles  fairly  gleam 
with  cleanliness. 

By  contrast  look  at  another  picture;  a  broken 
screen-door,  dirty  steps,  dented-in  garbage  pail,  with 
cover  half  off;  odds  and  ends  of  old  cloths  hanging 
up  to  dry,  and  broken  flower-pots  cluttering  up  the 
back  porch.  No  invidious  reflections  are  intended  to 
be  cast  upon  those  responsible  for  this  latter  picture. 
They  may  be  possessed  of  all  the  Christian  virtues. 
but  they  have  acquired  an  indifferent  attitude  to  the 
effect  of  their  back-doors  on  the  neighbors.  So  much 
of  women's  time  now  is  spent  in  the  kitchen,  why  not 
make  the  back  doorway  a  place  of  beauty? 

From  the  back  door  in  the  small  town  or  suburb 
one  can  see  much  more  interesting  signs  of  life  than 
from  the  front,  which  merely  shows  humanity  on 
parade,  as  it  were.  But  from  the  back  porch,  as  I 
write,  I  see  activities  of  all  kinds ;  hens  in  one  yard, 
happily  enclosed,  and  with  no  four  o'clock  rooster, 
visible  or  audible  (Allah  be  praised!)  ;  a  doghouse, 
tenanted  by  a  fairly  amiable  non-growling  canine, 
several  garages  and  two  beehives.  Busy  housewives 
are  shaking  mops  and  dusters  from  their  back  doors, 
and  we  exchange  a  few  words  on  the  nobility  of  la- 
bor. Our  ashcans,  although  badly  dented,  compare 
favorably  with  our  next-door  neighbor's  which  have 
lost  all  semblance  to  a  cylindrical  shape.  We  view 
our  new  clothes-line  with  pardonable  pride,  and  let 
our  eyes  wander  speculatively  to  our  neighbor's  Mon- 
day wash,  hung  out  in  all  its  expansiveness.  Ah,  we 
draw  a  veil,  but  back-door  life  is  interesting — it  has 
the  human  touch. 

Traveling  Exhibits  of  Art 

To  inaugurate  a  movement  to  increase  art  appre- 
ciation among  Americans,  the  American  Federation 
of  Arts  has  launched  a  series  of  exhibitions.  Be- 
ginning with  a  collection  of  400  prints  in  color  and 
photographs  suitable  for  home  decoration  recently 
shown  at  the  Sage  Foundation  Building,  New  York, 
this  series  will  ultimately  embrace  other  items  of 
home  decoration  such  as  wall  paper,  pottery,  etc. 

A  first  exhibition  of  this  kind  shown  last  season 
formed  the  inception  of  a  campaign  for  improving 
home  environment  on  the  principle  that  a  picture  in 
the  home  is  a  silent  partner  in  cultural  growth.  That 
any  national  organization  should  make  a  country- 
wide effort  under  the  slogan  "Art  in  Every  Home" 
is  a  novelty  in  American  Life.  Yet  under  this  sig- 
nificant motto  the  Federation,  which  has  250  chap- 
ters in  38  states,  has  grouped  a  series  of  traveling 

exhibitions,  all  bearing  on  the  single  purpose  of  im- 
proving home  furnishings. 

The  original  exhibition  of  prints  met  with  such 
success  that  two  others  had  to  be  arranged  at  once 
to  meet  the  demands  of  societies  and  institutions  in 
different  parts  of  the  country. 

New  publications  of  American  prints  have  in- 
creased so  rapidly  that  a  complete  revision  of  the 
original  collection  has  now  been  made.  These  have 
been  selected  by  a  jury  of  experts.  Every  taste  and 
fancy  of  the  individual  may  be  satisfied  in  this  ex- 
hibition ;  history,  chivalry,  love,  the  home,  childhood, 
music,  patriotism,  nature  in  all  forms,  figure,  land- 
scape and  sea  subjects,  in  fact,  subjects  eminently 
suitable  for  every  home  are  there.  All  rooms  in  the 
house  are  taken  care  of — living  room  as  well  as 
chamber ;  the  boy's  room  or  the  girl's  room ;  the  den 
or  the  nursery.  The  great  majority  of  the  400  sub- 
jects on  view  are  reproductions  of  works  by 
American  artists.  There  is  also  a  small  group  of 
foreign  subjects,  as  well  as  a  number  of  reproduc- 
tions of  famous  paintings  by  old  masters.  The 
prints  are  in  various  sizes  and  finishes,  and  suitable 
for  framing  and  immediate  use. 

New  reproductions  have  also  been  added  from 
works  privately  owned. 

There  is  also  an  exceptionally  good  series  of  pho- 
tographs, among  them  a  selection  from  paintings  in 
the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art  published  by  the 
Museum  as  part  of  its  extensive  educational  work. 

A  most  interesting  feature  of  the  exhibits  is  that 
the  Federation  will  sell  at  the  exhibition  rooms  copies 
of  all  the  prints  exhibited  at  prices  from  35c  to  $18, 
demonstrating  the  wide  range  of  selection  and  the 
fact  that  there  are  offered  excellent  reproductions  at 
prices  that  readily  accommodate  themselves  to  the 
size  of  any  home-maker's  purse. 

The  exhibition  will  form  one  of  a  number  on  tour 
throughout  the  country  under  the  direction  of  the 
American  Federation  of  Arts;  46  exhibitions  of 
paintings,  prints,  crafts,  war  memorials,  architecture, 
etc.,  being  on  the  road  all  the  time,  each  being  shown 
in  a  different  citv  each  month. 

Factory  Machinery  No  Longer  Black 

Twenty-five  years  ago  little  thought  was  given  to 
the  interior  of  factory  buildings;  "sanitation"  was 
an  unknown  word;  proper  lighting,  health  and 
care  of  workers  were  not  considered.  Today  there 
are  very  few  factories,  prompted  by  the  wish  for 
higher  efficiency,  that  do  not  have  interior  walls  and 
ceilings  finished  in  white  or  some  other  light  color. 

And  it  is  little  over  five  years  ago  that  careful 
thought  was  given  to  the  question  of  proper  lighting 



of  working  areas  at  night,  and  in  such  plants  where 
the  nature  of  the  business  required  very  high  ceil- 
ings and  the  effect  of  white  walls  was  not  so  pro- 
nounced, as  would  be  the  case  in  foundries,  etc. 
This  led  to  a  careful  study  of  suitable  lighting  fix- 
tures for  such  plants  and  was  followed  by  the  de- 
velopment of  suitable  lighting  fixtures  for  factory 
buildings  of  all  kinds.  Today  more  and  more 
attention  is  given  to  proper  illumination  for  the 
dark  hours  of  the  day  and  for  night  work. 

Clean,  healthy  surroundings,  fresh  air  and  proper 
lighting  are  now  the  rule  and  help  greatly  in  insuring 
the  contentment  of  workers  and  steady  production 
which  will  pass  rigid  inspection. 

Today  progressive  manufacturers  are  completing 
the  triangle  of  bright  factory  conditions  by  adding 
to  the  light  walls  and  the  proper  lighting  fixtures 
brightened  surroundings  to  the  very  machine  on 
which  the  workers  are  employed.  These  manufac- 
turers have  found  that  by  doing  away  with  the  black 
color  so  common  on  machinery  and  substituting  for 
it  a  bright,  pleasant  color  they  lessen  the  eyestrain 
of  the  worker,  do  away  with  his  restlessness  at  the 
job  and  materially  reduce  spoilage. 

One  company  through  extended  tests  along  this 
line  has  proved  conclusively  the  advantage  9f  light- 
painted  machinery.  When  given  the  privilege  to 
choose  from  machines  finished  in  different  colors, 
all  the  employes  desired  to  work  on  the  machines 
finished  in  the  lighter  colors.  A  light  gray  color  has 
been  proven  satisfactory  because  this  color  is  suffi- 
ciently off  the  white  light  to  prevent  undue  glare  and 
sufficiently  light  to  eliminate  dark  shadows. 

A  Silencer  for  the  Street  Noises 

One  of  the  disadvantages  of  city  life  is  its  noisi- 
ness. The  larger  the  population  the  more  kinds  of 
noises  there  are  and  the  greater  is  its  volume.  Most 
people  would  gladly  escape  from  it,  if  to  do  so  were 

Hence  the  advantage  of  a  contrivance  invented  by 
Hiram  P.  Maxim,  which  has  for  its  object  the  elimi- 
nating of  street  noises  from  buildings.  It  is  meant, 
especially,  for  apartment  houses,  hotels  and 

Having  effectively  muffled  guns  with  his  silencer, 
Mr.  Maxim  has  turned  his  attention  to  the  hubbub  of 
our  city  streets. 

Of  course,  nobody  can  get  away  from  noise  who 
opens  his  windows  upon  the  streets  of  a  town.  Hence 
it  is  that  Mr.  Maxim's  invention  seeks  to  do  away 
with  the  necessity  of  opening  windows  for  ventila- 
tion. He  proposes  to  supply  from  the  roof  all  the 
fresh  air  that  is  wanted,  using  machine  driven  fans 
to  draw  it  down  through  the  halls  and  into  the 

In  order  that  the  air  may  not  bring  sound  vibra- 
tions with  it,  resort  is  had  to  the  expedient  of  silenc- 
ing it.  For  this  purpose  there  is  erected  on  the  roof 
of  the  building  a  circular  structure  which  has  a  spiral 
interior.  But  it  is  a  broken  spiral,  and  the  passage  of 
the  air  drawn  down  through  it  is  further  interrupted 
by  twists  and  turns,  so  as  to  break  up  all  noise  vi- 
brations. It  is  further  suggested  that  the  silencer 
here  described  might  be  lined  with  felt  or  some  other 
sound-deadening  material. 

There  are  familiar  means  for  making  walls  sound- 
proof, so  that,  in  an  apartment  house  or  hotel,  nobody 
ought  to  be  annoyed  by  the  noises  of  his  neighbors. 
In  a  properly  constructed  building,  then,  the  occu- 
pant of  a  room  should  be  able  to  get  rid  of  all  noise 
by  simply  closing  the  windows,  and  this  he  can  do 
without  shutting  off  the  fresh  air  supply  if  Mr. 
Maxim's  silencer  is  in  use. 

Fighting  a  Burning  Coal  Mine  Under 
a  City 

There  is  a  coal-mine  burning  under  one  of  Pitts- 
burgh's most  exclusive  residential  sections.  The  fire 
started  in  1914.  A  few  months  later,  it  is  learned 
from  the  Popular  Science  Monthly,  it  spread  rapidly 
and  became  a  source  of  great  danger  to  the  commun- 
ity. To  know  that  a  fire  is  burning  under  the  street 
you  live  on,  with  the  possibility  that  it  may  actually 
extend  under  your  home,  would  not  add  anything  to 
your  feeling  of  comfort  and  security. 

The  people  in  the  Squirrel  Hill  section  of  Pitts- 
burgh, where  the  fire  occurred,  did  not  give  the  mat- 
ter much  thought  until  the  street  above  the  burning 
mine  became  so  hot  that  pedestrians  were  unable  to 
walk  upon  it.  The  street  was  completely  undermined 
by  the  fire,  and  part  of  it  caved  in. 

This  was  no  job  for  the  fire  department.  Putting 
out  mine  fires  is  a  job  for  engineers.  Water  could 
not  be  used,  and  it  would  not  do  any  good  even  if  it 
were  possible  to  apply  it. 

When  the  city  engineers  reached  the  fire  and 
studied  it,  they  decided  to  dig  down  a  short  distance 
and  build  a  clay  wall  or  barrier  beyond  which  it 
would  be  impossible  for  the  fire  to  spread.  This  plan 
was  put  into  effect,  and  it  was  thought  that  the  fire 
would  soon  burn  itself  out.  But  the  engineers  were 
disappointed.  The  fire  did  not  burn  itself  out.  It 
grew  hotter  and  hotter.  The  heat  caused  the  clay 
wall  to  crumble,  and  the  fire  spread  rapidly  to  thick- 
er coal  deposits. 

There  was  another  hurry-up  call  for  the  engineers. 
This  time  they  decided  to  strip  the  vicinity  of  coal 
as  far  as  possible,  and  steam-shovels  were  put  to 
work.  The  excavation  was  carried  on  with  great 
haste  to  prevent  the  fire  from  spreading  to  sections 
forty  feet  beneath  the  surface.  To  permit  the  fire 



to  reach  these  areas  meant  almost  complete  disaster 
to  the  entire  community.  It  was  very  difficult  to  fight 
the  fire  at  depths  varying  from  ten  to  twenty  feet. 
At  a  depth  of  forty  feet,  effective  work  would  have 
been  almost  impossible. 

The  race  with  the  fire  continued  for  some  time. 
Steam  shovels  dug  frantically.  Coal  became  so  plen- 
tiful that  it  was  sold  to  the  people  in  the  neighbor- 
hood for  one  dollar  a  ton.  At  times  during  the  oper- 
ations burning  portions  of  the  mine  were  exposed. 
Although  the  fire  was  subdued  to  a  great  extent,  it 
was  not  entirely  extinguished.  The  battle  with  it  is 
still  being  waged. 

The  coal-mine  in  which  the  fire  started  is  a  very 
old  one.  It  has  been  abandoned  for  forty  years.  The 
fire  received  its  necessary  supply  of  oxygen  through 
several  openings.  It  is  difficult  to  imagine  how  fero- 
cious a  coal  fire  may  become,  burning  underground. 
As  the  oxygen  is  used  up  in  the  combustion  of  the 
coal,  a  partial  vacuum  is  created.  This  lowering  of 
pressure  causes  air  to  find  its  way  in  from  the  outside 
and  the  fire  never  lacks  a  fresh  supply  of  oxygen. 

Coal-mine  fires  are  not  uncommon,  but  they  usu- 
ally occur  in  unpopulated  districts,  where  they  are 
allowed  to  burn  themselves  out,  owing  to  the  great 
cost  of  extinguishing  them.  A  coal-mine  burning 
under  a  city  is  a  more  serious  matter — it  simply  must 
be  put  out  regardless  of  cost  and  trouble.  If  it  is 
allowed  to  reach  deposits  that  extend  beyond  a  cer- 
tain distance  underground,  the  job  of  putting  it  out 
becomes  well  nigh  impossible.  The  use  of  dynamite 
is  bad.  It  loosens  the  coal  and  offers  more  fuel  for 
the  fire. 

Indians  Had  45-Story  Apartment 

The  discovery  of  a  stone  apartment  building, 
forty-five  stories  high  and  containing  one  thousand 
rooms,  believed  to  have  been  the  home  of  a  now 
extinct  tribe  of  American  Indians,  was  announced 
at  a  meeting  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  of  Amer- 
ica at  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

The  apartment  was  uncovered  in  one  of  a  group 
of  towns  representing  an  ancient  civilization  in  the 
midst  of  the  Southwestern  Desert.  Several  thousand 
persons  may  have  lived  in  the  newly  discovered 


Find  a  Fine  "Rembrandt" 

An  interesting  discovery  has  been  made  in  a  lit- 
tle half  lost  village  in  the  Harz  Mountains.  In  a 
house  there,  states  the  New  York  Times,  a  picture  in 
oils  of  an  aristocratic  old  gentleman  has  been  hang- 
ing for  many  years.  It  was  only  a  little  while  ago 
that  the  owner  thought  it  might  be  of  value,  and  made 

the  discovery  that  the  picture  was  by  Rembrandt. 
Several  experts  say  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  is 
by  the  famous  Dutch  master. 

The  picture  is  painted  on  an  octagonal  piece  of 
oak,  about  two  feet  high  by  one  and  one-half  feet 
wide.  It  still  is  in  its  beautiful  original  frame  and 
one  of  the  experts,  Dr.  Hofstede  de  Groot,  declares 
that  the  frame  must  have  been  made  at  Rembrandt's 
special  instructions  out  of  Scotch  fir.  The  work 
dates  from  the  time  of  Rembrandt's  stay  in  Leiden 
and  probably  was  painted  in  1630  or  1631.  The  ini- 
tials R.  H.  L.,  which  stand  for  Rembrandt  Harmen- 
zoon  Leiden,  appear  in  a  typical  monogram  above  the 
shoulder.  The  discovery  was  made  by  Egon  Mueller, 
a  well-known  art  expert  of  Hamburg. 


Edward  F.  Stevens,'  9  Park  street,  Boston,  and 
Frederick  C.  See,  62  Clark  street  E,  Toronto,  archi- 
tects for  medical  institutions,  have  officially  an- 
nounced the  formation  of  a  partnership  at  the  same 
addresses.  They  have  been  associated  for  a  number 
of  years. 

R.  S.  Tyson  and  H.  N.  Foster  announce  that  they 
have  taken  over  the  office  of  Mr.  J.  M.  King  and 
will  practice  architecture  under  the  firm  name  of 
Tyson  &  Foster,  with  offices  in  the  Woods  Building, 
Ashland,  Kentucky. 

James  H.  Ritchie,  architect  and  engineer,  formerly 
located  at  8  Beacon  street,  Boston,  Mass.,  has  associ- 
ated himself  with  F.  R.  Jonesburg,  and  the  firm  is 
now  operating  at  15  Ashburton  place,  that  city.  They 
also  have  an  office  at  St.  Petersburg,  Fla. 

Herbert  C.  Hearne,  architect,  who  formeily  prac- 
ticed at  145  State  street,  Springfield,  Mass.,  is  now 
located  at  356  Main  street,  that  city. 

Bowen,  Bancroft  Smith  &  Geo.  Provot,  architects, 
announce  that  they  are  now  located  at  48-50  West 
47th  street,  New  York  City. 

James  Kleinberger,  architect,  is  now  located  at  20 
West  43d  street,  New  York  City. 

Edward  Fanning,  architect,  is  now  with  Goodwin 
&  Woolsey,  4  East  39th  street,  New  York  City. 

Charles  Volz,  architect,  announces  that  he  is  now 
practicing  at  371  Fulton  street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

L.  R.  Barber,  architect,  has  just  been  discharged 
from  the  army  and  opened  an  office  at  325  Guarantee 
Trust  Building,  Atlantic  City,  N.  J. 


Weekly  Review  of  the  Construction  Field 

With   Reports  of  Special  Correspondents  in   Regional  Centers 




(Vice-President,  Bank  of  Detroit) 


[Refer  to  Page    107,   Issue  of  January  26,    1921] 

THE  credit  swing  in  prices,  however,  is  the  one 
that  is  most  unsettling  to  the  business  world.  The 
movement  has  been  frequently  called  a  "financial 
cycle."  Prior  to  the  organization  of  the  Federal 
Reserve  System  the  financial  cycle  seemed  to  be 
permanently  established  as  a  reoccurring  factor  in 
American  business  life,  although  each  succeeding 
period  had  certain  characteristics  peculiar  to  itself, 
which  frequently  tended  to  deceive  even  the  vet- 
eran business  man. 

Common  to  all  these  periods,  however,  was  a 
period  of  inflation,  followed  by  a  period  of  defla- 
tion. Such  a  period  was  invariably  characterized 
by  a  crisis  year,  one  or  more  dull  years,  culminating 
in  a  number  of  active  business  years.  These  active 
business  years  were  followed  by  another  period  of 
readjustment,  included  in  another  financial  cycle. 
As  the  active  years  were  years  of  increasing  prices 
and  years  of  growing  inflation,  it  is  evident  that 
during  these  years  there  were  committed  the  eco- 
nomic errors  which  were  ultimately  disfurbing  to 
trade  and  necessitated  readjustments  of  prices  and 

AVERAGE  PRICES  1914-1919 
(Annalist  Index  Number  Showing  Varying  Prices) 

1914 146.069 

1915 148.055 

1916 175.720 

1917 261.796 

1918 287.080 

1919 295.607 

Nov.  13,  1920 238.557 

The  period  commencing  with  the  World  War  in 
1914  is  illustrative  of  such  a  period  of  inflation, 
whose  effects  were  world  wide.  The  new  and  ab- 
normal spending  power  of  the  various  governments, 
growing  out  of  non-liquid  loans,  fiat  or  quasi-flat 
currency  issues,  and  increased  taxation,  "bulled" 
prices.  Business  men  bid  against  each  other  in 
supplying  raw  material  and  manufactured  goods 
to  meet  war  demands.  Labor  received  increasingly 
higher  wages  and  came  into  the  market  for  lux- 
uries in  abnormal  volume.  Bank  loans  increased, 
following  the  necessity  for  increased  capital,  to 

'Copyrighted    1920  by  Edmund   D.   Fisher. 

build  new  factories,  and  to  finance  the  growing  dol- 
lar volume'  of  trade.  Population  of  cities  in- 
creased, weakening  the  primary  basis  of  production. 
The  normal  relations  of  production,  manufacture 
and  distribution  were  disrupted.  Much  of  the 
wealth  produced  was  non-productive  and  fed  the 
fires  of  war.  Yet  all  these  tendencies  which  made 
for  an  inevitable  readjustment  were  more  or  less 
obscured  for  a  while,  and  the  feeling  developed  in 
the  United  States  that  the  nation  was  growing 
wealthy.  People  were  certainly  busy,  but  finally 
began  to  feel  through  the  strain  of  increased  prices 
that  it  might  be  a  period  of  lessening  wealth. 

Theoretically  it  is  possible  to  conceive  of  prices 
remaining  relatively  stable  during  a  war  period,  if 
the  buying  power  of  the  people  were  restricted 
through  saving,  offsetting  the  increased  buying 
power  of  the  government.  Practically,  however, 
the  people  do  not  save  the  necessary  amount  for 
this  purpose.  The  government,  therefore,  con- 
tinues to  borrow  heavily,  bank  loans  expand  and 
the  added  spending  power  thus  created  stimulates 
the  increase  of  prices.  As  a  consequence,  of  course, 
the  value  of  the  dollar  itself  tumbles. 

THE  rather  comprehensive  subject  suggested 
for  this  address  includes  in  addition  to  the  rea- 
sons leading  to  advance  in  prices — "What  is  neces- 
sary to  bring  about  their  orderly  decline."  As  the 
phrase  is,  "There  ain't  no  such  animal."  That  is, 
yet  to  be  found  in  the  American  financial  zoo.  It 
could  not  live  with  the  "bulls"  and  "bears."  An 
orderly  decline  in  prices  must  follow  a  preceding 
period  where  business  is  well  under  control,  where 
reserves  are  laid  aside  to  break  the  shock  of  future 
changes,  where  inventories  are  not  too  large,  where 
new  equipment  and  new  factories  are  planned  for 
an  average  rather  than  an  abnormal  business,  and 
where  there  is  a  potent  economic  control  working 
through  the  entire  financial  cycle  by  a  strong  central 
banking  organization.  In  the  past  many  European 
countries  have  had  such  relations  fairly  well  estab- 
lished, and  where  the  credit  cycle  has  had  no  ex- 
tremes in  price  movement. 

English  experience  ranging  over  a  long  period 
of  years  shows  that  the  credit  cycle  of  prices  very 
nearly  coincides  with  the  average  annual  discount 
rate  of  the  Bank  of  England.  As  prices  go  up  the 
discount  rate  advances.  As  prices  go  off  the  rate 
declines.  The  economic  control  of  the  bank  over 
prices  is  thus  made  evidetit.  This  condition  is  par- 
ticularly interesting  in  view  of  the  power  of  the 



Federal  Reserve  System  to  control  discount  rates 
in  the  United  States  through  the  principle  of  re- 
discount for  member  banks  of  approved  commer- 
cial paper-  This  power  was  not  exercised  during 
the  war  period  because  it  was  deemed  wise  to  help 
government  financing  through  the  maintenance  of 
a  low  interest  rate.  Furthermore,  the  gold  reserves 
of  the  Federal  Reserve  Banks  were  comparatively 
strong,  owing  to  the  great  influx  of  the  precious 
metal  from  abroad,  sent  in  payment  of  foreign  pur- 
chases, chiefly  in  1915,  and  the  substitution  of 
credit  balances  for  money  reserves  in  the  member 
banks  of  the  country.  The  conditions  thus  estab- 
lished, of  course,  were  elements  of  inflation,  par- 
ticularly as  the  Federal  Reserve  Act  provided  for 
lessened  reserves  in  the  national  banks. 

Under  normal  international  conditions  the  ad- 
vance of  the  discount  rate  of  a  central  bank  tends 
to  draw  capital  from  foreign  countries  and  offsets 
the  necessity  of  gold  exports.  It  tends  generally  to 
minimize  bank  loans  and  promote  liquidation.  The 
effect  of  this  policy,  as  we  have  seen,  is  to  promote 
the  reduction  of  commodity  prices.  On  the  other 
hand,  a  reduction  of  the  discount  rate  would  tend 
to  increase  loans,  tend  to  stimulate  enterprise  gen- 
erally, and  ultimately  advance  prices.  The  proper 
function  of  a  central  bank,  or  of  a  central  board 
with  corresponding  power,  is,  of  course,  to  stabil- 
ize prices  so  far  as  possible  and  to  minimize  the 
ups  and  downs  of  credit  movements.  Such  move- 
ments, however,  are  more  or  less  inevitable,  grow- 
ing out  of  the  inherent  errors  in  business  life. 

Recently,  the  rediscount  rates  of  the  various  Fed- 
eral Reserve  Banks  have  been  advanced.  This  ac- 
tion was  followed  by  a  tendency  to  curtail  credit 
by  the  member  banks,  with  the  consequent  reaction 
on  the  price  fabric  of  the  country.  In  general, 
therefore,  it  cannot  be  claimed  that  in  this  particular 
credit  cycle,  the  Federal  Reserve  System  has  acted 
as  a  stabilizing  element ;  but  it  is  now  functioning 
along  approved  lines,  although  somewhat  late,  and 
should  prove  to  be  an  important  factor  in  approx- 
imating an  orderly  decline  in  prices. 

THE  chief  element  which  has  caused  our  pres- 
ent inflation,  our  great  government  debt,  is  likely 
to  remain  a  non-liquid  element  in  our  banking  and 
currency  fabric  for  some  time  to  come.  This  sug- 
gests that  a  large  amount  of  inflation  may  remain 
in  our  price  schedules  and  only  be  eliminated  as  the 
debt  is  gradually  paid  or  absorbed  through  the  sav- 
ings of  the  people.  It  will  be  remembered  that 
prices  following  the  Civil  War,  with  some  erratic 
exceptions,  declined  very  gradually  for  a  long  pe- 
riod of  years.  The  changes  are  shown  in  the  fol- 
lowing index : 


1865—229  (Peace  established)    1873—147 







1879—  99 
(Resumption  of  specie  payments) 

The  business  world  has  no  guide  to  point  to  fu- 
ture price  movements,  or  determine  a  sane  reduc- 
tion from  year  to  year.  Prices  will  brook  no  con- 
trol— they  look  out  for  themselves  and  are  really 
the  governors  on  the  machinery  of  business,  if  not 
interfered  with  by  governmental  price-fixing 
schemes  or  trade  agreements.  It  is  possible  that 
price-fixing  may  be  justified  during  a  war  period, 
but  from  an  economic  standpoint  the  price  tenden- 
cies are  stronger  than  the  forces  of  governmental 
or  trade  regulations.  Fixing  prices  during  a  de- 
cline would  be  very  difficult,  although  theoretically 
possible  under  seasonal  readjustments. 

A  merchandising  concern  that  does  an  annual 
business  of  seventy-five  millions  of  dollars  has 
taken  an  attitude  which  emphasizes  a  seasonal  basis 
of  prices.  It  is  announced  that  they  have  begun 
their  spring  buying  in  lines  where  the  manufac- 
turers have  been  able  to  standardize  prices.  It  is 
pointed  out  that  business  and  confidence  must  be 
re-established,  and  that  it  devolves  upon  the  pro- 
ducer to  set  prices  which  he  can  stand  by.  The 
statement  in  part  says: 

"Labor  must  be  kept  employed;  mills  throughout 
the  land  must  be  heartened  by  real  orders  to  set 
in  motion  wheels  already  stopped,  and  to  speed  up 
those  that  are  running. 

"No  sane  manufacturer  will  at  this  time  make 
goods  without  orders ;  because,  however  carefully 
he  figures,  he  would  have  to  force  the  goods  for 
sale  if  they  did  not  move  quickly,  and  pocket  new 

"Prices  are  not  done  coming  down,  though  some 
lines  have  struck  the  cellar,  and  must  rebound  a  bit 
to  reach  a  live-and-let-live  basis.  But  a  start  must 
be  made  somewhere  to  re-establish  business  and 
confidence.  The  pessimist  will  create  worse  havoc 
if  the  optimist  does  not  prevail  over  him." 
(To  be  concluded.) 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT,) 

SEATTLE — Stabilization  of  prices  and  conditions 
continues  very  favorably  here.  The  steel  market 
has  invited  the  confidence  of  investors  and  build- 
ers during  the  past  month.  Architects  report 
a  more  definite  inquiry  as  to  costs.  Pencil  sketches 
are  rapidly  multiplying.  Lumber  is  acting  sympa- 
thetically with  steel,  and  is  now  on  a  new  lower  oper- 
ating cost.  Increased  production  by  labor  is  chiefly 
to  be  credited. 

With  labor  generally  producing  at  normal  capacity. 



it  is  felt  that  the  spring  building  season  on  the  Pacific 
Coast  will  gradually  improve. 

Sheet  metal  is  meeting  the  Steel  Corporation  levels, 
and  there  are  sufficient  stocks  on  hand  for  present 
or  early  spring  requirements.  The  railways  are  now 
handling  the  hulk  of  the  stock  in  transportation, 
intercostal  water  transportation  having  proved  rather 
unsatisfactory.  Pipe  arrivals  and  deliveries  are  con- 
siderably improved.  All  sizes  are  available.  The 
jobbing  trade  expresses  the  opinion  that  the  situa- 
tion is  now  satisfactory. 

Seattle  architects  estimate  this  week  that  it  will 
require  an  expenditure  of  $125,000,000  to  meet  Pa- 
cific Coast  building  needs,  and  that  $50,000,000  spent 
on  construction  in  this  city  alone  would  not  over- 
build it.  Architects  who  are  willing  to  go  on  record 
on  this  statement  are  firmly  of  the  opinion  that  every 
essential  item  in  the  construction  line  is  now  at  a 
reasonable  basis,  including  labor.  This  city  is  three 
years  behind  in  Class  A  office  buildings.  A  num- 
ber of  old  office  buildings  await  remodeling  to  be 
brought  to  a  modern  revenue-producing  level.  There 
is  also  a  great  need  for  Class  A  apartment  houses. 
Architects  are  recommending  that  this  type  of  con- 
struction be  henceforth  six  and  ten  stories  in  height, 
with  most  modern  equipment  and  roof  gardens. 
There  is  a  great  need  for  hotels,  an  auditorium,  hos- 
pitals, a  temple  of  music  and  more  school  buildings. 

Methodists  of  this  North  Coast  territory  are  gath- 
ering funds  for  a  $1,000,000  hospital,  which  they 
hope  to  build  in  this  city  within  the  next  two  years. 
Congress  has  been  asked  to  appropriate  $1,000,000 
for  a  new  immigration  station  at  Seattle,  and  owing 
to  the  urgent  need  for  such  a  structure,  it  is  be- 
lieved here  that  the  congressional  budget  will  include 
an  appropriation  for  it. 

The  "Own-Your-Home"  campaign  is  on  in  Seattle 
this  week.  Posters  are  everywhere.  Literature  pre- 
pared by  the  Seattle  Real  Estate  Association  is  being 
spread  broadcast.  Motion  pictures  are  also  being 
utilized  in  the  campaign  of  publicity. 

Fir  lumber  wholesalers  are  refusing  to  sell  short 
on  this  market,  indicating  better  confidence  in  fu- 
tures than  was  shown'during  the  last  quarter  of 
1920.  Reduced  log  and  labor  costs,  it  is  conceded, 
will  bring  a  recession  in  the  market  in  big  timbers 
used  in  railway  construction,  but  will  not  be  reflected 
in  the  building  industry.  Progress  is  being  made  in 
securing  water  rates  intercostal  for  hauling  Fir  lum- 
ber tonnage  into  the  Atlantic  seaboard  and  south- 
eastern territory,  and  with  $18  from  Puget  Sound 
to  New  York  as  competition,  the  railways  announce 
that  a  rate  of  95  cents  per  hundred  pounds  may  be 
expected  early  in  March.  Should  the  overland  lines 
name  this  figure,  it  is  certain  that  water  rates  will 
decline  still  further,  possibly  to  $15  per  1,000  feet. 

Average  prices  at  which  the  Fir  mills  sold  lumber 

during  the  last  week  mill  basis  were  $49  for  vertical 
grain,  and  $23.50  to  $29  for  slash  grain  flooring, 
$62  for  stepping,  $23  to  $28  for  drop  siding.  $15.50 
for  boards  and  shiplap,  $13.50  for  dimension  and 
$18.50  for  plank  and  small  timbers.  The  mills  are 
not  accepting  business  on  the  present  shingle  price 
to  the  trade  of  $1.85  to  $1.95  for  stars,  and  $2.10  to 
$2.20  for  clears,  square-pack  basis.  The  per  thou- 
sand basis  of  quoting  shingles  will  be  permanently 
abolished  when  the  mills  resume  the  spring  cutting. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO — The  work  of  last  week's  conference 
of  lumber  and  building  materials  manufacturers 
showed  practically  no  tangible  results,  and  was  sum- 
marized in  two  resolutions,  the  first  calling  upon 
building  materials  manufacturers  to  exert  their  best 
efforts  for  reductions  in  construction  costs,  the 
second  suggesting  that  Congress  be  requested  to 
direct  its  amendatory  attention  to  those  laws  which 
interrupt  the  operation  of  natural  economic  laws, 
such  as  unscientific  revenue  acts,  excess  profits  tax, 
excessive  surtax  on  individual  incomes,  the  Clayton 
anti-trust  act  and  the  Adamson  law. 

The  public  uncertainty  as  to  building  costs  is  at 
present  blocking  building,  according  to  the  opinions 
of  the  majority  present.  This  is  the  big  factor.  One 
of  the  most  important  subordinate  factors,  as  in- 
dicated by  many  of  the  speakers,  is  the  reluctance  of 
investors  to  take  up  mortgages  when  many  tax-free 
investments  offer  much  better  returns.  Tax  exempted 
mortgages  is  one  of  the  necessary  steps  in  the  build- 
ing renaissance. 

The  conference  looked  upon  the  price  problem  as 
the  big  obstacle.  This  is  the  reason  for  public  uncer- 
tainty, of  course.  There  has  been  deflation  in  cer- 
tain materials,  but  a  great  deal  more  in  those 
materials,  and  in  others,  was  held  by  the  conference 
to  be  necessary  to  any  sort  of  building  program. 

The  meeting  resolved  itself  finally  into  a  general 
plea  for  everyone  to  get  down  as  close  to  bedrock 
as  it  is  now  possible,  so  that  public  confidence  may 
be  secured. 

Labor  came  in  for  its  share  of  criticism,  practically 
all  present  at  the  conference  being  distinctly  of  the 
opinion  that  the  desire  of  the  Chicago  Building 
Trades  Council  to  continue  the  $1.25  hour  for  union 
building  workmen  for  three  years  was  wrong.  It 
was  held  that  labor  must  take  its  loss  with  the  others, 
or  else  hold  up  the  building  program  or  invite  an 
open  shop  fight. 

Speaking  again  of  public  confidence,  the  discussion 
turned  to  advertising.  The  conspicuous  example  of 
the  Northern  Pine  Association  in  its  "public  confi- 
dence" advertising  campaign  was  referred  to,  as 
well  as  the  action  of  the  paint  and  varnish  industry 
in  its  "Save  the  Surface"  campaign.  In  line  with 



this  policy  of  favorable  publicity,  the  board  of 
directors  of  the  National  Lumber  Manufacturers' 
Association,  the  official  host  of  the  conference,  de- 
cided to  raise  and  spend  a  fund  of  $300,000  to  pro- 
fnote  public  confidence  in  building  and  to  do  away 
with  the  "unjustified  prices"  criticism. 

Another  important  item  in  local  building  is  the 
recent  indictments  brought  against  46  millwork 
manufacturers,  carpenter-contractors  and  union 
leaders,  alleging  that  the  1918  agreement  which  pro- 
hibited Chicago  union  workmen  from  using  non- 
union sash,  door  and  blinds  established  a  virtual 
monopoly  by  Chicago  manufacturers  on  that  line  of 
business,  the  open  shop  towns  outside  Chicago  stand- 
ing no  chance  in  competition.  It  is  said  that  the 
arrangement  added  about  $3,000,000  to  the  annual 
rental  bill  of  the  city. 

The  manufacturers  and  carpenter-contractors  hold 
that  the  agreement  was  really  a  war-time  truce  with 
union  labor,  and  that  they  themselves  would  like  to 
see  the  agreement  abrogated. 

Building  here  is  waiting  for  a  further  shakedown 
in  prices. 

Lumber  remains  on  fairly  stable  levels,  with  up- 
ward tendency. 

Local  quotations  are  as  follows : 

Yellow  Pine:—B.  &  B.  1  in.,  $95  to  $130;  13-16, 
3J4  flat  flooring,  $85  to  $90 ;  2  by  4,  10  to  16  feet, 
No.  1  long  leaf,  $51 ;  2  x  6,  $48  to  $49;  2  x  8,  $49 
to  $50 ;  2  by  10,  $52  to  $54 ;  2  by  12,  $54  and  $56. 

Northern  Hardwoods,  carload  lots,  Chicago : 

Birch,  four  %  No.  1  and  2,  $155 ;  select,  $130  to 
$138;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No.  2  common, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $35  to  $40. 

Hard  Maple,  four  y4  No.  1-2,  $135  to  $140;  select, 
$115  to  $120;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No.  2, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $32  to  $50. 

Red  Gum,  four  %  No.  1  and  2,  $148  to  $152; 
No.  1  common,  $88  to  $92 ;  No.  2,  $43  to  $47. 

Birch,  four  ^  No.  1  and  2,  $155  to  $160;  select, 
$130  to  $139;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100;  No. 
2,  $60  to  $65 ;  No.  3,  $35  to  $40. 

Douglas  Fir,  12  by  12,  No.  1  up  to  32  feet,  $65  to 
$75 ;  14  by  14,  $68  to  $75 ;  16  by  16,  $70  to  $75 ; 
18  by  18.  $75  to  $80. 

Cement : — Universal,  $3 ;  Lehigh,  $3.00 ;  Portland, 

Bulk  lime,  $1.70  to  $1.90;  face  brick,  octagons, 
$68  to  $75 ;  fire  brick,  $32  to  $40;  12  in.  .24  to  .27, 
18  in.  .46  to  .54. 

Crushed  stone  gravel,  $3.40  to  $4 ;  lake  and  bank 
sand-torpedo,  $3.40  to  $4. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT,) 

BOSTON. — Unemployment  continues,  a  recent 
survey  of  the  organized  workers  of  Massachusetts  by 
the  State  Department  of  Labor  and  Industries  show- 
ing that  it  affects  more  than  one-quarter  of  the 
organized  workers.  Labor  unions  reported  that  out 
of  a  total  membership  of  199,022,  the  number  of  idle 
was  57,420.  Inactivity  in  the  boot  and  shoe  industry 
is  about  45  per  cent.  But  conditions  are  really 

The  strike  of  30,000  building  mechanics  in  Boston, 
which  started  this  week,  continues.  It  was  stated 
at  the  headquarters  of  the  Building  Trades  Em- 
ployers' Association  a  few  days  ago  that  the  employ- 
ing contractors  were  seriously  considering  a  reduc- 
tion to  80  cents  an  hour,  10  cents  below  their  former 
offer  of  90  cents.  It  is  the  opinion  of  many  archi- 
tects and  engineers  that  a  reduction  to  90  cents  an 
hour  is  not  sufficient  to  stimulate  building. 

In  some  sections  and  industries  in  New  England, 
confidence  is  nevertheless  returning.  New  Bedford, 
Fall  River  and  other  mill  cities  report  an  encourag- 
ing flow  of  orders.  The  textile  situation  has  defi- 
nitely turned  for  the  better.  Wool  showed  a  rebound 
in  prices,  and  the  volume  of  business  is  decidedly 
better.  Some  shoe  factories  report  operation  of  ma- 
chines which  have  been  idle  for  months. 

Deflation  has  yet  to  make  its  mark  on  some  other 
lines.  It  is  reported  that  several  of  the  independent 
steel  corporations,  for  instance,  have  cut  plates  this 
week  to  $4  a  ton  under  the  U.  S.  Steel's  figure. 

It  is  thus  evident  that  the  whole  problem  is  one 
of  adjusting  prices  in  all  industries  to  a  common 
level,  so  that  the  products  oi  one  may  be  exchanged 
for  those  of  another  on  a  fair  and  equal  basis. 

























NUMBER  2355 



What  Is  the  Industry  Going  to  Do  About  It? 

Pertinent  Proceedings  and  Impressions  of  the  New  York  District  Conference 
of  the  Building  and  Construction  Industry,  Held  in  New  York  City, 

January  25,  1921 

You  who  transform  the  trees  of  the  forest  into  lumber 
for  the  building  of  homes  ;  you,  the  workers  in  clay  and 
the  quarriers  of  stone ;  you,  who  mine,  convert  and  work 
the  metals  used  in  construction;  you,  who  buy  and  sell 
the  products  of  the  quarry,  the  pit,  the  mine,  the 
forest,  or  manufacture  them  for  sale  in  useful  forms  ; 
you,  who  employ  these  products,  as  the  artist  uses  his 
colors  and  brush,  as  the  mediums  for  permanent  con- 
crete expression  of  your  genius  in  design ;  you,  who  by 
the  work  of  your  hands  or  your  skill  in  executive  man- 
agement, assemble  and  fabricate  these  products  into 
buildings  ;  and  you,  who  control  the  flow  of  industry's 
life  blood — capital  and  credit;  all  of  you  who,  function- 
ing together,  constitute  the  building  and  construction 

industry  are  called  to  take  hold  of  your  industry,  lift 
it  off  the  flat  of  its  back  and  stand  it  on  its  feet  that 
it  may  again  go  forward  with  increasing  vigor  in  the 
service  by  which  it  lives  and  the  community  prospers. 
— From  the  Program  of  Action. 

AND  you,  having  just  read  this  declaration  of 
purpose,  are  probably  recalling,  with  a  cynical 
sort  of  smile,  similar  phraseology  in  several 
such  declarations  which  heralded  other  meetings  of 
this  nature  in  the  immediate  past  and  which  have 
already  sunk  into  an  oblivion  as  complete  and  dis- 

Copyright,   1981,    The   Architectural   &    Building  Press   (Inc.) 


couragingly  thorough  as  that  oblivion  which  today 
surrounds  the  details  of  Aztec  civilization  in  Mexico. 

But  there  is  the  exception  to  all  things,  and  this, 
in  the  overworked  program  of  that  much  abused 
"co-operation"  which  we  are  all  only  too  anxious  to 
secure,  will  very  probably  prove  itself  a  notable  ex- 
ception. There  will  be  no  need  for  the  cynical 

For  this  movement  has  already  achieved  both  mo- 
mentum and  at  least  the  beginnings  of  national  im- 
portance. From  August  6,  1920,  when  the  idea  of 
bringing  all  the  elements  of  the  building  and  con- 
struction into  a  common  meeting  was  actually  made 
concrete  in  the  Atlantic  City  conference,  there  has 
been  the  gradual  growth  of  momentum.  It  has  taken 
root  in  Boston,  New  York,  Pittsburgh,  Chicago  and 
St.  Louis,  where  groups,  representative  of  the  whole 
local  industry,  are  either  organized  or  organizing  to 
discuss  industry  problems  and  group  policies  as  a  pre- 
liminary to  the  first  congress  to  be  convened  in  the 
Spring  of  1921. 

The  district  conference  in  New  York  City  was 
one  of  several  which  have  already  been  held  for  the 
purpose  of  sounding  sentiment  on  the  matter  and 
gathering  whatever  preliminary  data  on  the  subject 
may  be  now  gotten  together  for  the  Spring  congress 
of  1921. 


The  need  for  a  congress  such  as  this  one,  and  for 
local  district  councils,  was  emphasized  by  all  the 
speakers,  but  the  fundamental  and  really  significant 
need  was  best  pointed  out,  not  so  much  by  what  was 
actually  said  by  two  of  the  speakers  as  by  a  most 
important  fact  developed  as  the  result  of  their 

One  of  those  addresses  was  made  by  Clarence 
Kelsey,  first  vice-president  of  the  Title  Guaranty 
&  Trust  Company  of  New  York.  It  was,  to  our 
way  of  thinking,  the  most  important  address  of  the 
day,  primarily  because  it  came  from  a  man  in  as 
important  a  financial  position  as  Mr.  Kelsey,  and 
secondarily  because  it  indicated  the  bankers'  attitude 
on  building  construction  in  the  highly  important 
matter  of  credit.  This  is  the  first  time,  we  believe, 
that  the  financial  element  (and  we  take  Mr.  Kelsey 
as  representing  a  goodly  portion  of  that  element) 
has  spoken  so  directly  on  a  topic  which  has  unfor- 
tunately been  subjected  to  a  silence  second  only  to 
that  of  the  Sphinx. 

"There  are  three  main  factors  in  any  construction 
undertaking,"  Mr.  Kelsey  began,  "capital,  material 
and  labor,  and  an  owner  who  has  or  will  borrow  the 
capital,  invest  it  in  the  material  and  labor  and  look 
to  the  result  for  profit. 

"Capital  is  the  fundamental  requisite.  Without  it, 
the  next  steps  cannot  be  taken,  but  the  procuring  of 

capital  is  only  the  first  step  and  accomplishes  nothing 
if  the  next  two  cannot  be  taken. 

"The  second  will  not  be  taken  no  matter  what  the 
prices  for  material  and  labor  unless  the  third  step 
is  covered  in  the  promise  of  a  reward  to  the  owner. 

"In  the  State  of  New  York,  the  rent  profiteering 
laws  have  so  far  as  housing  is  concerned  practically 
blocked  the  way  for  production  or  encouragement 
in  taking  the  third  step.  Those  are  temporary  and 
will  soon,  I  believe,  either  be  repealed  or  disre- 
garded, and  at  any  rate,  in  a  little  more  than  a  year, 
will  have  expired. 

"The  factors,  therefore,  for  a  great  construction 
movement  are  a  supply  of  capital  and  a  supply  of 
willing  and  faithful  workmen  and  reasonable  costs 
of  material. 

"There  is  no  great  difficulty  in  the  matter  of 
capital- — not  nearly  as  much  as  is  generally  supposed 
— at  any  rate  so  far  as  mortgage  money  is  concerned. 
It  is  true  that  the  income  surtaxes  have  driven  the 
large  individual  and  estate  mortgage  lenders  out  of 
the  market,  but  their  place  is  being  taken,  in  a  meas- 
ure, by  small  ones  through  the  activities  of  the  title 
insurance  and  mortgage  companies,  by  their  methods 
of  cutting  up  the  large  mortgages  into  small  pieces 
represented  by  certificates,  sold  to  small  investors. 
The  institutions  also  are  coming  back  into  the  mar- 
ket to  some  extent  and  making  loans  on  their  own 

"With  regard  to  the  balance  of  the  capital  required 
to  carry  the  equity,  there  is,  I  believe,  greater  dif- 
ficulty, and  that  difficulty  is  involved  to  a  consider- 
able extent  in  the  costs  of  labor  and  material.  As 
long  as  these  costs  remain  so  high,  it  is  evident  that 
the  builder  or  owner  has  to  have  a  much  larger 
amount  of  capital  of  his  own  than  was  formerly 
necessary,  but  neither  the  mortgage  lender  nor  the 
owner  is  eager  to  proceed  until  the  costs  of  labor 
and  material  come  down.  This,  I  believe,  is  the 
crucial  point  to  be  covered  if  we  are  considering 
a  great  construction  development.  It  will  not  take 
place  on  the  current  scale  of  material  costs  or  of 
labor  cost  and  inefficiency. 

"The  recent  exposures  of  the  way  material  costs 
are  kept  up  are  very  disheartening  and  it  is  a  bold 
man  who  will  proceed  with  an  extensive  building 
program  until  assured  that  these  combinations  are 
absolutely  abandoned  and  that  real  competition  in 
price  can  be  secured.  Neither  will  there  be  a  great 
building  movement  until  labor  comes  to  its  senses. 
I  do  not  mean  by  this,  necessarily,  a  great  cut  »n 
wages,  but  I  do  mean  a  great  change  in  what  the 
laborer  gives  for  his  wages.  I  cannot  understand 
that  labor  can  be  so  blind  as  to  believe  that  business 
can  go  on  with  ever  increasing  wages  to  labor  and 
ever  decreasing  performance  by  labor. 

"I  have  not  much  hope  of  a  satisfactory  change 



in  this  respect  until  the  fundamental  principles  of 
labor  unions  are  reformed.  The  individual  laborer 
is  standing  in  his  own  light  and  dwarfing  his  future 
by  consenting  to  them.  How  can  the  ambitious,  in- 
dustrious and  thrifty  mechanic  expect  to  get  ahead 
unless  he  is  rewarded  for  his  skill  and  efficiency? 
Until  the  labor  unions  permit  classified  lists,  with 
graded  pay  or  piece  work  or  some  other  method  by 
which  the  skilful  can  do  better  than  the  unskilful 
and  lazy,  labor  is  bound  to  be  inefficient. 

"The  result  of  the  present  policy  we  see  all  about 
us.  The  more  the  employer  pays  to  labor  in  dollars, 
the  less  he  gets  in  service.  We  all  know  that  this 
cannot  last,  that  it  is  dishonest,  and  that  nobody 
suffers  from  the  failure  so  much  as  the  employee. 
The  whole  thing  travels  in  a  circle  and  comes  back 
to  the  laborer  in  the  rent  that  he  pays,  in  the  price 
that  he  pays  for  everything  that  he  buys. 

"In  my  judgment,  it  is  in  the  hands  of  the  mate- 
rial men  and  the  labor  unions  to  correct  the  whole 
vicious  situation  which  confronts  us  today  and  to 
start  a  construction  program  that  shall  give  work 
and  prosperity  to  all.  Decreasing  continually  the 
brick  that  a  mason  can  lay,  or  the  plastering  that  a 
plasterer  can  put  on,  or  the  lath  that  one  can  affix, 
the  more  his  wages  go  up,  means  but  one  thing — 
just  what  we  see  all  about  us. 

"The  problems  stated  in  the  program  of  this  asso- 
ciation that  are  crucial  to  its  purposes  are  plainly 

stated  and  can  be  easily  solved  if  there  is  the  real 
and  sincere  will  to  do  it. 






"The  first  is,  how  can  an  adequate  sup- 
ply of  skilled  craftsmen  be  provided? 
The  answer  is  by  giving  the  skilled  crafts- 
man a  chance  to  do  better  than  the  veriest 
slob  at  his  trade. 

"How  shall  the  proper  functions  of  the 
respective  elements  be  defined  ?  By  each 
one  putting  an  honest  price  on  his  wares 
or  on  his  labor  and  honestly  competing  to- 
get  a  job  by  fixing  his  price  right  and! 
making  his  services  efficient. 


"How  can  abundant  credit  resources  be 
made  available  at  a  reasonable  cost?  By 
presenting  for  security  to  the  mortgage 
lender  a  property  built  with  honest  labor, 
and  material  honestly  priced,  and  so  far 
as  the  bank  credits  to  the  builder  are  con- 
cerned, by  convincing  the  banks  that  the 
job  is  one  honestly  conducted  and  that  the- 
owner's  money  is  not  to  be  wasted  on  ma- 
terial bought  under  the  conditions  of  dis- 
honest and  unlawful  combinations  in  price, 
and  with  labor  honestly  endeavoring  to 
earn  the  money  that  is  paid  to  it.  The 



banks  will  not  lend  to  builders  or '  material-men  if 
present  conditions  continue  and  they  see  that  so 
much  money  is  wasted  on  the  job  that  it  never  can 
pay.  They  do  not  wish  to  lend  to  an  owner  whose 
undertaking  is  bound  to  be  a  failure  because  he  is 
robbed  in  the  construction  of  his  building." 


Mr.  Kelsey  was  subjected  to  an  unusual  amount  of 
cross-questioning  after  his  address.  This  came  from 
not  only  some  of  the  labor  leaders  present,  but  from 
others  as  well.  On  practically  every  matter  affect- 
ing labor  about  which  he  had  anything  to  say  [no- 
tably the  statement  that  certain  mechanics  were 
limited  to  a  fixed  daily  production  by  the  unions  or 
some  other  element]  he  prefixed  his  answers  by  the 
words,  "I  am  informed,"  or  "I  believe." 

These  words  were  taken  by  Hugh  Frayne,  gen- 
eral organizer  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor, 
in  charge  of  the  New  York  office,  and  formerly  a 
member  of  the  War  Industries  Board,  as  the  keynote 
of  his  address. 

"The  best  argument  put  forward  here  for  a  con- 
gress such  as  this  one,"  Air.  Frayne  em- 
phasized at  the  very  beginning  of  his  re- 
marks, "was  Mr.  Kelsey's  speech." 

There  was  a  noticeable  gasp  at  this  state- 

"His  ignorance  of  labor  conditions,"  Mr. 
Frayne  continued,  "emphasizes  the  need  for 
just  such  a  gathering  and  just  such  a  congress 
as  this  gathering  proposes.  He  tells  you  that 
he  is  informed  of  the  existence  of  certain 
conditions.  Now,  we  are  all  informed  of 
almost  everything,  but  there  are  degrees  of 
being  informed. 

"He  tells  you  that  he  'understands  there 
exists'  or  is  'informed'  of  certain  malprac- 
tices, among  which  is  the  arbitrary  reduction 
of  individual  daily  production  by  certain 
agencies,  just  what  he  does  not  know.  Let 
V  me  say  that  in  my  long  experience  with  both 
employers  and  employee,  with  the  man  who 
^  hires  and  the  man  who  is  hired,  I  have  never 
known  of  any  organization  going  on  record, 
or  of  any  law  intended  to  limit  the  amount 
of  work  any  individual  may  do  in  a  day  or 
week  or  month.  No  one  is  more  opposed  to 
the  man  who  isn't  willing  to  give  service  than 
I,  but  I  do  not  believe  it  fair  to  charge  labor 
as  a  whole  with  inefficiency  because  of  isolated 
cases.  I  admit  that  such  cases  exist,  but  they 
are  comparatively  insignificant  in  numbers. 
"I  don't  say  that  we  have  all  the  good  peo- 
ple in  labor,  but  I  do  deny  that  we  have  all 
the  bad  ones.  I  speak  as  a  mechanic,  who  has 
worked  with  his  hands  and  has  had  expe- 
rience in  handling  men  on  many  construc- 
tion jobs.  I  know  the  elements  that  enter 
into  individual  production,  or  group  produc- 
tion. Various  factors,  such  as  weather, 
enter  into  the  problem  of  production ; 
and  no  one  can  arbitrarily  set  a  daily 
standard  for  production,  because  no  one 
is  powerful  enough  to  remove  the  factors  which 
naturally  increase  or  decrease  such  production  from 
day  to  day-" 

Speaking  of  the  so-called  "war  record"  of  labor, 
Mr.  Frayne  said : 

"We  have  heard  all  sorts  of  talk  about  the  ineffi- 
ciency and  high  pay  of  labor  during  the  war,  and 
it  is  most  unfair  talk.  What  happened  at  that  time? 
The  shipyards  illustrate  it  vividly.  The  Government 



and  private  corporations  were  forced  to  get  men  and 
get  them  quickly,  and  as  a  result  they  took  them 
wherever  they  could  find  them.  A  young  fellow,  ac- 
customed, let  us  say,  to  stenography,  went  into  the 
shipyards  to  work.  His  reaction  to  his  surroundings 
— the  noise,  the  dirt,  and  even  those  with  whom  he 
worked — was  psychologically  horrible,  and  as  a  re- 
sult, that  young  fellow  could  not  possibly  produce 
efficiently.  He  wasn't  trained,  he  wasn't  accustomed 
to  the  work,  and  he  didn't  like  it.  He  could  be 
nothing  but  an  inefficient  worker. 

"There  were  thousands  like  him.  Their  combined 
efforts  produced  astounding  inefficiency.  And  who 
suffered  most? 

"The  trained  worker,  of  course.  He  was  used  to 
the  work,  knew  his  trade,  and  liked  it,  and  he  was 
producing.  But  he  was  arbitrarily  dumped  into  a 
general  rating-pot,  with  the  newcomers  [necessarily 
inefficient]  and  his  efficiency  rating  was  based  on  the 
total  man  power,  instead  of  the  trained  man  power." 

Mr.  Frayne  then  discussed  the  moral  responsibil- 
ity of  employers  toward  the  men  they  hire,  and  em- 
phasized the  fact  that  in  all  discussions  and  all  the 



talk  about  labor  the  human  element  has  been  com- 
pletely lost  sight  of.  He  maintained  that  it  was 
the  duty  of  the  employer,  when  he  hired  a  man  to 
work  for  him,  to  see  to  it  that  that  man  was  either 

trained  when  hired  or  was  trained  after  being  hired. 

''What's  wrong?"  he  asked.  "Is  labor  getting  too 
much  pay?  Is  production  low?  Is  labor  failing 
to  do  its  full  duty? 

"Wages  are  not  too  high.  The  price  of  almost 
every  commodity  went  up  before  wages,  and  that 




increase  had  to  be,  and  was  met  by  increased  wages. 
We  are  not  going  back  to  pre-war  standards. 

"We  are  part  of  an  industry  upon  whose  well- 
being  the  livelihood  of  millions  of  workers  depends, 
and  we  are  looking  here  for  some  remedy  to  an 
appalling  situation. 


"The  remedy  is  simple  enough.  Keep  in  mind 
always  the  human  equation.  There  you  have  it. 
More  specifically,  see  to  it  that  a  better  system  of 
training  for  the  workers  of  the  industry  is  brought 
about.  Pick  trained  men  when  you  hire  them,  or 
train  them.  I  am  for  this  conference,  heart  and 
soul  as  many  architects  and  engineers  here  can  tell 
you.  I  have  always  believed  in  agreements  between 
employer  and  employee.  I  have  sat  down  and  talked 
things  over  with  some  of  the  men  in  this  room,  and 
they  were  all  employers  of  labor.  I  have  found  that 
when  they  knew  our  side  of  the  case,  from  first  hand, 
when  they  had  facts,  and  not  gossip,  at  their  com- 
mand, they  always  treated  us  fairly. 



"I  am  satisfied  that  this  is  a  great  step  forward, 
for  it  brings  all  the  elements  of  the  industry  together. 
And  all  the  elements  have  never  before  been  brought 
together.  Mark  that  statement. 

"This  is  a  big  thing,  and  I  am  for  it,  personally 
and  officially,  and  I  can  assure  you  that  co-operation 
of  the  sort  intended  here  will  do  more  to  clear  the 
situation  and  put  the  building  industry  back  on  its 
feet  than  any  other  factor. 

"Let  me  add  this.  There  are  thousands  upon 
thousands  of  trained  and  skilled  craftsmen  and 
workers  in  the  building  industry,  and  they  can  find 
work.  If  you  employers  in  New  York  co-operate 
with  them,  they  will  work  for  you  and  work  well 
for  you.  But  if  you  don't  co-operate,  if  you  don't 
show  some  intention  of  laying  your  cards  on  the 
table,  they'll  go  elsewhere  to  work.  And  there  is. 
work  to  be  had  elsewhere,  gentlemen. 

"As  for  labor,  I  want  to  say  right  here  that  we 
will  lay  our  cards  on  the  table,  face  up  and  in  full 
view  of  whoever  may  wish  to  look  at  them.  I  prom- 
ise you  that." 

These  two  addresses  sum  up  the  spirit  and  essence 
and  possibilities  of  this  conference  better  than  any- 
thing else  that  was  said,  because  they  come  author- 
itatively from  two  of  the  most  vital  factors  in  any- 
building  program,  and  because  they  represent  the 
official  attitude  of  those  factors. 


The  morning  session  of  the  conference  was  given 
over  to  five  addresses,  two  of  which  were  of  un- 
doubted importance  to  architects.  One  was  Mr. 
Frayne's,  the  other  that  of  Robert  D.  Kohn.  Mr. 
Kohn  took  no  pains  whatsoever  to  spare  the  feel- 
ings of  other  architects  present,  and  his  remarks,  at 
the  opening  of  the  session,  were  made  doubly  im- 
portant in  view  of  his  personal  and  particular  im- 
portance in  this  movement  and  in  the  profession  of 

"I  am  ashamed  of  the  industry  of  which  I  am  a 
part,"  he  said,  "I  am  ashamed  of  what  I  myself  may 
have  done  in  that  industry.  I  know  nothing  about 
this  great  industry  as  a  whole.  I  don't  know  why 
materials  fluctuate  as  they  do,  why  men  come  into 
the  building  industry  and  leave  it,  how  many  do  so, 
what  controls  material  prices,  and  why  there  isn't 
any  money  to  be  had  for  the  second  greatest  industry 
in  America. 

"I  recognize  as  one  of  the  fundamental  difficulties 
that  there  is  a  shortage  of  skilled  labor,  due,  as  I  see 
it,  to  competitive  bidding  between  employers  for  that 
labor.  This  was  especially  true  during  the  war 
period.  .  .  . 

"The  problems  before  us  are  reduceable  to  one, 
and  that  problem  is  how  best  to  get  at  facts  and 
secure  co-operation.  T  confess  that  architects  have 

been  of  the  'stand-offish'  sort  for  too  long  a  period, 
but  they  have  come  to  the  point  today  where  they 
realize  that  they  are  an  integral  part  of  the.  in- 
dustry. .  .  . 

"We  are  not  here  to  argue  over  matters,  or  to 
discuss  the  open  shop  or  any  other  factors  having 
to  do  with  that  phase  of  the  labor  situation.  We 
don't  care  about  the  open  shop,  and  we  don't  want 
to  hear  about  it.  We  do  want  to  conduct  a  scientific 
investigation  into  five  things,  as  I  see  it.  One  is 
the  supply  of  labor.  The  second  has  to  do  with 
those  reasons  which  impel  men  to  come  into  this 
industry  and  work  in  it,  whether  they  be  architects, 
craftsmen  or  bricklayers.  The  motive  may  be  simple 
enough,  but  what  authoritative  data  have  we  regard- 
ing the  labor  turnover  in  the  building  industry,  and 
all  such  factors?  We  want  to  find  out  just  how 
important  the  architect  is  or  should  be  in  this  great 
industry,  and  why  he  is  actually  that  important.  We 
want  to  find  out  about  materials.  And  we  shall  hear 
something  today  about  finance. 

"The  second  largest  industry  in  the  United  States 
is  helpless  today,  because  there  is  a  lack  of  co-opera- 
tion. That  is  a  ridiculous  situation.  An  industry  in 
which  at  least  15,000,000,  perhaps  20,000,000  people 
are  engaged,  finds  itself  on  its  back,  unable  to  get 
up  and  stand  on  its  feet.  Due  to  finance?  Well,  it 
seems  to  me  that  the  millions  engaged  in  this  in- 
dustry can  create  their  own  credits,  quite  independ- 
ent of  banks  and  trust  companies.  That  may  be 
far  fetched,  and  probably  is,  but  it  points  a  solution. 

"We  are  here  to  determine  the  need  for  a  national 
movement,  for  a  local  group,  and  the  field  of 

W.  G.  Luce,  of  Hegeman-Harris  Company,  rep- 
resenting the  contractors,  then  emphasized  what  Mr. 
Kohn  had  said  regarding  co-operation,  pointing  out 
that  at  a  dinner  in  Philadelphia,  similar  in  purpose 
to  this  conference,  the  Executive  Committee  of  the 
American  Federation  of  Labor  had  this  to  say  re- 
garding the  movement  and  the  Congress  idea: 

"The  architect  has  been  way  up  in  the  sky  for  a 
long  time,  and  we  never  felt  that  we  could  get  to 
him.  If  he  comes  into  this  thing,  as  he  has  here 
and  will  do  so  in  other  places,  we  will  be  just  fifteen 
years  ahead  of  the  game,  because  the  presence  of  the 
architect  at  gatherings  like  these  indicates  a  genuine 
desire  to  get  down  to  brass  tacks  and  do  something." 

Mr.  Luce  referred  to  a  conversation  he  had  with 
one  of  the  associate  editors  of  this  journal  on  the 
previous  day,  in  which  the  editor  told  him  that  the 
housing  problem  had  reached  the  point  of  a  national 
crisis  (strikingly  similar  to  the  war)  and  that  co- 
operation such  as  the  war  brought  forth  among  every 
industrial  element  of  the  nation  should  now  show 
its  hand  on  the  same  basis. 

"I  thought  that  over  last  night,"  Mr.  Luce  said, 



"and  that  fellow  was  right.  This  is  a  national  crisis, 
and  we  need  co-operation  of  the  sort  we  showed 
during  the  war." 


The  afternoon  session  was  given  to  several  ad- 
dresses and  a  great  deal  of  discussion,  but  the  most 
important  and  vital  of  them  all,  from  the  standpoint 
of  the  architect  (in  that  it  provided  ten  more  or  less 
concrete  things  which  the  local  councils  and  national 
congress  may  actually  get  under  way  immediately) 
was  the  short  address  by  Louis  K.  Comstock,  of 
L.  K.  Comstock  &  Company,  which  presented  the 
point  of  view  of  the  sub-contractor  in  the  situation. 

"Business  men  today  don't  know  where  they  stand 
under  the  law,"  Mr.  Comstock  stated  emphatically. 
"There  is  no  machinery  for  finding  out  in  advance 
if  you're  going  to  violate  the  law  or  not.  We  need 
that,  to  begin  with,  and  this  local  group  can  con- 
tribute its  share  of  such  information  to  the  national 

"We  need  a  code  of  practice.  Not  a  Hettrick 
code,  but  a  code  based  on  the  old  English  Law  of 
Merchant.  We  need  a  machinery  to  enforce  that 
code.  .  .  . 

"We  need  a  great  many  things,  but  here  are  ten 
which  I  believe  we  can  get  at  in  this  national  congress 
this  spring;  and  these  things  are  justification  enough 
for  this  and  similar  meetings  which  have  taken  place 
or  will  take  place  in  other  cities. 

"The  Congress  can : 

1.  Improve  the  facilities  of  the  building  industry; 

2.  Standardize  documents  and  laws  affecting  the  build- 
ing industry; 

3.  Secure  harmony  of  action  on  questions  affecting 
materials,  finance,  and  credits; 

4.  Safeguard  the  building  industry  against  waste  and 

5.  Increase  total  production  in  the  building  industry 
by  elimination   of  waste  effort; 

6.  Work  for  trade  regulations  and  legislative  increases 
which  will  facilitate  and  encourage  the  development  of 
the  economic  side  of  the  building  industry. 

7.  Centralize   data  concerning  the  technical  and  eco- 
nomic features  of  the  building  industry; 

8.  Inform   and  create   public  opinion,   through  publi- 
cation of  facts  regarding  conditions  in  the  building  in- 
dustry and  through  the  dissemination  of  views  of  tech- 
nical experts  and  business  men; 

9.  Cultivate   personal  acquaintanceship   among  build- 
ers,  architects,  engineers,  and   contractors   in   order   to 
lessen    group   and    sectional   prejudices   and   misunder- 

10.  Promote   peaceful   progress,   cordial   relationships 
and  co-operation  among  individuals  of  the  industry. 

"These  are  the  things,"  Mr.  Comstock  concluded, 
"that  we  can  investigate  now ;  these  are  some  of  the 
things  that  demand  correlation  of  facts;  and  these 
are  the  sorts  of  problems  which  this  congress  will 
be  fully  prepared  to  deal  with  accurately  and 
effcctii'dv  if  local  groups,  such  as  this  one,  do  their 
full  share  toward  contributing  their  co-operation  in 
the  general  scheme  of  action." 


A  resolution  designed  to  give  continuity  to  the 
conference  and  permanance  to  its  work  was  intro- 
duced by  H.  C.  Turner,  and  unanimously  adopted. 
The  resolution  read  as  follows  : 

WHEREAS  it  is  the  conviction  of  this  New  York  Dis- 
trict Conference  that  a  National  Congress  of  the  Build- 
ing and  Construction  Industry,  in  which  there  will  be 
represented  every  functional  element  of  the  industry,  is 
the  indispensable  instrumentality  for  the  needed  co- 
ordination of  the  industry  to  the  end  that  the  industry 
may  progressively  raise  the  standard  of  quality  and 
the  extent  of  its  services  to  the  public;  and 

WHEREAS  the  National  Congress,  to  be  successful, 
must  result  from  a  local  demand  for  it  arising  from  an 
understanding  of  the  constructive  value  of  the  contacts 
and  frank  discussion  which  are  possible  only  locally; 

WHEREAS,  the  National  Congress  can  be  given  con- 
tinuity _only  by  reason  of  continuous  local  contacts  and 
discussion,  be  it 

RESOLVED,  That  a  permanent  conference  of  the  Build- 
ing and  Construction  Industry  in  the  New  York  District 
be  created;  and  be  it  further 

RESOLVED,  That  to  the  end  that  such  a  permanent 
conference  be  created,  that  an  organizing  committee 
be  appointed  consisting  of  two  architects,  two  general 
contractors,  two  sub-contractors,  two  labor  representa- 
tives, two  manufacturers,  two  dealers,  two  financiers 
and  two  engineers,  together  with  such  others  as  will 
make  the  committee  representative  of  every  interest 
and  element  in  the  industry  in  the  New  York  District 
to  prepare  a  program  providing  for  the  creation  of  a 
permanent  conference  of  the  Building  and  Construction 
Industry  in  the  New  York  District. 

Further  discussion  of  routine  matters  followed 
this  introduction,  after  which  adjournment  was  de- 
clared by  the  chairman,  Mr.  Kohn,  until  the  organiz- 
ing committee  should  be  ready  to  report. 


Sullivan  Jones,  who  acted  as  chairman  of  the 
morning  session,  and  who  is  temporary  secretary  of 
the  movement  at  present,  explained  the  idea  of  the 
congress.  Mr.  Jones  has  been  one  of  the  most  active 
members  of  the  Executive  Board  of  the  Congress. 

"To  get  at  the  facts,"  Mr.  Jones  explained,  "to 
establish  the  basis  for  common  action  and  under- 
standing upon  common  interests,  the  idea  of  a  per- 
manent congress  of  the  several  elements  in  the  in- 
dustry was  evolved  at  a  conference  in  Atlantic  City 
on  August  6,  1920,  which  was  attended  by  repre- 
sentative architects,  contractors,  sub-contractors,  en- 
gineers, manufacturers  of  building  materials  and 
labor  men.  This  conference  appointed  a  Congress 
Organizing  Committee,  which  met  in  Chicago  on 
September  27th,  and  that  committee  declared  the 
National  Congress  of  the  Building  and  Construc- 
tion Industry  created,  to  bring  together  in  co-opera- 
tion every  element  contributing  towards  or  concerned 
in  the  building  industry  in  a  movement  intended  to 
promote  the  efficiency  and  improve  the  quality  and 
extent  of  the  service  rendered  for  the  public  good 
by  that  industry.  It  was  resolved  that  a  thorough 



study  be  made  of  the  relations  of  the  various  ele- 
ments and  industries  which  enter  into  building  and 
construction  activities,  that  a  congress  be  convened 
as  soon  as  practicable  to  consider  the  ways  and  means 
of  eliminating  the  various  factors  which  have  re- 
tarded necessary  building  and  construction,  and  that 
a  building  and  construction  congress  be  permanently 

tion.  The  congress  should  not  be  regarded  as  an 
organization,  but  as  an  institution.  It  is  to  be  a 
deliberative  body  or  forum  without  mandatory 
powers.  For  its  own  enlightenment  it  may,  if  it  so 
decides,  create  and  direct  or  employ  research 
agencies.  And  to  give  its  effort  continuity  it  may 
set  up  executive  machinery. 




established  to  give  continuity  to  the  national  bene- 
ficial objects  which  gave  it  birth. 

"The  committee  then  appointed  a  Congress  Ex- 
ecutive Committee  which  met  in  Pittsburgh  on  Octo- 
ber 29th  and  reorganized  itself  into  an  Executive 
Board  of  forty  to  be  composed  of  five  representa- 
tives from  each  of  the  following  elements  of  the 
industry :  general  contractors,  sub-contractors,  archi- 
tects, engineers,  manufacturers  and  distributors  of 
materials  and  equipment,  labor  and  investment 


"The  purpose,  as  expressed  by  the  Executive 
Board,  is  not  to  create  another  national  organiza- 

"The  driving  power  behind  the  movement  is  the 
fervent  hope  that  the  congress  may  become  a  brain 
for  the  building  and  construction  industry;  that  it 
may  become  an  instrument  for  securing  facts,  for 
thinking  in  terms  of  facts,  and  for  planning  the 
future  course  of  the  whole  industry  as  a  unified, 
frictionless,  productive  mechanism.  But  there  is  no 
thought  that  the  congress  should  usurp  or  infringe 
the  prerogatives  of,  or  limit  the  autonomy  of  any 
existing  organization." 

Some  of  the  men  thus  far  identified  with  the 
movement  are : 

General  Contractors— W.  G.  Luce,  F.  G.  Webber, 
A.  P.  Greensfelder,  Otto  M.  Eidlitz. 



Sub-Contractors — L.  K.  Comstock,  Oscar  A.  Reum, 
Frank  W.  Howard,  Ronald  Taylor. 

Engineers — Morris  Knowles,  F.  C.  Shenehon,  F.  A. 

Architects— Robert  D.  Kohn,  M.  B.  Medary,  Jr.,  E.  J. 
Russell,  S.  W.  Jones. 

Labor — T.  R.  Preece,  James  P.  Noonan,  John  H. 
Donlin,  George  F.  Hedrick. 

Manufacturers — Wharton  Clay,  W.  L.  Hodskin,  O. 

Investment   Bankers — Walter  Stabler. 

amount  of  projected  work  is  released?  In  the  fu- 
ture, how  shall  the  industry  escape  the  effects  of 
both  under-production  and  over-production? 

How  is  an  adequate  supply  of  skilled  craftsmen 
in  the  several  trades  to  be  provided  and  maintained  ? 

How  is  genuinely  co-operative  effort  by  employers 
and  wage  earners  (whether  the  wage  earners  are 
organized  or  unorganized)  to  be  substituted  for  the 




The  first  congress  is  to  be  convened  early  in  1921. 
This  first  congress  will  be  composed  of  fifteen  dele- 
gates from  each  of  the  named  elements  of  the 


Among  the  problems  which  the  first  congress  will 
probably  consider,  the  Executive  Committee  men- 
tions the  following : 

How  is  the  industry  to  prepare  itself  to  meet  the 
demand  for  structural  materials;  a  demand  now  po- 
tential, but  which  will  become  real  when  the  vast 

antagonism  which,  in  the  past,  has  checked  pro- 

How  shall  abundant  credit  resources  be  made 
available,  at  reasonable  cost,  to  the  industry  in  order 
that  it  may  function  in  satisfying  public  need  ? 

How  shall  the  industry  be  led  to  adopt  a  uniform 
and  equitable  policy  in  bidding  and  with  respect  to 
contract  terms  and  conditions  ? 

How  shall  the  industry  be  led  to  adopt  a  uniform 
of  the  respective  elements  of  the  industry  be  defined, 
and  how  shall  performance  be  assured  in  order  that 
maximum  efficiency  may  be  attained? 

Quite  a  program ! 



A  Street  in  Newport 

(See  reproduction  of  original  drawing  by  O.  K.  Eggers  on  opposite,  page) 

There  is  nothing  in  the  view  of  this  quaint,  winding  street, 
so  picturesquely  shown  by  Mr.  Eggers,  to  suggest  that  it  is 
a  close  neighbor  to  a  section  renowned  all  over  the  world  for 
its  palatial  residences  and  the  homes  of  multi-millionaires. 

The  native  population  of  Newport,  with  commendable 
regard  for  the  traditions  which  surround  this  town,  have 
kept  as  far  as  possible  free  from  incursions  of  modernism. 
The  artist  in  drawing  this  picture  has  presented  a  street  in 
the  old  town  of  Newport  as  it  probably  looked  a  century  ago. 

One  may  almost  with  accuracy  trace  the  successive  stages 
of  building.  Undoubtedly  the  houses,  with  their  gambreled 
gables  facing  on  to  the  street,  were  the  earliest  types.  In 
the  distance  rises  the  spire  of  Trinity  Church,  shown  in  an 
earlier  illustration.  There  are  many  well  designed  historic 
buildings  in  Newport.  The  neighborhood  has  long  been  a 
favorite  sketching  ground. 

The  State  House,  illustrated  in  an  earlier  issue,  and  in 
which  is  hung  the  original  portrait  of  Washington  by 
Gilbert  Stuart,  the  old  market  house,  dating  from  Ij()^,  the 
Redwood  Library  and  the  Jewish  Synagogue  are  among 
those  best  known. 



ARCHITECT  Serlt,  of  Earl,  Ameritaa  Arthtttttur, 


American  Architecture 

IX  this  column  the  idea  of  regional  and  indigenous 
architecture  has  been  discussed  frequently.  In 
a  country  which  embraces  such  a  diversity  of  cli- 
mate, topography  and  structural  materials  as  the 
United  States,  this  is  but  a  natural  consequence  and 
these  regional  types  are  being  developed  gradually. 
The  ultimate  center  of  population,  culture  and  wealth 
will  embrace  a  vast  territory.  The  natural  resources, 
topography  and  climate  will  not  be  so  diversified  but 
that  a  great  regional  and  indigenous  architecture  will 
be  evolved.  By  mere  preponderance  of  numbers  and 
extent  this  may  become  the  American  architecture 
and  the  other  types  become  regional.  Be  this  as  it 
may,  the  entire  subject  is  one  for  interesting  spec- 

The  attitude  of  the  architectural  schools  will  have 
a  powerful  influence  and  indications  justify  the  opin- 
ion that  the  educators  are  now  busily  taking  stock, 
to  use  a  phrase  from  the  article  entitled  "Westward 
Ho  !"  on  another  page,  with  the  endeavor  to  place 
architectural  education  on  the  new  basis  that  con- 
ditions demand.  To  aid  them  in  this,  the  profession 
should  lend  its  assistance  and  in  doing  so  lay  aside 
intolerance  and  prejudice,  approaching  the  subject 
with  an  open  mind. 

tained  the  idea  that  the  practice  of  architecture 
is  a  business  as  well  as  an  art  and  profession.  In 
the  new  scheme  for  architectural  education  these  two 
components  must  be  recognized,  each  in  its  proper 
proportion.  Shall  these  matters  be  adjusted  as  the 
result  of  demands  or  will  they  be  established  in  lead- 
ership? There  need  be  no  ruthless  tearing  down  of 
old  idols  and  the  institution  of  new  gods,  but  rather 
a  revaluation  of  the  stock  in  hand  which  will  natur- 
ally cause  the  development  of  new  ideas  and  poss\bly 
an  American  architecture  through  the  eternal  force 
of  evolution,  quickened  by  the  fast  changing  condi- 
tions of  this  day.  Education  of  today  influences  the 
architecture  of  the  morrow  and  we  must  unselfishly 
prepare  for  the  architectural  future  in  which  we  can 

have  no  participation  except  through  the  influence  of 
our  works  of  this  day.  The  educational  scheme  of 
today  must  be  predicated  on  the  suppositional  needs 
of  the  future  and  these  can  only  be  established  by 
free,  open  and  unbiased  discussion.  Professional 
thought  cannot  be  directed  toward  a  more  worthy 

Ethics  in  Architectural  Design 

"^  HAT  men  retain  an  architect  to  design  their 

-1    buildings  is  a  confession  that  they  themselves 

know  little  of  architecture.  That  they  engage  interior 

decorators  is  further  proof  that  art  holds  aloof  from 

them  shrouded  in  a  haze  of  misunderstanding. 

What  is  the  mental  process  of  the  architect  or  the 
decorator  when  a  client  first  consults  him?  Where 
does  sincerity  enter  into  his  calculations  in  conform- 
ing to  the  wishes  of  the  client? 

Should  an  architect  or  a  decorator  express  the 
client's  individuality  even  if  the  result  be  artistically 
bad,  or  should  he  express  his  own  properly  developed 
sense  of  art  though  it  may  not  represent  the  client. 
Shall  he  descend  to  a  French  rococo  house  for  the 
prim  spinster  who  has  inherited  a  fortune  but  knows 
nothing  of  art,  or  may  he  build  a  pure  Georgian  for 
the  artistically  ignorant  butcher.  Shall  he  design  an 
inferior  house  to  represent  an  inferior  person,  or 
shall  he  make  it  possible  for  an  artistically  ignorant 
man  to  pose  as  a  connoisseur  by  means  of  a  few  well 
learned  phrases  about  the  beauty  with  which  an  archi- 
tect or  a  decorator  may  have  surrounded  him  ? 

These  questions  sooner  or  later  force  themselves 
upon  every  architect. 

The  very  fact  that  an  architect  is  retained  presup- 
poses a  certain  amount  of  carte  blanche  for  him. 
The  chances  are  that  if  he  is  tactful  he  can  prevail 
upon  a  client  to  modify  his  preconceptions.  Hence 
the  importance  of  his  influence  and  the  need  for  his 
having  a  point  of  view. 

An  architect  is  a  professional  man  who  by  educa- 
tion and  training  has  a  certain  public  responsibility 
to  bear.  He  must  uphold  the  dignity  and  beauty 
of  architecture,  and  through  it  the  dignity  and  beauty 



of  human  beings.  He  cannot  assume  that  certain 
persons  are  inferior.  It  is  up  to  him  to  do  his  part 
to  keep  them  at  the  level  of  their  best  moments.  A 
man's  intercourse  with  an  architect  may  be  the  one 
contact  of  a  lifetime  with  art.  If  architects  are  to 
do  their  full  duty  to  raise  the  standards  of  living, 
they  can  find  ample  opportunity  in  their  intercourse 
with  prospective  clients,  to  teach  them  the  whys  and 
the  wherefores  of  good  architecture,  and  make  it 
something  to  be  respected  and  loved,  and  then  logi- 
cally followed.  While  to  adapt  the  architecture  to 
the  type  of  owner  is  considerably  simpler  than  to 
adapt  the  owner  to  the  type  of  architecture,  it  is  de- 
sirable to  do  this  in  cases  where  it  seems  possible 
to  develop  the  owner.  Instead  of  building  down  to 
the  level  of  the  inartistic  butcher,  give  him  the  sort 
of  house  that  he  must  live  up  to.  If  he  is  surrounded 
with  certain  refinements  in  his  home,  these  will  in- 
evitably tell,  for  environment  is  more  powerful  than 
we  suspect.  By  going  into  the  elements  of  archi- 
tectural design  with  a  client,  it  is  possible  either  to 
teach  him,  or  to  convince  him  that  your  experience 
and  advice  is  the  thing  he  has  sought. 

If  the  artistically  ignorant  man  poses  in  his  new 
home,  the  very  fact  that  he  acts  the  artist  gradually 
tends  to  give  him  the  artist  point  of  view.  One 
cannot  pretend  to  appreciate  a  thing  without  soon 
really  appreciating  it. 

It  is,  of  course,  fortunate  when  a  client  sincerely 
yearns  for  good  architecture  and  is  willing  to  defer 
to  his  architect  for  most  of  the  details.  But  such 
clients  are  rare  and  hard  to  find.  It  is  infinitely  more 
to  the  credit  of  an  architect  to  succeed  when  all  the 
circumstances  are  trying  and  difficult ;  when  the  client 
is  perverse,  the  money  scarce,  and  all  the  rest.  In 
the  building  of  homes,  architects  do  more  to  con- 
serve and  promote  the  happiness  and  well-being  of 
communities  than  can  be  readily  conceived.  When 
they  do  it  without  co-operation,  when  they  turn 
antagonism  into  harmony,  when  they  raise  vulgarity 
to  refinement,  then,  indeed,  have  they  done  a  great 

Reducing  Transportation  Tangles 

THERE  is  nothing  which  will  further  reduce  the 
cost  of  building  than  effective  transportation  of 
materials.  This  statement  is  based  upon  the  sup- 
position of  fixed  prices  for  fixed  periods,  of  course. 
There  is  nothing  that  will  better  speed  the  building 
program  of  this  nation  than  efficient  transportation. 
It  is  therefore  the  important  duty  of  every  archi- 
tect to  be  familiar  with  transportation.  Architects, 
as  a  whole,  realize  this.  And  nothing  is  of  more  im- 
portance in  this  problem  at  the  present  moment  than 
the  Esch-Cummins  law  and  its  effects.  It  may  be 

shown  that  it  works  injury,  and  that  it  was  actuated 
by  motives  not  entirely  of  a  constructive  nature,  yet 
the  fact  remains  that  1920  was  the  record  railroad 
year  for  a  nation  whose  railroads  have  most  certainly 
been  the  "standard  of  the  world"  from  the  stand- 
point of  efficiency.  These  achievements  of  the  year 
were  achievements  in  every  sense  of  the  word. 
In  the  nine  full  months  (only  nine  months  in  which 
to  recover  from  government  control)  since  the  Gov- 
ernment turned  back  the  railroads  to  their  owners 
on  March  1,  the  railroad  companies  under  private 
operation  have: 

"1.  Increased  the  average  movement  per  freight 
car  per  day  6.3  miles — from  22.3  to  28.6  miles. 

"2.  Increased  the  average  load  per  car  1.7  tons — 
from  28.3  to  30  tons. 

"3.  Made  substantial  reduction  in  the  number  of 
unserviceable  locomotives. 

"4.  Reduced  the  accumulation  of  loaded  but  un- 
moved freight  cars  from  103,237  on  March  1,  to 
21,991  on  December  3,  of  which  only  6,386  were  de- 
tained because  of  the  inability  of  the  railroads  to 
move  them. 

"5.  Relocated  approximately  180,000  box  cars 
from  the  East  to  the  West  for  the  movement  of  farm 

"6.  Relocated  approximately  180,000  open  top 
cars  from  the  West  to  the  East  to  keep  up  the  pro- 
duction of  coal. 

"7.  Moved  the  third  highest  coal  production  in 
the  history  of  the  country. 

"8.  Spent  over  $500,000,000  extra  on  improving 
the  maintenance  of  tracks,  bridges,  cars  and  locomo- 

"9.  Contracted  to  spend  about  $250,000,000, 
largely  out  of  earnings  for  additions  and  betterments 
to  promote  the  movement  of  cars. 

"10.  Made  arrangements  to  purchase  approxi- 
mately 50,000  new  freight  cars,  1,500  new  locomo- 
tives and  1,000  new  passenger  cars. 

"11.  Begun  the  reconstruction  of  thousands  of 
old  cars. 

"12.  Moved — with  a  deteriorated  plant,  under 
disturbed  labor  and  business  conditions — the  largest 
volume  of  traffic  ever  known  in  a  single  year,  with 
the  highest  efficiency  yet  achieved,  and  with  a  min- 
imum addition  to  the  value  of  the  property  on  which 
the  public  has  to  pay  a  return  through  rates." 

Such  a  record  is  one  of  which  to  be  proud.  It 
shows  efficiency.  It  shows  a  splendid  grasp  of  the 
railroad  problem  by  the  men  whose  business  it  is  to 
keep  those  roads  running.  It  indicates  what  can  be 
done  in  1921  if  the  brains  of  the  railroad  companies 
really  get  into  the  full  swing  of  efficient  reconstruc- 
tion and  recovery. 


Westward -Ho! 

FOOD  and  shelter  are  the  two  essentials  for 
human  existence.  The  first  is  universal;  the 
latter  varies  with  the  latitude.  The  one  con- 
cerns agriculturists,  fisher-folk  and  stockmen;  the 
other,  architects.  All  shelter  involves  architecture 
whether  it  consists  of  caves  or  structures  made  of 
assembled  parts;  therefore,  architecture  is  essential 
to  human  existence.  Architecture,  being  the  art  of 
constructing  buildings,  varies  with  the  latitude  pri- 
marily and  with  the  civilization  of  the  people  sec- 

A  civilization  can  be  accurately  gauged  by  its  food 
and  its  architecture.    Related  indications  are  too  nu- 
merous and  varied  for  present  discussion.    The  high- 
est degree  of  civilization  is  that  whose  architecture 
has  the  correct  relation  between  utility  and  beauty; 
the  kind,  preparations  and  manner  of  consuming  its 
food  is  also  a  certain  indication.     The  hut  of  the 
aborigines  may  contain  all  of  the  utilities  that  they 
require  but  in  them  we,  at  least,  find  no  evidences 
of  beauty  or  the  conveniences  of  civilization.     The 
richly  decorated  tent  of  the  wandering  Bedouin  pos- 
sesses beauty  of  color  and  texture  but,  like  the  abor- 
iginal  hut,   lacks   in   comparative   utility  or  conve- 
niences.    And  so  it  goes,  until  we  enter  the  XIX 
century  when  utility  and  beauty  approach  a  parity. 
At  the  present  time  utility  is  probably  in  the  lead 
due  to  the  predominance  of  commercialized  industry. 
To  make  a  parity  there  must  be  an  increase  of  beauty. 
In  Harper's"  Magazine  for  January,  Mr.  W.  L. 
George  makes  this  statement :  "The  civilization  that 
the  Middle  West  creates  within  the  next  fifty  years 
will  be  the  American  civilization."    The  certainty  of 
this  prophecy  can  be  demonstrated.     The  civilized 
world  today  is  taking  stock  and  everything  therein 
is  invoiced  and  the  evaluation  will  be  carefully  con- 
sidered.    What,  then,  of  architecture?     Will  it  as 
one  of  the  two  essentials  to  human  existence  be  in 
its  rightfully  dominant  position  with  food  or  will  it 
find  collocation  in  parity  with  less  essential  things? 
Architecture  is  either  quick  or  dead.    There  can 
be  no   in-between   existence.     What,   then,   is   that 
architecture  which  can  be  called  "quick"  ?    In  taking 
stock,  this  must  be  determined,  as  "dead"  commodi- 
ties are  not  an  asset.    "Quick"  architecture  can  only 
result  from  the  efforts  of  a  creative  instinct.     This 
instinct  must  be  the  underlying  motif  of  architecture. 
It  seems  that  the  written  words  of  that  beloved  Old 
Roman  of  Western  Architects,  Irving  K.  Pond,  state 
the  fundamental  principle: 

"Man  has  been  struggling  upward  throughout  the 
ages,  struggling  to  attain  the  ideal.  By  this  struggle, 
conscious  as  it  has  been,  and  with  definite  purpose,  he 

is  marked  as  of  an  order  higher  than  the  beasts,  which 
struggle  for  existence  impelled  by  habit  and  guided  by 
instinct  only.  Habit  is  life  in  the  beast's  creation;  but 
habit  in  man  has  been  aptly  denominated  the  soul's 
tomb.  In  reviewing  the  struggles  and  achievements  of 
man  it  will  become  apparent  that  habit  builds  the  tomb 
of  art;  that  when  the  spirit  no  longer  inspires,  but 
forms  are  repeated  from  mere  habit  and  for  form's 
sake,  art  has  ceased  to  live  and  architecture  reared  in 
her  name  is  her  tomb." 

Habits  of  the  right  kind  which  control  personal 
conduct  are  desirable  and  necessary  and  so  is  rational 
thinking.  Can  live  architecture  result  from  the  habit 
of  designing  from  the  great  volumes  which  illustrate 
the  works  of  Good,  Bad  and  Indifferent,  or  Brown, 
Black  and  White,  copied  largely  from  the  old  mas- 
ters; or  will  it  result  from  hard  work  actuated  by 
a  creative  instinct  ?  Is  American  architecture  a  dull 
habit  or  a  live,  potent  actuality? 

Good  architecture  will  live  through  the  ages  only 
in  its  native  environment.  It  cannot  be  transplanted 
to  other  lands,  peoples  and  amid  strange  ideals,  with- 
out depreciation.  The  same  is  true  of  Sumatra 
wrappers  grown  in  Connecticut.  The  good  archi- 
tecture of  the  past  should  be  acknowledged,  appre- 
ciated and  absorbed  and  it  will  be  reincarnated  only 
through  the  inspiration  and  culture  it  yields  to  a 
creative  spirit. 

In  Washington  and  other  cities  there  have  been 
erected  imposing  structures  consisting  of  correctly 
proportioned  basement,  colonnade  and  entablature, 
duplicates  of  those  erected  by  the  ancients  for  an 
entirely  different  purpose  and  relationship  to  the 
building  itself.  Was  this  designing  the  result  of 
habit  or  a  frank  acknowledgment  of  inability  to 
treat  those  great  bulks  of  structures  as  wall  surfaces 
enclosing  a  building?  It  was  obviously  the  most 
easy  thing  to  do. 

Nearly  three  decades  ago  a  great  exposition  was 
constructed  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Michigan  and  it 
had  a  pronounced  influence  on  American  architec- 
ture. The  classic  school  was  the  one  more  in  vogue, 
one  example  of  Spanish  and  one  which  might  be 
called  American  architecture.  Recalling  those  days, 
the  impression  of  the  Corinthian  water  gate  and 
peristyle  and  the  agricultural  building  is  that  of  a 
dead  age,  ruins,  a  tomb.  Perhaps  the  old  illustrated 
books  of  history  and  foreign  travel  which  showed 
ruins  consisting  of  a  few  standing  columns  with 
entablature  and  pediment  in  part  connected  with  the 
impression  of  ruins  with  the  peristyle. 

The  administration  building,  with  its  great  dome 
designed  in  a  French  style,  did  not  fit  either  to  the 
classic  Watergate  and  peristyle  or  the  low  extensive 
buildings  adjacent.  All  these  white  buildings  against 



the  cold  blue  lake  give  a  sense  of  chill  and  departed 

Hut  turn  from  the  setting  sun,  standing  on  the 
bridge  over  the  lagoon  to  face  the  great  golden  west- 
ern door  of  Sullivan's  Transportation  building.  One 
stood  still  and  looked  with  sheer  delight  at  the  pros- 
pect. That  great  door  with  its  marvelous  arch  so 
richly  and  delicately  ornamented,  so  beautifully  col- 
ored, was  a  living,  vibrant,  pulsating  thing  and  alive. 
It  stirred  all  the  senses,  reacting  through  those  beau- 
tifully chaste  and  splendid  Muses  of  poetry,  painting 
and  music.  Face  then  the  West  and  through  the 
golden  dusk  of  the  Midway  behold — 

"Gamboge  and  gold,  broad  sunset  colors  strewed 
The  purple  west  as  if,  with  God  imbued, 
Her  mighty  palette  Nature  there  laid  down." 
Architecture,  the  quick  and  the  dead ! 

Of  that  American  civilization  developed  in  the 
Middle  West  an  American  architecture  will  be  a 
concomitant.  A  starting  has  been  made,  the  influ- 
ence of  which  is  becoming  more  discernible  as  time 
passes  and  prsjudices  are  broken  down.  The  burden 
of  its  development  does  in  truth  seem  to  rest  with 
the  Mid-west  universities  and  architects.  They  will 
be  equal  to  the  demand,  imbued  with  the  spirit  of 
that  great  empire,  the  Valley  of  Democracy  through 
which  flows  the  Father  of  Waters. — A.  L. 

Are  You  a  Trained  Observer? 

THERE  is  a  world  of  difference  between  casual 
observation  and  systematic,  purposeful  obser- 
vation.   A  careful  scientific  observer  can  learn 
more  in  a  few  months  about  a  given  subject  than  the 
average  man   learns   in   a   lifetime   about   it.     The 
difference  lies  mainly  in  two  factors:   (1)  the  rela- 
tive concentration  of  attention,  and  (2)  the  analysis 
and  comparison  of  data. 

Mr.  Ernest  Coxhead,  of  San  Francisco,  has 
written  on  "Training  the  Architect  by  Direct 
Method."  One  of  his  most  suggestive  statements 
was  this: 

"The  power  to  visualize  architecture  is  not  to 
be  developed  to  any  extent  merely  by  seeing  things, 
or  by  gaining  fleeting  impressions,  but  by  observa- 
tion, focused  and  concentrated  upon  the  object  in 
general,  and  in  detail,  by  actual  contact  with  the 
building  and  by  means  of  measured  drawings  and 
sketches  and  notes,  further  impressing  upon  the 
mind  the  observations  made.  The  essence  of  the 
direct  method  then  lies  in  taking  the  student  to 
architecture  and  confronting  him  with  it  in  three 
dimensions,  life-size,  as  opposed  to  the  atelier 
method  of  focusing  his  attention  upon  mere  docu- 
mentary representation  of  the  actual  building.  In 
the  latter  case  his  sense  of  scale  is  undeveloped,  his 
ideas  of  proportion  remain  distorted,  and,  by  labo- 
rious mental  effort,  he  sometimes  is  able  to  con- 
struct in  his  mind  from  the  documentary  study  of 
plan,  elevation,  and  section  what  the  subject  of 
study,  or  something  akin  to  it,  is  in  the  reality." 
Mr.  Coxhead  is  emphasizing  the  "direct  method," 
or  the  "field  work  method,"  of  training  architects, 
with  particular  reference  to  developing  a  sense  of 
proportion.  We  quote  him,  however,  for  another 

purpose,  namely,  to  emphasize  the  value  of  "ob- 
servation, focused  and  concentrated  upon  the  sub- 

When  an  engineer  is  asked  to  state  his  experience 
in  a  given  field  we  are  all  prone  to  give  undue 
weight  to  the  number  of  years  of  his  experience. 
Rarely  do  we  undertake  to  measure  the  degree  of 
his  concentration  of  observation  during  those  years. 
Yet  without  concentration  of  observation,  mere 
personal  presence  among  suitable  surroundings 
adds  little  to  any  man's  knowledge.  During  the 
last  200  years  men  have  learned  more  about  natural 
laws  than  during  all  the  countless  centuries  before, 
not  because  modern  man  has  a  better  brain  than 
his  ancestors,  but  because  he  has  employed  better 
methods'  of  studying  nature.  In  like  manner  a  well 
trained  young  engineer  may  learn  more  in  ten  years 
than  an  ill  trained  engineer  has  learned  in  fifty. 

More  and  more  do  educators  realize  that  their 
main  functions  are,  first,  to  arouse  ambition,  and, 
second,  to  instill  lasting  habits  of  carefully  observ- 
ing, reading  and  reasoning.  It  seems  to  us  that 
engineering  societies  should  also  endeavor  to 
strengthen  such  habits.  To  this  end  it  will  be  wise 
to  have  classes  in  scientific  observing,  classes  in 
systematic  reading,  classes  in  memorizing,  and 
classes  in  logic.  Call  them  classes  in  applied  psy- 
chology, if  you  please,  to  differentiate  them  from 
classes  whose  main  object  it  is  to  impart  informa- 
tion rather  than  to  develop  mental  habits. 

It  does  not  suffice  to  know  what  to  do  and  how 
to  do  it.  Men  must  be  habituated  by  long  practice, 
usually  under  mental  trainers,  to  act  in  accordance 
with  the  principles  to  which  they  readily  give  lip 











>—  < 






VOL.   CXIX  No.  2355 


FEBRUARY  9,   1921 













I—  I 









u  b 


d,   W 

m         < 

I  a 








I—  I 







Good  Design  Increases  Rental  Values 

Common-Sense  Alterations  Made  an   Old   Loft   Building  Into   Desirable 

Space  and  Brought  Increased  Rentals 


N  all  the  big  cities 
there  are  a  large 
number  of  loft 
buildings  that  have  got- 
ten into  such  a  state  of 
disrepair  that  they  are 
undesirable,  are  hard  to 
fill  and  bring  exceedingly 
low  rentals.  Such  was 
the  case  with  No.  45 
Maiden  Lane,  New  York 
City.  The  photograph 
shows  just  how  it  looked 
on  the  outside  and  is  a 
good  indication  of  the 
interior  appearance  as 
well.  Before  it  was  re- 
modeled the  outside  fire 
escape  shut  off  light,  was 
unsightly,  and  it  is  even 
doubtful  if  it  could  have 
served  the  purpose  for 
which  it  was  intended 
if  an  emergency  should 
have  arisen. 

The  building  was  not 
attractive  either  outside 
or  inside ;  it  was  even 
repulsive.  There  was 
difficulty  in  finding 
tenants  and  the  rentals 
hardly  paid  for  the  main- 
tenance and  o  p  e  r  a  t  - 
ing  expense.  These  fac- 
tors prompted  the  lessee 
to  remodel  the  building 
along  up-to-date  lines. 

Note  the  ventilating  louvres  at  the  left 


CHITECT presents  here, 
as  an  example  of  the 
best  method  of  rehabil- 
itating such  a  building,  a 
description  of  the  thor- 
ough alteration  made  at 
45  Maiden  Lane  through 
the  plans  and  supervis- 
ion of  the  firm  of 
Charles  H.  Higgins,  Ar- 
chitects Engineers,  for 
Adolphe  Schwobe,  Inc. 
Importers  and  Assem- 
blers of  Watches. 

In  discussing  the  de- 
velopment of  this  proj- 
ect, Mr-  Higgins  was 
emphatic  in  stating  that 
the  principal  motive  in 
the  design  of  this  plan 
was  "fitness  to  accom- 
plish the  owner's  pur- 
pose." The  arrangement 
and  character  of  parts, 
movement  of  materials 
and  persons,  protection 
from  weather  and  fire 
compactness,  orderliness, 
convenience,  and  proper 
working  conditions  for 
men  and  women,  safety, 
light,  heat,  ventilation, 
sanitation,  all  make  for 
accomplishment  of  this 
purpose.  A  home  for 



As  the  second  photograph  indicates,  the  obscuring 
and  unsightly  outside  fire  escape  was  removed  from 
the  front  of  the  building  and  was  replaced  by  fire- 
proof enclosed  stairs  within.  It  was  then  possible 
to  give  the  front  of  the  building  a  clean  and  neat 
appearance  at  a  fairly  nominal  expense. 

The  interior  alterations  included  an  attractive  en- 
trance hall  and  mezzanine  balcony  that  increased  the 
floor  space  in  addition  to  making  the  appearance 
more  attractive.  The  walls  and  floors  were  refin- 
ished  throughout  the  entire  building. 

From  the  floor  plan  it  will  be  seen  that  the  build- 
ing is  a  long  and  narrow  one,  17  ft.  3  in.  x  124  ft. 
3  in.,  to  be  exact.  The  difficulty  of  properly  light- 
ing, heating  and  ventilating  such  a  building  is  at  once 
apparent  inasmuch  as  the  side  walls,  125  feet  long, 
are  solid  walls  and  necessarily  few  windows  or 
other  openings.  Even  where  windows  were  allowable, 
the  light  would  be  cut  off  by  the  adjacent  buildings.' 

Part  of  the  problem  was  solved  by  the  method  of 
indirect  light.  The  fixtures  were  suspended  from 
the  ceiling  and  the  light  was  reflected  upon  the  white 
surface  and  then  diffused  through  considerable  area. 
The  white  walls  and  ceilings  were  necessary  adjuncts 
to  this  method  of  lighting  the  interior.  In  order  to 
get  the  proper  intensity  of  light  for  the  requirements 
on  each  floor,  careful  study  was  necessary  to  deter- 

Mft-ST       FLOOR-     PLAN 


The     problem     of     ventilating     and 

lighting   these   floors   becomes 

apparent    at    a    glance 

mine  the  size  and  number  of  lights,  the  spacing  and 
the  Height  from  the  floor.  In  this  the  architects 
were  unusually  successful.  When  this  form  of  light- 
ing is  properly  designed  and  installed,  it  is  conceded 
to  be  more  effective  and  less  trying  on  the  eyes  than 
when  direct  lighting  is  employed.  Such  was  the  case 

The  question  of  proper  ventilation  was  also  solved 
in  an  interesting  way.  Naturally  it  was  expected 
that  the  space  near  the  windows  on  each  floor  would 
be  partitioned  off  for  private  offices.  This  would 
leave  75  feet  of  inner  space  that  would  present  a 
ventilating  problem  just  as  important  as  the  lighting 
problem.  The  doors  of  the  private  offices  could  be 




expected  to  be  closed  most  of  the  time  and  there 
were  no  windows  or  openings  in  the  side  walls. 

The  solution  lay  in  running  ducts  under  each  floor 
and  through  the  wall,  terminating  at  the  face  of  the 
street  wall  in  louvres.  At  the  intake  on  each  floor 
was  placed  a  heating  coil  so  that  warm  fresh  air 
from  the  street  could  be  by-passed  under  the  private 
offices  and  drawn  into  the  interior  of  the  building. 

In  the  ceiling  and  in  the  corner  diagonally  oppo- 
site the  intake  there  was  located  a  vent  to  exhaust 
the  stale  air.  In  this  way  there  was  always  a  con- 
tinuous supply  of  fresh  air  at  the  right  temperature 
in  the  center  of  each  floor  as  well  as  at  the  ends. 
The  louvres  covering  the  street  end  of  the  ducts  may 
be  seen  in  the  photograph  of  the  remodeled  building 
at  each  floor  level. 

The  picture  of  the  top  floor  is  a  story  in  itself. 


This    gave   a   north    light   over    the   entire   floor 

The  floor  was  intended  as  a  watch  and  jewelry 
assembling  shop  and  the  lighting  requirements  for 
watchmakers  are  of  prime  importance.  This  roof 
was  entirely  torn  down  and  replaced  by  a  modern 
saw-tooth  roof,  giving  a  north  light  in  the  interior. 
On  dark  days  additional  light  is  obtained  by  turning 
on  the  electric  lights  which  are  shown  inclined  up- 
ward. This  light  is  reflected  upon  the  floor  by  the 
reverse  surface  of  the  saw-tooth. 

The  walls  are  white  to  within  5  feet  from  the 
floor.  From  there  down  they  are  green  for  the  com- 
fort of  the  watchmakers'  eyes.  Individual  drop  cords 
are  located  at  each  bench  for  use  on  very  dark  days 
and  when  working  on  exceedingly  fine  work.  The 
neat  arrangement  of  condulets  carrying  the  wire  for 
these  lights  avoids  the  usual  tangled  and  confused 
appearance  of  a  lot  of  wires  running  haphazard  in 


Note    heating   coils   above 

the  air.  Each  condulet  terminates  sufficiently  high 
above  the  bench  to  allow  flexibility  in  moving  the 
light  about  by  means  of  the  drop  cord. 

The  lighting  scheme  on  this  floor  in  particular  has 
been  very  successful  and  shows  the  results  of  care- 
ful thought  and  study  of  the  needs  of  the  men. 
After  the  remodeling  of  the  building  there  was  little 
difficulty  in  securing  the  best  workmen.  First-class 
men  are  apt  to  choose  their  working  place  with  a 
view  to  their  surroundings  and  working  conditions. 
The  new  shop  attracts  high-grade  men  and  the  em- 
ployer always  has  his  pick  of  the  best.  He  attributes 
this  to  the  improved  working  conditions.  A  watch- 


Note  the  effect  of  indirect  light  and  white  walls  and  ceiling 





maker's  eyes  are  his  stock  in  trade.  When  he  injures 
them,  there  is  not  much  left  for  him  to  do.  The  work- 
men realize  this  and  value  accordingly  good  con- 
ditions of  lighting  where  they  can  carry  on  their 
trade.  This  makes  selection  of  the  best  practicable. 

The  welfare  of  the  employees  is  cared  for  by 
providing  ample  locker,  toilet  and  washrooms, 
sufficient  light,  heat  and  ventilation,  and  safety  from 
fire  hazards.  The  owner  felt  very  strongly  that 
these  facilities  should  be  made  ample  and  convenient. 

The  operation  of  this  building  has  practically 
demonstrated  the  many  contemplated  economies  of 
operation  which  were  discussed  during  its  planning. 
Logical,  clean-cut  and  efficient  methods  of  planning 
have  proved  their  merit.  The  building  is  interesting 
in  its  fitness  for  the  purpose;  effective  protection 
and  good  conditions  for  those  using  it. 

There  are  literally  thousands  of  loft  buildings 
in  large  cities  where  the  top  floor  is  the  least  de- 
sirable space  in  the  building.  In  these  cases  the 
alteration  of  the  roof  along  these  lines  to  admit  the 
north  light,  and  plenty  of  it/would  greatly  increase 
the  desirability  and  rental  value.  These  floors  would 
always'be  in  demand  for  studios,  drafting  rooms, 
watchmakers'  shops  and  all  classes  of  trade  where 
light  of  the  right  kind  and  intensity  is  of  great 

This  job  in  Maiden  Lane  was  handled  by  the  firm 
of  Charles  H.  Higgins,  architects  and  engineers,  New 
York  City.  Every  detail  shows  the  careful  thought  of 
the  trained  specialist  in  making  wrong  things  right, 
and  adapting  existing  conditions  to  the  special  re- 
quirements of  a  particular  job.  It  shows  the  value 
of  the  trained  architect  and  engineer  even  on  a  small 
job  like  the  alteration  of  a  loft  building. 

Making  the  Crane  Safe* 

CRANES  of  the  earlier  types  were  constructed 
with  overhung  wheels,  i.  e.,  the  wheels  were 
entirely  outside  of  the  bridge  frame,  and  no  part 
of  the  bridge  extended  over  the  rails.  The  manu- 
facture of  cranes  of  this  type  has  been  discontinued 
for  the  most  part,  but  some  examples  are  still  met 
with  in  practice.  This  method  of  construction  has 
been  responsible  for  a  number  of  serious  accidents 
because,  if  a  shaft  'or  axle  breaks,  the  crane  may  fall 
to  the  ground.  A  break  of  this  kind  may  be  due  to 
a  flaw  in  the  metal,  or  to  "fatigue"  of  the  material. 


The  sketch  shows  a  method  which  has  proved 
satisfactory  and  practicable  for  providing  against 
similar  accidents  with  cranes  of  this  type.  Pieces 
of  4-in.  angle-iron  are  bolted  to  the  ends  of  the  main 
frame  at  a  distance  of  approximately  one  inch  above 
the  rails.  These  angles  project  out  over  the  rails  so 
that  if  the  shaft  breaks  the  crane  will  drop  only  the 
distance  between  the  angles  and  the  rails.  In  at  least 
one  known  case  a  bridge  wheel  came  off  from  a 
crane  on  which  these  braces  had  been  installed,  and 
the  angles  prevented  the  crane  from  falling. 

•Extract  from  the  Travelers  Standard,  January,  1921. 


New   Basis  for   Rating   and   Comparing 

Warm-Air  Furnaces 

Discussion  of  Recent  Results  in  Warm-Air  Furnace  Research  Work  at  the 

University  of  Illinois 

By  A.  C.  WILLARD* 

ONE  of  the  principal  objects  of  the  cooperative 
research  program  of  the  National  Warm 
Air  Heating  and  Ventilating  Association 
has  been  the  development  of  a  method  of  rating  and 
comparing  two  or  more  warm-air  furnaces  over  a 
wide  range  of  operating  conditions.  The  research 
staff  has  given  this  matter  much  thought,  in  the  at- 
tempt to  get  a  comprehensive  method  of  expressing 
the  capacity,  efficiency  and  other  characteristics  of 
a  furnace  over  its  complete  range  of  operation. 
With  positive  and  accurate  means  of  measuring  the 
amount  of  air  handled  and  determining  the  correct 
rise  in  air  temperature,  it  is  now  possible  to  study 
the  performance  of  a  warm-air  furnace  with  definite- 

Recent  tests  under  the  immediate  supervision  of 
Professor  A.  P.  Kratz  and  Mr.  V.  S.  Day  of  the 
Engineering  Experiment  Station  of  the  University 
of  Illinois  show  that  it  is  entirely  feasible  to  rep- 
resent this  data  for  any  given  furnace  by  a  series 
of  simple  curves  which  tell  the  whole  story  of 
furnace  operation  almost  at  a  glance.  With  this 
information  before  him,  the  engineer,  heating  con- 
tractor, or  architect  can  not  only  compare  warm- 
air  furnaces  of  different  types  and  makes,  but  he 
can  also  compare  a  given  warm-air  furnace  with 
a  steam-heating  boiler  or  a  hot-water  heater. 


Such  information  as  this  has  long  been  desired, 
but  has  never  before  been  obtainable.  It  represents, 
probably,  the  most  important  single  result  of  the 
Warm-Air  Furnace  Research  Investigation.  It 
means  that  the  warm-air  furnace  manufacturer  will 
be  able  to  publish  as  definite  engineering  data  con- 
cerning his  equipment  as  any  maker  of  steam  or  hot- 
water  heating  boilers  can  possibly  issue  in  these 
closely  allied  fields.  In  fact,  very  few  makers  of 
steam  and  hot-water  heating  equipment  possess  such 
complete  data  as  is  represented  by  these  results.  As 
a  result  of  such  tests  as  those  shown  here,  the  per- 
formance curves  of  a  warm-air  furnace  can  be 
drawn  as  definitely  as  the  so-called  "characteristic 

•Professor  Heating  and  Ventilation   and  Head  of  Department  of 
Mechanical    Engineering,    University   of   Illinois. 

curves"  of  an  electric  motor,  steam  engine,  steam 
turbine  or  pump. 

Typical  results  in  the  shape  of  performance  curves 
(Fig.  1)  are  given  for  one  series  of  recent  tests 
on  a  pipeless  furnace.  Since  the  final  data  from  any 
portion  of  this  research  work  is  not  released  by  the 
University  of  Illinois  and  the  National  Warm  Air 
Heating  and  Ventilating  Association  until  it  is  pub- 
lished as  a  Bulletin  of  the  Engineering  Experi- 
ment Station,  the  dimensions  and  description  of  the 
furnace  have  been  withheld.  Complete  data  will, 
however,  be  reported  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the 
association.  It  is  sufficient  to  say  the  curves  are 
based  on  actual  tests  of  commercial  apparatus,  and 
are  used  in  this  discussion  to  illustrate  a  new  method 
of  testing,  rating  and  comparing  warm-air  furnaces 
for  the  benefit  and  information  of  the  furnace  in- 
dustry as  a  whole. 


The  tests  on  which  these  curves  are  based  were 
all  run  on  the  same  pipeless  furnace  to  determine 
the  following  factors,  all  of  which  are  essential  to 
the  proper  design  and  installation  of  a  furnace  (pipe- 
less  or  piped).  4 

(a)  Rate  of  combustion  (pounds  of  coal  burned 
per  sq.  ft.  of  grate  per  hour). 

(b)  Efficiency  of   the   furnace    (ratio   of   heat 
put  into  air  passing  furnace  to  total  heat  value 
of  coal  burned,  usually  expressed  as  a  percentage). 

(c)  Capacity   of    furnace   in   B.t.u.   per   hour. 
(British   thermal  units),   which   is   the  heat  put 
into  air  passing  furnace. 

(d)  Equivalent    register    temperature    of    air 
leaving  register  based  upon  a  65°F.   inlet  tem- 
perature.    To  get  actual  rise  in  temperature  it  is 
only  necessary  to   subtract  65   from  these  tem- 
perature values. 

(e)  The  draft  at  the  smoke  outlet  of  the  fur- 
nace in  inches  of  water,  which  indicates  the  great 
importance  of   providing  a  satisfactory  chimney 
if  the  full  capacity  of  the  furnace  is  to  be  real- 
ized.   It  also  shows  that  capacity  is  entirely  de- 
pendent on  draft  for  a  given  furnace  and  a  given 



In  addition  to  the  above  factors,  much  additional 
data,  such  as  CO'-  content  and  flue  gas  temperature, 
was  determined,  but  as  it  is  not  introduced  into  this 
discussion  it  has  been  omitted  from  this  list  of 

An  inspection  of  Fig.  1  will  show  that  the  per- 
formance of  the  furnace  tested  is  completely  shown 
for  all  combustion  rates  between  4.5  Ib.  and  10  Ib. 
per  sq.  ft.  of  grate  per  hr.  The  combustion  rates 
are  indicated  along  the  horizontal  line  at  the  bottom 
of  the  figure.  Five  tests  were  run  at  five  different 

by  reading  to  the  right  or  left  as  indicated  by  the 
arrows,  the  following  rating  and  performance  data 
is  obtained. 

1.  Efficiency  =  64  per  cent. 

2.  Heating  capacity  =  120,000  B.t.u.  per  hr. 

3.  Equivalent     outlet     register     temperature 

202  °F. 

4.  Draft  in  inches  of  water  =  0.085. 

5.  Rate  of  combustion  ==  5.6  Ib.  per  sq.   ft.  of 

grate  per  hr. 
The  heating  capacity  just  found  (120,000  B.t.u. 


20^  I&OOOG 
.15  1  170000 
JO  £  I6OOOO 
.05Q  150000 
65     I4OOOO 

60  ^  130000 




50^  I/OOOO 

45  <$>IOOOOC 




vinq  Relation  Betwet 
'  and  : 
7)  Efficiency-  Percent 
'e)  Heating  Capac/ty-8.1 
3)  Equivalent  Register 
2)  Draff  -Inches  Wafei 


!/?  Combus 

'u  perttr  /x 

?    PIPE  LESS    rURNACE. 

//  into  Air                                              





vB  PS;  Cy  {>  N>  t\>  f\> 
n  O  c%.  (\»  u  .  %  ui 

0  0  °  0  0  0  0 

Equivalent  Outlet  Register  Temperature 
Based  on  65°  Inlet  Temperature 

k       ' 







^  . 

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\   ^r 








*—  T^^ 










3                   4                   5                    &                    789/0 
Combustion  Rate  -  Lb.   Coat  Burned  per  Sq.  Ft  Grate  per  fir. 

rates  of  combustion  and  the  results  from  each  test 
plotted  against  the  corresponding  combustion  rate 
at  the  bottom  of  the  chart.  It  was  then  found  pos- 
sible to  draw  smooth  curves  through  these  points 
and  these  curves  have  been  numbered  and  labeled 

1.  Efficiency  in  per  cent. 

2.  Heating  capacity  in  B.t.u.  per  hr. 

3.  Equivalent   outlet   register   temperature   based 

on  a  65°  inlet  temperature. 

4.  Draft  in  inches  of  water  at  smoke  outlet. 
After  the  curves  are  drawn,  it  is  a  simple  matter 

to  ascertain  under  what  conditions  this  furnace  will 
develop  its  maximum  efficiency.  To  do  this,  draw 
a  vertical  line  (shown  dot  and  dash  in  figure) 
through  the  highest  point  of  the  efficiency  curve 
(1).  This  line  will  cut  all  the  other  curves,  as 
well  as  the  combustion  rate  axis  at  the  bottom,  and 

per  hr.)  is  not  the  maximum  capacity  of  this  furnace 
by  any  means,  but  it  is  the  capacity  at  maximum 
efficiency.  The  heating  capacity  of  this  same  furnace 
can  be  increased  nearly  50  per  cent,  if  the  chimney 
draft  can  be  approximately  doubled.  By  increas- 
ing the  draft  to  0.18  inches  it  is  possible  to  burn 
coal  at  the  rate  of  9  Ib.  per  sq.  ft.  of  grate  and  the 
rating  and  performance  data  becomes  (see  vertical 
dot  and  dash  line  at  9  Ib.}  I 

1.  Efficiency  =55  per  cent. 

2.  Heating  capacity  =  169,000  B.t.u.  per  hr. 

3.  Equivalent     outlet     register     temperature     = 

242  °F. 

4.  Draft  in  inches  of  water  =  0.18. 

5.  Rate  of  combustion  =  9  Ib.  per  sq.  ft.  of  grate 

per  hr. 

The  significance  of  this  method  of  showing  rating 
and   performance  data  is  of  the  greatest  value  in 



determining  upon  the  selection  of  the  proper  fur- 
nace or  in  comparing  two  furnaces  or  a  furnace 
and  a  boiler.  Assume  the  heat  loss  from  a  certain 
house  is  170,000  B.t.u.  in  the  very  coldest  weather 
which  lasts  for  only  a  few  hours,  and  that  the  heat 
loss  under  average  cold  weather  conditions  which 
last  for  many  hours  is  only  about  two-thirds  of  this 
or  113,000  B.t.u.  It  will  be  at  once  apparent  that 
this  furnace  will  handle  the  average  cold  weather 
load  at  very  nearly  its  highest  efficiency,  which  the 
efficiency  curve  showed  to  be  64  per  cent,  at  about 
this  same  rating.  This  same  furnace  as  shown  by 
the  rating  and  performance  curves  has  a  heating 
capacity  of  169,000  B.t.u.  when  burning  coal  at  a 
combustion  rate  of  9  Ib.  per  sq.  ft.  of  grate  with  a 
draft  of  0.18  inches  of  water.  It  would  also,  there- 
fore, readily  handle  the  severest  heating  load  dur- 
ing the  winter,  provided  the  chimney  in  this  house 
could  develop  a  draft  of  0.18  inches  of  water. 

This  furnace  would,  of  course,  be  operating  in 
the  latter  case  at  an  efficiency  of  only  55  per  cent, 
with  an  outlet  register  temperature  of  242°F.  as 
shown  by  the  curves  at  9  pounds  combustion  rate. 
This  reduced  efficiency  and  high  register  tempera- 
ture is  not  a  serious  matter,  however,  as  the  very 
severe  conditions  referred  to  only  last  a  few  hours. 


It  should  be  noted  that  in  the  example  just  dis- 
cussed not  only  has  the  register  temperature  in- 
creased from  202°  to  242°  F.,  but  the  weight  and 
volume  of  air  passing  the  furnace  has  also  increased 
greatly.  The  curves  can  readily  be  made  to  show 
the  amount  of  air  handled,  as  well  as  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  air  leaving  outlet  register. 

If  it  is  desired  to  compare  this  furnace  with  a 
steam  heating  boiler  operating  at  the  same  combus- 
tion rate,  it  is  only  necessary  to  fix  the  combustion 
rate  in  order  to  make  the  comparison.  Suppose 
boiler  and  furnace  are  to  burn  the  same  kind  of  coal 
at  a  nine  pound  rate  of  combustion  and  that  the  draft 
is  satisfactory.  Refer  to  the  rating  curves  and  take 
nine  pounds  on  the  horizontal  axis  as  the  index 
point.  The  heating  capacity  as  already  found  is 
169,000  B.t.u.  per  hr.  which  is  equal  to  169,000  -5- 
250  =  680  sq.  ft.  of  steam  radiation.  (Each  sq.  ft. 
of  standard  steam  radiation  transmits  250  B.t.u.  per 
hr.)  Now  a  steam  boiler  large  enough  to  supply 
680  sq.  ft.  of  radiation  would  need  to  have  a  rating 
of  25  per  cent,  more  than  this  to  allow  for  mains 
and  branches,  or  850  sq.  ft.  The  pipeless  furnace 
requires  no  allowances  for  piping  connections  and 
the  capacity  curve  shows  practically  its  true  heat- 
ing capacity  over  its  entire  range  of  operation. 

Recent  Developments  in  Spray 

^  HE  test  samples  of  spray  versus  brush  paint- 
ing, conducted  at  the  U.  S.  Naval  Hospital  in 
September,  1919,  and  described  in  the  pamphlet 
entitled  "A  Study  of  the  Practicability  of  Spray 
Painting,"  were  inspected  during  December,  1920, 
after  exposure  for  about  fifteen  months. 

The  exterior  brick  walls  of  the  building  had  been 
painted  with  a  light  buff  paint,  one-half  of  the  area 
being  brush-coated  and  the  other  half  spray-coated. 
The  wearing  properties  of  the  paint  applied  by  the 
two  methods  seem  to  be  almost  the  same,  both  coat- 
ings being  in  fair  condition.  Medium  chalking  had 
developed  and  some  unevenness  of  the  yellow  tint 
was  shown  in  the  form  of  light  colored  spots.  The 
latter  defect,  however,  is  often  characteristic  of 
paints  tinted  with  ochre.  Close  inspection  of  the 
two  surfaces  with  a  high-power  magnifying  glass 
indicated  a  rather  characteristic  spatter  effect  where 
the  paint  was  applied  by  the  spray  gun,  and  ridgy 
brush  lines  where  the  paint  was  applied  by  brush. 

Inspection  of  the  large  roof  area  painted  with  red 
oxide  paint  showed  that  the  brush-coated  and  spray- 
coated  paints  were  giving  equal  satisfaction  from  the 
standpoint  of  durability.  Where  the  paint  had  been 
applied  with  spray  guns  by  workmen  not  acquainted 
with  the  method  of  application  excess  quantities, 
which  were  piled  up  in  some  instances,  had  run 
together  with  the  formation  of  a  somewhat  wrinkled 
film  in  spots.  Such  films,  remaining  rather  soft, 
necessarily  took  up  dust  from  the  atmosphere  and 
became  slightly  darker  than  the  areas  coated  with 
thinner  films. 

Due  to  the  fact  that  the  spraying  machine,  espe- 
cially in  the  hands  of  inexperienced  operators,  is  apt 
to  apply  a  larger  quantity  of  paint  over  a  given  area 
than  the  hand-brush  method  the  heavier  films  would, 
of  course,  show  slower  drying  properties.  With 
certain  paints,  therefore,  which  are  ordinarily  made 
with  raw  linseed  oil  and  a  minimum  of  drier  and 
thinner,  slow  drying  properties  might  be  observed. 
In  such  instances  the  use  of  a  substantial  percentage 
of  a  rapid  drying  reducing  oil  of  the  varnish  type 
would  overcome  this  difficulty.  A  small  percentage 
of  a  heavy  bodied  blown  oil  to  cause  "flowing  out" 
and  thus  obliterate  sptay-pit  marks  might  also  be 
advocated.  Manufacturers  of  special  spray  paints 
might  take  these  points  into  consideration. 

•Extract  from  a  paper  presented  by  Henry  A.  Gardner  before  the 
Pennsylvania  State  Association  of  Master  Painters.  Reading,  Pa., 
January,  1921. 


Proper  Size  and  Design  for  Flues 

Space  Requirements  of  Flues  and  Breechings.     Obstructions  Often  Limit 

Good  Design. 

THE  proper  size  for  breeching  and  flue  connec- 
tions is  not  always  given  sufficient  attention  in 
the  layout  of  a  building,  and  the  result  is  that 
frequently  the  contractor  installing  the  flues  finds  it 
necessary  to  resort  to  all  sorts  of  ingenious  schemes 
to  get  his  equipment  in,  and  in  many  cases  he  has  to 
make  his  flue  smaller  than  good  practice  demands. 
This  is  not  a  matter  of  guess  or  convenience  or  any- 
thing of  the  sort.  If  the  flue  is  too  small  it  offers 
too  much  resistance  to  the  gases  which  it  is  sup- 
posed to  carry  away.  The  result  is  that  the  gases 
"back  up"  into  the  furnace  and  an  actual  pressure 
is  built  up  when  there  should  be  a  vacuum.  A  pres- 
sure in  the  furnace  forces  the  intense  heat  into  every 
crack,  and  the  result  is  that  it  does  not  take  long  to 
destroy  the  brickwork,  boiler  and  furnace  equipment 
and  there  is  a  high  maintenance  cost- 


It  is  good  engineering  practice  to  design  flues  so 
that  there  will  be  35  square  feet  in  the  cross  section 
for  every  rated  boiler  horsepower.  It  is  important 
to  note  that  the  sectional  area  of  the  flue  is  based 
upon  the  builder's  rating  of  the  boiler  and  not  upon 
the  actual  horsepower  developed.  For  example,  a 
500-horsepower  boiler  should  have  at  least  17.5 
square  feet  in  the  cross-sectional  area  of  its  flue 
connection.  If  there  are  four  such  boilers,  the  area 
in  the  main  breeching  should  be  70  square  feet,  while 
each  individual  connection  would  still  contain  17.5 
square  feet. 

These  boilers  may  actually  be  designed  to  develop 
200  per  cent,  or  300  per  cent,  of  their  rated  capacity. 
In  that  case,  to  increase  the  flue  area  is  going  to  help 
reduce  the  resistance  and  will  tend  to  get  the  gases 
away  faster.  In  such  cases  it  is  desirable  to  increase 
this  area  if  space  permits.  In  no  case  should  the 
area  be  less  than  stated  above,  even  though  it  is 
known  that  the  boilers  will  be  operated  considerably 
under  rating.  If  the  architect  bases  his  calculations 
accordingly,  he  is  on  the  safe  side. 


A  circular  flue  is  the  ideal  flue  because  it  presents 
the  least  surface  area  to  the  gases.  Due  to  cost  of 
construction  and  difficulty  in  making  connections 
and  alterations,  however,  the  circular  flue  is  not 
much  used.  Of  all  other  shapes,  the  square  flue 
approaches  nearest  to  the  circular  flue  in  the  matter 
of  offering  the  least  resistance  to  the  flow  of  the 

gases.  It  is  not  always  possible  to  use  a  square 
section,  but  the  nearer  the  rectangle  approaches  to 
the  square  the  more  ideal  it  is. 

In  cases  where  more  than  one  flue  connects  into 
the  main  breeching,  it  is  good  practice  gradually  to 
increase  the  area  of  the  breeching  in  the  manner 
shown  in  Fig.  1.  The  height  h\  is  twice  h  and  hz  is 
three  times  h.  If  there  are  only  three  boilers  the 
height  remains  constant  from  A  to  the  stack.  The 
width  of  the  breeching  should  remain  the  same. 




FIG.Z  ^BOILEffNo.1 


Another  important  matter  is  that  in  proceeding 
from  the  boiler  to  the  stack  no  point  of  the  breech- 
ing or  flues  should  be  at  a  lower  elevation  than  any 
preceding  point.  There  should  be  no  downward 
flow  of  the  gas.  Sometimes  it  is  difficult  to  get 
around  obstructions  in  existing  buildings  without 
doing  so.  In  new"  buildings  this  point  should  be 
borne  in  mind,  as  well  as  the  fact  that  obstructions 
should  not  be  so  placed  that  it  will  be  necessary  to 
construct  the  flue  area  in  one  point  or  to  flatten  the 
flue  in  any  marked  degree  or  to  change  the  sectional 
shape  merely  for  the  sake  of  getting  around  these 
obstacles.  All  these  things  only  add  to  the  resist- 
ance and  either  make  necessary  higher  stack  and 
induced  draft  equipment  or  result  in  furnace  pres- 


In  figuring  allowances  for  flues  in  cramped  quar- 
ters it  must  be  remembered  that  the  flues  themselves 
must  be  insulated  after  erection.  It  is  customary  to 
leave  an  air  space  of  at  least  one  inch  between  the 
steel  of  the  flue  and  the  insulating  material.  This 
is  generally  done  by  wrapping  the  flue  with  chicken 
wire  or  some  such  material  to  hold  the  asbestos  and 
separating  the  wire  from  the  flue  by  inserting  dis- 
tance pieces.  The  asbestos  is  then  applied  to  an 
additional  thickness  of  1^  to  2  inches,  depending 
upon  the  conditions.  To  the  width  of  flue,  there- 
fore, there  should  be  added  5  to  6  inches  to  deter- 
mine the  overall  clearance  width  of  the  flue.  The 
same  applies  to  the  depth. 


Current    News 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Field  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

High  Bridge  Has  Been  Saved 

Through  the  untiring  efforts  of  Mr.  Arnold  Brun- 
ner,  representing  the  New  York  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects,  and  Col.  Wm.  J. 
Wilgus,  representing  New  York  engineers,  High 
Bridge  is  not  to  be  destroyed.  As  the  result  of  their 
extended  addresses  before  the  Board  of  Estimate 
and  Apportionment,  it  has  been  finally  decided  to 
preserve  this  structure  and  the  alterations  proposed 
will  not  mar  its  beauty.  For  the  first  time  in  that 
body,  a  vote  of  thanks  was  extended  to  the  speakers 
for  their  work  toward  this  end. 

American  Academy  in  Rome 

The  annual  Fellowship  in  architecture,  of  the 
value  of  $1,000  a  year  for  three  years,  is  to  be 
awarded  by  the  American  Academy  in  Rome,  sub- 
ject to  the  usual  conditions.  All  persons  desiring 
to  compete  for  a  Fellowship  must  fill  in  an  applica- 
tion to  be  obtained  from  the  secretary,  Roscoe 
Guernsey,  101  Park  avenue,  New  York.  This  appli- 
cation must  be  filed,  with  letters  of  reference  and 
other  information,  not  later  than  March  1. 

The  competition  is  open  to  unmarried  men,  citi- 
zens of  the  United  States,  who  comply  with  the  Reg 
ulations  of  the  Academy.     These  and  all  necessary 
details  may  be  learned  from  the  secretary. 

a  number  of  visiting  architects  and  engineers,  at- 
tracted by  an  interesting  and  important  lecture  on  . 
"Recent  Developments  in  Concrete,"  by  Lt.  Col. 
Boyden.  The  lecturer  brought  out  instructive  and 
startling  facts  as  to  the  hitherto  neglected  impor- 
tance of  the  proper  proportion  of  water  in  mixing 
concrete.  Thousands  of  experiments  prove  the  fact 
that  a  small  quantity  of  water  in  excess  of  the  proper 
proportion  will  reduce  the  strength  of  concrete  al- 
most fifty  per  cent. 

A  discussion  was  had  on  the  proposal  before  the 
Board  of  Standards  and  Appeals  to  amend  the 
plumbing  rules  so  as  to  permit  the  use  of  "standard" 
cast  iron  pipes,  instead  of  extra  heavy  pipes.  Unani- 
mous disapproval  was  voiced  by  the  meeting  against 
the  proposed  change  in  the  plumbing  rules,  and  a 
resolution  was  passed  to  that  effect. 

Two  new  members  were  elected  and  two  proposed 
for  membership. 

Announcement   from   N.   C.   A.    R. 

Architects  intere  ted  in  reciprocal  transfer  can 
obtain  information  with  reference  thereto  by  ad- 
dressing the  National  Council  of  Architectural 
Registration  Boards,  3230  West  Monroe  Street, 

Chicago  Architectural  Exhibit  Nebraska  Chapter  Elects  Officers 

Announcement  is  made  that  the  Thirty-fourth  An- 
nual Chicago  Architectural  Exhibition  will  be  held 
at  the  Art  Institute  of  Chicago,  March  8th  to  April 
5th.  This  year  the  exhibition  is  held  in  conjunction 
with  the  Applied  Arts  and  National  Farm  and  Gar- 
den Associations.  It  is  given  jointly,  as  previously, 
by  the  Chicago  Architectural  Club,  the  Illinois 
Society  of  Architects,  the  Illinois  Chapter  of  the 
American  Institute  and  the  Art  Institute  of  Chicago. 
The  chairman  of  the  exhibition  committee  is  John 
A.  Holabird,  while  Paul  S.  Esser  is  secretary  and 
Hubert  Burnham,  treasurer. 

New  York  Society  of  Architects 

This  Society  held  its  usual  monthly  meeting  at 
the  United  Engineering  Societies  Building,  West 
39th  Street,  on  Tuesday,  the  18th  inst.  There  was 
a  large  attendance  of  members  present,  together  with 

H.  W.  Meginnis,  of  Lincoln,  was  elected  presi- 
dent of  the  Nebraska  Chapter  of  the  American  In- 
stitute of  Architects  at  the  third  annual  meeting  of 
that  body  in  the  University  Club. 

C.  W.  Steinbaugh,  of  Omaha,  was  elected  vice- 
president,  and  J.  D.  Sandham.  also  of  Omaha,  was 
re-elected  secretary  and  treasurer.  G.  B.  Prinz  was 
elected  a  new  member  of  the  executive  committee. 

Alan  McDonald,  retiring  president,  was  toastmas- 
ter  at  the  dinner  at  the  University  Club.  Guests  of 
honor  were:  Governor  McKelvie,  William  L.  Steel, 
of  Sioux  City;  George  W.  Bates,  Lincoln,  city  engi- 
neer; Charles  Battelle,  Omaha;  V.  Ray  Gould, 
Omaha,  contractor;  Charles  F.  Harrison,  Clark  E. 
Mickey  and  Dr.  J.  E.  Summers,  all  of  Omaha. 

The  new  registration  law,  now  before  the  State 
Senate,  which  provides  for  the  establishment  of  two 
boards  of  examiners,  one  for  engineers  and  one  for 



architects,  was  a  main  topic  of  discussion  at  the  af- 
ternoon session.  Architects  generally  favor  the  bill. 
An  exhibition  of  four  typical  small  house  plans 
was  also  a  feature  of  the  meeting.  The  exhibition 
was  made  with  the  idea  of  formulating  a  method 
which  will  permit  good-looking  houses  to  be  built 
more  economically. 

Roosevelt  Memorial  to  Surpass  All 

To  erect  the  finest  memorial  erected  in  America  is 
the  aim  of  the  Roosevelt  Memorial  Association.  The 
Roosevelt  memorial  will  be  erected  in  Washington. 
Its  form  is  being  debated. 

But  as  a  work  of  art  and  architecture  it  is  in- 
tended to  make  it  surpass  even  the  Washington  mon- 
ument and  the  Lincoln  memorial,  recent  reports 

International  Congress  of  Cities  in 

Paris  has  been  chosen,  at  a  recent  meeting  of  the 
Union  Internationale  des  Villes,  as  the  next  meeting 
place,  in  1922,  of  the  International  Congress  of 
Cities.  The  last  congress  was  held  at  Ghent  in  1913, 
and  proved  very  stimulating  to  municipal,  official 
and  civic  reform  organizations  the  world  over.  A 
special  effort  will  be  made  to  secure  attendance  of 
representatives  from  all  national  associations  for 
civic  betterment. 

World's  Fair  in  Philadelphia 

A  committee  of  100  has  been  named  to  have  charge 
of  arrangements  for  and  financing  of  the  proposed 
exposition  to  be  held  in  Philadelphia  in  1926,  to  cele- 
brate the  one  hundred  and  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the 
signing  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 

Mayor  Moore  was  named  active  chairman  and 
John  Wanamaker,  who  served  on  the  centennial  com- 
mittee of  1876,  honorary  chairman.  Alba  B.  John- 
son, president  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  is  vice- 

An  inspiring  and  comprehensive  plan  by  Dr.  Paul 
P.  Cret  for  the  arrangement  of  a  site  has  been  sub- 
mitted to  about  400  representative  citizens  and  re- 
ceived with  enthusiasm. 

The  plan  was  presented  and  explained  at  the  forty- 
ninth  annual  meeting  of  the  Fairmount  Park  Art 
Association  by  Andrew  Wright  Crawford,  secretary 
of  the  art  jury. 

Dr.  Cret,  noted  French  architect,  who  is  professor 
of  design  in  the  school  of  architecture  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania  and  who  has  been  promi- 
nently identified  with  city  improvement  activities 

several  years,  proposes  that  the  Parkway  and  both 
the  east  and  west  banks  of  the  Schuylkill  be  utilized 
as  grounds  for  the  international  exhibition. 

Mr.  Crawford,  who  outlined  the  plan  in  an  ad- 
dress on  "World's  Fairs  and  Their  City  Planning 
Salvage,"  said  Dr.  Cret's  suggestion  to  use  the 
Schuylkill  embankments,  beautified  and  connected  by 
ornamental  bridges,  was  "astonishing  because  it  could 
be  carried  out  so  easily." 

Details  of  the  project  will  appear  in  a  future  issue 
of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  as  they  are  developed. 

Co-operative  Housing    and    Garden 
City  League  Formed 

Lender  the  name  of  the  Co-operative  Housing  and 
Garden  City  League  of  America,  a  new  society  has 
been  formed,  with  the  landscape  architect  Robert 
Anderson  Pope  as  chairman,  to  promote  co-operative 
housing  and  to  create  for  this  purpose  a  loan  fund 
to  be  applied  to  the  investigation  of  the  advisability 
of  acquiring  basic  sources  of  essential  building  ma- 
terials, their  means  of  production  and  distribution, 
and  if  more  capital  becomes  available,  to  the  con- 
struction of  model  housing  estates. 

Jersey  City  Planning 

Jersey  City  has  completed  within  the  last  few 
weeks  an  organization  to  plan  for  the  future  develop- 
ment of  the  city.  The  mayor  has  appointed  a  com- 
mission of  five  t'o  which  the  Chamber  of  Commerce 
has  added  four  of  its  members.  They  will  co-oper- 
ate with  a  number  of  city  officials  appointed  for  this 
purpose  on  a  joint  City  Development  Plan  Commis- 
sion. The  program  embraces  development  of  through 
streets  and  highways,  civic  centers,  parks,  play- 
grounds, tunnel  routes,  a  housing  system  and  a  high 
speed  motor  vehicle  belt  road.  The  City  Commis- 
sion, by  resolution,  endorsed  the  plan  and  appropri- 
ated the  money  needed  for  investigations  and  other 
preparatory  work  by  the  city  engineers. 

Jersey  City  Building  Active 

Houses  for  two  hundred  families  will  be  built  by 
a  corporation  authorized  a  few  weeks  ago  by  the 
Jersey  City  Chamber  of  Commerce  and  financed  by 
business  men  of  that  city.  The  new  houses  will  be 
of  the  so-called  Philadelphia  plan  of  five-room 
double-houses,  with  two  families  to  each  side.  It  is 
expected  that  costs  will  be  reduced  25  per  cent  by 
the  simultaneous  construction  of  fifty  such  two- 
family  houses.  Each  two-family  house  when  com- 
pleted will  be  sold  separately  at  about  $10,000,  with 
a  first  payment  of  $2,500  and  monthly  installments 
of  $98,  including  taxes,  water  rent  and  insurance. 



The  first  mortgage  of  $7,000  will  be  placed  by  the 
corporation.  As  the  estimated  shortage  of  homes 
in  Jersey  City  is  over  1,400,  this  project  is  not  ex- 
pected to  discourage  private  construction. 

Inter-State  Bridge 

One  of  the  greatest  projects  of  its  kind  in  New 
England,  according  to  the  Portland  Express,  is 
about  to  be  started.  This  is  the  magnificent  Maine 
and  New  Hampshire  Memorial  bridge  to  be  erected 
over  the  Piscataqua  river  between  Portsmouth, 
N.  H.,  and  Kittery,  Me.  Estimated  to  cost  over  two 
million  dollars,  it  will  completely  outshadow  the 
famous  local  Portland  Bridge,  which  reached  the 
million  mark  but  which  could  not  be  duplicated  today 
for  a  very  much  larger  sum. 

While  the  cost  of  the  new  structure  is  to  be 
divided  equally  among  the  two  States  and  the  Fed- 
eral Government,  the  major  portion  of  the  benefit 
to  be  derived  from  it  is  to  be  received  by  Maine. 
The  great  local  advantage,  however,  is  to  go  to  Ports- 
mouth. The  bridge  is  to  form  a  remarkable  gate- 
way into  the  Pine  Tree  State,  through  which  will 
pour  at  least  75  per  cent,  of  the  automobile  tourist 

The  great  local  benefit  received  by  Portsmouth  will 
be  the  fact  that  it  will  form  a  free  means  of  access 
for  the  towns  of  Maine,  in  its  vicinity,  into  the  New 
Hampshire  metropolis  to  trade. 

Balsa  Wood  Lighter  Than  Cork, 
Durable  as  Cedar 

Balsa  wood,  growing  notably  in  Costa  Rica  and 
Ecuador,  is  the  lightest  wood  known,  weighing  only 
7.3  pounds  to  the  cubic  foot.  Cork  weighs  13.7 
pounds.  Growing  more  rapidly  than  almost  any  other 
known  tree,  it  is  said  that  within  four  years  a  balsa 
tree  will  attain  the  height  of  30  feet,  with  a  diameter 
of  ten  inches.  It  is  as  durable  as  cedar. 

The  wood  is  white,  extremely  straight  grained  and 
easy  to  work.  It  is  soft  when  green,  but  seems  to 
harden  later.  It  is  used  extensively  for  making  life 
rafts  and  life  preservers,  anl  it  is  thought  that  it  will 
eventually  constitute  a  valuable  source  of  pulp  wood. 
A  brown-colored  cotton-wool,  commonly  used  for 
stuffing  pillows  and  mattresses,  is  also  produced. 

It  is  believed  that  the  tree  would  flourish  in  Florida 
and  because  of  its  rapid  growth  would  spread  easily 
over  the  southern  part  of  the  state. 

Billboard  Nuisance  in  Massachusetts 

At  a  cost  of  millions,  says  the  Boston  Globe, 
Massachusetts,  has  built  a  system  of  magnificent  park 
boulevards  and  highways  from  the  Atlantic  Coast  to 
the  Mohawk  Trail.  "No  sooner  do  these  roads  bring 

the  splendors  of  our  landscape  within  reach  of  the 
eye  (and  we  are  no  worse  sinners  in  this  respect 
than  our  sister  states)  than  we  allow  them  to  be 
defiled  at  every  turn  by  glaring  atrocities  which  urge 
us  to  invest  in  this  brand  of  tooth  paste  and  that 
brand  of  chewing  gum."  The  Women's  Municipal 
League  of  the  City  of  New  York,  which  quotes  this 
and  other  evidence  of  the  continued  existence  of  the 
billboard  evil,  is  endeavoring  to  check  the  abuse. 

Niagara  Power 

From  Niagara  River  only  26  per  cent  of  the  total 
flow  is  diverted  for  generating  electricity,  and  en- 
gineers say  that  60  per  cent  could  be  diverted  with- 
out marring  the  scenic  beauty  of  the  falls,  hence 
it  is  asserted  that  "millions  of  horsepower  are  go- 
ing to  waste."  A  treaty  with  Great  Britain  limits 
the  amount  of  power  that  can  be  developed  at 

Puppets    in    Egyptian    Tomb    Show 
Ancient  Conditions 

Innumerable  puppets,  representing  the  household 
retainers  of  Mehenkwetre,  a  great  Egyptian  dignitary 
of  2000  B.  C.,  taken  from  a  concealed  chamber  of 
his  tomb  and  illustrating  in  detail  the  life  of  the 
people  of  that  time,  have  just  been  put  on  exhibi- 
tion at  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.  They 
were  excavated  by  the  Museum's  Egyptian  expedi- 
tion at  Thebes  and  are  considered  one  of  the  most 
important  of. recent  discoveries. 

The  puppets,  who  are  shown  performing  dif- 
ferent household  arts  and  duties  in  the  fields  and 
on  the  water,  are  funerary  models  and  form  the 
most  complete  set  ever  excavated. 

Mehenkwetre  was  a  chancellor  and  steward  of 
the  royal  palace  in  the  reign  of  King  Mentuhotep 
III.,  and  his  tomb  was  located  in  the  choicest  spot 
in  the  necropolis  of  his  day,  overlooking  the  mor- 
tuary temple  of  the  sovereign. 

The  tomb  had  been  plundered  several  hundred 
years  after  the  interment  of  the.  dignitary  whose 
body  it  contained,  but  neither  those  early  nor  later 
visitors  discovered  the  hidden  chamber  which  the 
museum  excavators  found  intact.  To  facilitate  the 
carrying  on  in  another  world  of  the  pleasures 
which  the  great  man  had  enjoyed  on  earth  prac- 
tically every  occupation  which  ministered  to  his 
comfort  had  been  reproduced  with  these  miniature 
servitors,  that  he  might  enjoy  them  in  the  new  life 
he  was  entering. 

The  puppets  seem  to  be  inhabitants  of  a  doll 
world,  but  they  actually  reproduce  the  life  of  the 
early  Egyptians  and,  from  the  fullness  of  the  de- 
tails, they  throw  light  upon  many  interesting  points 
not  previously  understood. 



Circulating  of  Pictures 

Circulation  of  pictures,  on  a  plan  similar  to  that 
followed  in  the  circulation  of  books  by  public  libra- 
ries, has  for  some  time  been  carried  on  to  a  small 
extent  in  Boston.  New  York,  and  possibly  other 
cities.  The  Brooklyn  Y.  W.  C.  A.  has  recently 
started  such  a  circulating  library  for  reproductions 
of  the  best  pictures,  which  are  lent  for  two  weeks  or 
a  month.  Each  picture  is  accompanied  by  a  brief 
account  of  the  artist's  life,  data  about  the  school  and 
l>eriod  of  art  and  the  significance  of  the  particular 
work.  The  next  step,  apparently  not  contemplated 
in  this  case,  but  adopted  elsewhere,  is  that  of  en- 
abling borrowers  to  buy  at  a  modest  price  pictures 
which  especially  appeal  to  them. 

U.  S.  Is  Wearing  Away 

An  average  of  95  tons  of  soil,  pebbles,  and  loose 
rock  is  carried  by  the  rivers  into  the  ocean  every 
year  from  every  square  mile  of  the  United  States, 
according  to  the  United  States  Geological  Survey, 
Department  of  the  Interior.  The  immensity  of  this 
contribution  may  be  better  comprehended  when  it 
is  realized  that  the  surface  of  the  United  States 
covers  3,088,500  square  miles. 

Old  Paris  City  Walls  to  Be  Used  for 
War  Area  Homes 

The  inner  walls  of  Paris,  relics  of  the  city's  de- 
fenses in  the  old  baronial  days,  are  going  to  make 
buildings  in  war  devastated  areas  of  France.  Where 
they  stood,  Paris  will  have  its  first  model  playground, 
in  the  Pagnolet  quarter,  laid  out  on  American  lines 
by  the  Junior  Red  Cross.  Announcement  by  the 
Red  Cross  said  twenty  miles  of  good  building  stone 
had  been  saved  from  leveling  the  old  fifty-foot 
defenses  bordering  the  Paris  moat. 

Conspicuous  Automatic  Doorsill 
Permits  Exit  Only 

To  enforce  the  one-way  traffic  rule  through  the 
establishment,  the  management  of  a  large  garage  has 
installed  an  automatic  doorsill  across  the  exit.  The 
device  is  made  of  heavy  steel  and  is  hinged  and 
counterweighted  in  such  a  way  that,  normally,  the 
edge  toward  the  street  is  held  several  inches  above 
the  drive  level.  This  presents  an  obstruction  which 
cannot  fail  to  challenge  the  attention  of  an  approach- 
ing driver.  To  a  car  advancing  from  the  street  side, 
the  obstruction  is  very  real.  Immediately  the  wheels 
of  an  outgoing  car  bear  upon  the  sill,  the  apparently 
formidable  bump  becomes  a  smooth,  level  path,  the 
heavy  threshold  sinking  into  a  recess  in  the  drive- 
way. A  conspicuous  decorative  scheme  and  the 

admonitions  to  use  the  entrance  and  also  to  cross 
the  sill  in  low  gear  have  the  desired  effects  of  pre- 
venting movement  against  the  direction  of  traffic  and 
of  making  cars  leave  the  building  at  a  safe  rate  of 

Borglum  to  Carve  Army  on  Mountain 

Gutzon  Borglum  has  taken  up  again  his  plans  for 
carving  a  vast  memorial  to  the  Confederacy  on  the 
face  of  Stone  Mountain,  a  great  granite  monolith 
just  outside  Atlanta,  according  to  a  recent  announce- 

Nothing  so  stupendous  as  the  Stone  Mountain 
undertaking  has  ever  been  planned  in  art.  Stone 
Mountain  is  a  solid  block  of  granite,  the  northern 
side  of  which  is  a  sheer  cliff  nearly  1,000  feet  high 
and  1,500  feet  wide.  That  perpendicular  surface, 
is  was  explained,  is  without  seams  and  even  enough 
to  offer  a  vast  natural  canvas  for  the  sculptor's  chisel. 

The  memorial  will  take  the  form  of  a  big  army, 
composed  of  more  than  one  thousand  figures  of 
southern  leaders,  marching  across  the  face  of  this 
cliff.  Mr.  Borglum,  it  was  stated,  will  cut  the  figures 
in  heroic  proportions,  forty  or  fifty  feet  in  height, 
so  that  they  can  be  recognized  for  four  or  five  miles. 
The  principal  figures  will  stand  out  in  complete  re- 
lief, while  other  figures  will  be  scaled  clown  through 
various  stages  of  relief  to  mere  chisel  sketches  on 
the  surface  of  the  stone,  thus  giving  the  appearance 
of  an  army  fading  into  the  heart  of  the  mountain. 

Mr.  Borglum  plans  to  retain  a  large  number  of 
artists  under  his  supervision.  The  artists  will  work 
upon  the  face  of  the  cliff  from  steel  cages  swung  on 
cables  down  the  side  of  the  mountain. 

Mr.  Borglum  estimates  that  it  will  take  about 
eight  years  to  finish  the  work,  at  a  cost  of  several 
million  dollars. 


Mr.  Gerald  Joseph  O'Reilly,  Room  11,  Hippo- 
drome Bldg.,  Miami  Florida,  is  desirous  of  receiving 
manufacturers  catalogs,  specifications  and  price  lists 
to  complete  his  files. 

Damon,  O'Meara  &  Hills,  Architects  are  now  op- 
erating offices  in  Suite  1123-1124  Merchants  Na- 
tional Bank  Building,  Saint  Paul,  Minn.,  and  at  19 
East  Mason  Building,  Fort  Dodge,  Iowa.  The  Saint 
Paul  office  would  like  to  receive  literature. 

T.  Beverly  Keim,  Jr.,  architect,  has  moved  from 
room  202  to  room  716  Haas  Bldg.,  Los  Angeles,  Cal. 

A.  E.  Sedgwick  and  N.  W.  Alpaugh,  architects, 
have  moved  their  offices  to  Suite  506,  Garland  Bldg., 
Los  Angeles,  Cal. 


Weekly  Review  of  the  Construction  Field 

With  Reports  of  Special  Correspondents  in   Regional  Centers 




(Vice  President,  Bank  of  Detroit) 


[Refer  to  page  107,  issue  of  January  26.] 

An  old  English  document  states  that  in  1314 
"Complaints  to  the  King  that  the  market  of  Ox- 
ford ran  unreasonably  high,  so  that  poor  scholars 
could  hardly  live,  so  the  King  sent  down  his  Man- 
date to  regulate  this  affair."  An  attempt  was  then 
made  to  establish  the  following  price  schedule, 
which  is  interesting  in  view  of  present  costs : 

1.        s.        d. 

A  stalled,  or  corn-fed  ox. 

A  grass-fed    ox 

A  fat  stalled  cow 

An   ordinary   cow 

A  fat  mutton,  unshorn 

A  fat    mutton,    shorn 

A  fat  hog,  of  two  years  old. 


A  fat  goose,  in  the  city,  3d,  but  every- 
where   else 00 

A  fat  capon,  in  the  city,  2yZd,  elsewhere.OO 
A  fat  hen,  in  the  city,  l/4d,  elsewhere.  .00 
2  chickens,  in  the  city,  Ij4d,  elsewhere.  .00 
I  pigeons  (in  the  city  but  3  pigeons).. 00 
24  eggs 00 












This  comment  is  made  in  the  article  in  question : 
"Things  could  not  be  purchased  at  these  rates,  for 
people  would  not  bring  them  to  the  market  (and 
that  is  a  thing  that  Parliaments  cannot  remedy), 
and  so  the  King  was  fain  to  revoke  the  former 
act,  and  leave  the  people  to  sell  as  they  could  (for 
a  trade  will  do  as  it  can,  and  never  be  forced,  one 
way  or  the  other)." 

READJUSTMENT  should  contemplate_a  rea- 
sonable profit,  and  prices  should  bear  a  proper 
relation  within  the  season  to  the  preceding  season's 
or  preceding  year's  price  schedules.  An  economic 
commission  might  very  happily  analyze  the  entire 
subject,  and,  for  what  it  is  worth,  publish  what 
would  seem  to  be  a  proportionate  basis  of  prices 
from  year  to  year  within  the  economic  period  in- 
volved. In  correlation  with  this,  the  government 
should  develop  a  comprehensive  plan  of  taxation 
fairly  distributed  and  provide  for  a  stated  reduc- 
tion of  the  national  debt  over  a  sufficiently  long 
period  of  years.  This  would  at  least  serve  as  a 
guide  to  the  business  world,  and  tend  to  prevent 
the  business  difficulties  which  are  sometimes  de- 
veloped by  the  discussion  or  operation  of  unsound 

'Copyrighted,  1920,  by  Edmund  D.  Fisher. 

It  is  comforting  to  realize  that  a  period  of  de- 
flation, based  upon  average  experience,  is  a  period 
of  growing  wealth.  Take  a  characteristic  period 
of  deflation  in  England  experienced  from  1874  to 
1896  (a  gold  movement).  During  this  period  the 
average  of  wholesale  commodity  prices  fell  40  per 
cent.  It  was  a  period  of  increase  in  production  the 
world  over,  and  of  growing  wealth,  in  which  Eng- 
land, of  course,  shared.  It  was  a  period  of  grad- 
ual increase  in  wages,  although  the  greatest  benefit 
to  the  wage  earner  came  from  the  reduction  in 
prices.  An  English  economist  states :  "Looking  at 
this  period  as  a  whole,  there  seems  to  be  no  evi- 
dence that  employment  was  any  less  regular  than 
in  preceding  periods." 

A  composite  judgment  based  upon  the  thought 
of  authoritative  writers  and  speakers  on  the  sub- 
ject of  "What  is  necessary  to  bring  about  the  or- 
derly decline  in  prices,"  may  be  stated  as  follows : 

1.  That  bank  credit  for  legitimate  business  be  not 
unduly  restricted. 

2.  That  the  public  writings  and  speeches  of  influ- 
ential  men   be   directed   toward   the   upbuilding 
of  business  morale  by  spreading  the  gospel  of 
confidence     in     our     own     economic     strength, 
which  must  be  supported,  however,  by  normal 

3.  That   the  maintenance  of  a  fair  volume  of  ex- 
port   trade    will    tend    to    stabilize    prices,    and 
through  the  helpfulness  it  will  give  to  the  up- 
building of   stricken    nations,   will   react   favor- 
ably on   the  United   States. 

4.  That  as  much  stress  as  possible  be  laid  on  the 
argument  that  a  small  profit  on  a  normal  pro- 
duction is  better  than  a  large  profit  on  a  cur- 
tailed output. 

5.  That  manufacturers  and  merchants  in  a  strong 
financial   position    should   place   reasonable   or- 
ders to   encourage  trade  during  depressed  pe- 

6.  That   a   consistent   advertising   policy   is   neces- 
sary to   stimulate  the  buying  public. 

7.  That  at  the  present  time  a  revision  of  our  tax 
laws    is    necessary    to    normalize    business    and 
investment   relations. 

After  all,  and  in  conclusion,  an  orderly  decline 
in  prices  is  largely  dependent  upon  the  attitude  of 
the  credit  men  and  the  credit  grantors  of  the  coun- 
try. An  analysis  of  credit  statements  during  the 
period  of  deflation  will  undoubtedly  many  times 
show  a  status  of  depreciated  inventories  and  limited 
liquid  assets.  Forced  liquidation,  however,  would 
tend  to  a  disorderly  decline  and  abnormally  low 
prices.  While  a  consistent  reduction  in  prices  is 
desirable,  it  is  quite  undesirable  to  have  a  greater 
reduction  than  is  logical  for  a  proper  relation  to 
the  basic  economic  conditions.  For  stability,  we 
must  have  full  employment,  continuity  of  spend- 



ing  power,  and  reasonable  prices.  The  credit  man, 
therefore,  must,  when  possible,  permit  the  element 
of  time  and  the  principle  of  helpfulness  to  cure 
some  of  the  business  difficulties  brought  to  his  at- 

A  knowledge  of  the  principles  of  prices  is  most 
important  in  credit  granting,  as  the  movements  of 
prices,  as  has  been  pointed  out,  directly  affect 
credit  conditions.  The  inventory  is  usually  the 
most  important  factor  in  the  commercial  state- 
ment, and  a  radical  change  in  value  may  mean 
much  added  wealth  or  ultimate  insolvency.  A  most 
important  factor  to  remember  in  a  period  of  defla- 
tion is  that  while  the  value  of  the  inventory  may 
shrink  and  the  surplus  be  reduced,  the  cause  which 
brings  this  about — the  decline  in  prices — is  also 
increasing  the  value  of  each  individual  dollar. 
What  is  apparently  a  reduced  surplus  may  and 
probably  will  indicate  a  greater  wealth  than  the 
swollen  surplus  that  previously  floated  on  the  froth 
of  the  tossing  waves  of  inflation. 


(Any  architect  desiring  this  address  in  full,  printed  attractively  in 
booklet  form,  may  obtain  it  by  writing  the  editor  of  this  journal.) 

Next  Week:  "The  Architect's  Relation  to  Price  Declines" 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

SEATTLE. — There  was  some  slight  unsettlement 
of  the  steel  market  during  the  week  on  the 
impression  of  jobbers  that  the  steel  corporation 
prices,  especially  in  sheets,  may  show  further 
declines.  What  these  reductions  will  be  if  any 
will  depend  on  how  badly  the  outside  mills  need 
tonnage.  This  situation  is  just  the  reverse  of  what 
it  was  during  the  last  two  quarters  of  1920.  It 
would  appear  from  the  way  jobbers  feel  that  the 
independent  mills  are  masters  of  the  situation. 

Jobbers  report  ample  warehouse  stocks  of  roof- 
ing, sheets,  cement,  plaster  and  plaster  wall  board. 
The  situation  seems  to  radiate  around  March,  which 
it  is  thought  will  more  clearly  disclose  the  construc- 
tion tendency  of  the  Pacific  Coast  territory  than 
any  other  month.  There  is  a  growing  belief 
among  both  the  metal  and  lumber  interests  that 
construction  will  start  around  the  first  week  in 
March.  It  is  thought  that  by  that  time  builders  will 
have  concluded  that  materials  are  at  their  bedrock 
levels  and  that  to  wait  longer  would  be  to  endanger 
the  possibilities  of  prompt  delivery. 

It  is  the  feeling  of  jobbers  that  basic  costs  must 
be  hurried  forward  if  the  building  year  is  to  be 
propitious  and  business  is  to  settle  to  the  point 
where  building-up  can  begin.  Jobbers  in  pipe,  sheet 
metal,  plumbing  supplies  and  metal  furnishings 
insist  that  as  fast  as  their  costs  are  dropped  they 
pass  the  advantage  on  to  the  trade,  but  that  the 
trade  is  not  responding  in  kind.  Unless  some  speed 

is  shown  in  giving  investors  this  advantage  as  it 
occurs  it  is  predicted  that  retailers  will  suffer 
in  finance.  Small  losses  can  be  taken  now  more 
readily  than  large  ones  in  March  or  April,  and  few 
communications  pass  that  do  not  contain  some 
reminder  to  retailers  to  speed  up  recessions  in  order 
that  building  projects  may  be  pushed  beyond  the 
pencil  sketch  stage. 

Doyle  &  Merriam,  architects  and  engineers  of 
Seattle,  have  opened  bids  for  demolishing  the 
Boston  block,  four  stories  in  height,  to  make  space 
for  the  new  exclusive  banking  quarters  of  the  Seat- 
tle National  Bank.  Work  is  to  begin  March  1. 
This  is  the  first  of  three  exclusive  banking  struc- 
ture? to  be  erected  in  the  permanent  financial  dis- 
trict on  Second  avenue  south  of  Spring  street  with- 
in the  next  two  years.  The  Union  National  will 
involve  an  outlay  of  $1,000,000. 

Approximately  46  per  cent,  of  the  fir  lumber 
mills  in  what  is  known  as  the  West  Coast  Forest 
products  territory  have  resumed  operations  since 
the  holidays.  Log  and  labor  overhead  have 
decreased  15  to  25  per  cent.,  and  logging  contractors 
seem  to  have  run  afoul  of  each  other  as  to  what 
constitutes  the  actual  market.  The  result  is  bene- 
ficial to  the  mills  that  have  no  timber  of  their  own 
but  must  buy  on  the  open  log  market  from  time  to 
time  according  to  their  needs. 

Eastern  building  is  quiet,  according  to  lumber 
orders  received  from  east  of  the  Missouri  river. 
Retail  yards,  who  represent  the  wishes  of  builders 
in  their  respective  communities  are  inclined  to 
believe  there  will  be  further  price  recession.  This 
position  may  be  well  taken,  but  the  mills  expect  a 
rush  of  orders  with  early  spring  and  buyers  will 
be  taking  their  own  chances  in  delay.  It  is  not 
believed  that  prices  could  fall  any  appreciable 
extent,  as  the  mills  will  not  sell  on  the  market  as  it 
stands  today. 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO. — Chicago's  building  boom  which 
'oomed  so  brightly  on  the  immediate  horizon  a  few 
weeks  ago  is  beginning  to  assume  some  of  the  char- 
acteristics of  a  desert  mirage  and  is  growing  less  tan- 
gible as  it  is  more  closely  approached.  With  mild 
February  weather  giving  hint  of  early  spring  condi- 
tions, when  building  might  be  starting  somewhat 
ahead  of  the  usual  frost-out-of-the-ground  period, 
there  is  a  tendency  on  the  part  of  those  connected 
with  the  building  industry  to  complain  at  the  appar- 
ent lack  of  building  activity. 

Architects  say  that  there  is  comparatively  little 
work  on  the  boards  just  now,  although  there  is 
considerable  inquiry  and  a  great  deal  of  tentative 
figuring.  Contractors  report  the  same  state  of 



public  mind  and  even  the  lumber  and  materials 
men  indicate  that  spring  business  has  thus  far 
failed  to  transcend  the  inquiry  stage. 

The  reason  back  of  it  all  is  manifold,  but  mainl) 
it  is  due  to  the  state  of  uncertainty  and  expectancy 
which  a  falling  market  has  built  up  in  the  public 
mind.  With  the  daily  newspapers  giving  prom- 
inence to  every  downward  slant,  a  mass  psychology 
has  been  created,  which  expects  a  much  deeper 
plunge  of  the  toboggan  back  toward  economic 
readjustment.  This  watchful  waiting  is  manifested 
by  the  disposition  on  the  part  of  those  whose  minds 
are  made  up  to  building  activity,  to  wait  and  see 
just  what  the  situation  will  really  come  to 
in  the  end. 

Another  complex  in  the  situation  is  the  failure 
of  finance  to  come  to  the  rescue  except  at  high  rates 
and  unusual  commissions. 

Just  what  the  outcome  of  all  this  is  to  be  is  a 
problem  that  is  puzzling  a  great  many  people  in 
the  Chicago  building  industries,  architects,  con- 
tractors, materials  and  lumber  manufacturers  and 
all  the  rest. 

Optimistic  leaders  believe  that  the  situation  can 
very  well  turn  from  bearish  to  bullish  in  the  span 
of  a  week  or  so  and  that  hectic  activity  can  very 
easily  relieve  the  present  dullness  almost  over- 
night. The  fact  that  the  building  shortage  is  so 
acute  and  the  pay-me  spirit  of  the  average  flat- 
owning  landlord  so  apparent  is  looked  upon  as  a 
goad  that  cannot  fail  to  encourage  building,  partic- 
ularly in  residential  and  apartment  buildings,  once 
the  complicated  conditions  now  prevalent  are  even 
slightly  cleared  up. 

Once  building  is  fairly  started  it  is  felt  by  many 
that  there  will  be  a  rush  that  will  be  reminiscent 
of  boom  days  of  the  past.  It  is  the  initial  impetus, 
however,  that  is  now  lacking. 

As  far  as  Chicago  is  concerned  there  are  signs 
here  and  there  that  the  tie-up  is  beginning  to 

One  of  the  signs  of  better  times  ahead  is  a  recent 
building  permit  for  a  million  dollar  apartment 
building.  This  is  to  be  a  nine-story  structure  to 
be  erected  in  the  Rogers  Park  district  by  G.  M. 
Posner,  of  G.  M.  Posner  &  Co.,  builders.  Work  is 
to  be  started  on  the  building  at  once. 

There  were  twelve  other  permits  for  apartment 
buildings  in  the  January  list,  a  significant  fact  inas- 
much as  apartment  buildings  have  been  conspicu- 
ously absent  from  the  building  permit  lists  during 
recent  months. 

Although    apartment   permits    show    an    increase 
for  January,  the  general  building  situation  is  not 
improved,  according  to  the  building  permit  report. 
At  a  date  well  toward  the  close  of  January  only 

60  permits  had  been  issued  as  compared  with  171 
in  December  of  1920  and  328  as  compared  with 
January  of  last  year. 

The  growing  number  of  apartment  permits  is 
viewed  with  satisfaction  by  Charles  E.  Bostrom, 
building  commissioner,  who  in  his  recent  annual 
report  pointed  out  that  Chicago  needs  from  75,000 
to  90,000  more  apartments. 

In  his  report  were  figures  covering  building 
in  Chicago  for  a  period  of  seven  years,  which  is 
interesting  enough,  perhaps,  to  be  reproduced.  The 
report  follows : 

Year  Building  Permits. 

1913  10,792 

1914   9,938 

1915   10,340 

1916  10,277 

1917  4,938 

1918   2,529 

1919  6,589 







Lack  of  money  for  building  is  getting  more  and 
more  to  be  the  focus  of  the  building  apathy  in 
Chicago  and  public  attention  is  being  more  centrally 
directed  to  the  solution  of  this  stringency.  The  past 
week  has  seen  some  three  or  four  possible  plans  for 
the  relief  of  the  condition. 

One  interesting  plan  has  been  evolved  by  the 
Corn  Exchange  National  Bank,  which  hopes  to 
encourage  definite  savings  toward  home  building. 
Briefly,  the  bank's  plan  is  this : 

The  man  who  desires  to  own  a  home  contracts 
with  himself  to  deposit  with  the  bank  a  certain 
sum  each  month  toward  a  first  payment.  At  the 
very  beginning  of  the  savings  and  throughout  the 
period  of  home-owning  thrift,  the  bank  supplies 
advice  and  information  on  building,  plans,  real 
estate  and  other  things  that  the  prospective  home- 
owner ought  to  know.  By  the  time  the  depositor 
is  ready  to  buy  or  build  he  is  well  posted  on  the 
details  of  the  transaction. 

What  is  of  more  interest  than  the  plan  itself, 
is  the  fact  that  three  thousand  inquiries  and  three 
hundred  new  accounts  were  developed  by  the  plan 
within  a  week. 

The  Building  Trades  Council  which  is  made  up 
of  thirty-eight  unions  in  the  building  industry  is 
fostering  a  plan  to  raise  a  bond  fund  of  $5,000,000 
to  spur  building.  This  fund  is  being  predicated 
upon  a  bond  issue  on  an  important  business  sky- 
scraper which  has  lately  been  taken  over  by  an 
important  co-operative  investment  society.  Funds 
from  this  plan  are  not  yet  available,  but  hope  is 
held  out  that  something  may  be  forthcoming  from 
this  source. 

Still  another  plan  which  is  not  lacking  for  pro- 
ponents is  a  scheme  to  secure  special  legislation 



which  will  permit  the  state  to  issue  building  bonds 
at  a  low  interest  rate,  untaxable  and  to  be  sold 
without  commission  as  a  means  of  financing  home 
building  and  home  owning. 

Out  of  all  this  planning,  something  is  expected 
to  evolve  and  those  in  closest  touch  with  the  build- 
ing situation  are  hopeful  that  advancing  weeks  may 
change  the  whole  face  of  the  situation  which 
admittedly  does  not  seem  as  bright  now  as  it  did 
two  or  three  months  ago. 

The  demand  for  lumber  and  building  materials 
continues  to  be  without  spirit  or  feature  and  prices 
which  have  prevailed  for  some  time  are  continuing 
unchanged,  because  the  price  really  plays  very  little 
part  in  the  lumber  and  materials  business  just 

The  prices  are  about  as  follows: 

Yellow  Pine:  B.  &  B.  1-in.,  $95  to  $130,  depend- 
ing on  thickness;  2x4,  No.  1,  10  to  16  ft.  length, 
$51  to  $53;  2  x  6,  $48;  2  x  8,  $50;  2  x  10,  $53; 
2  x  12,  $55 ;  13-16  x  3%  z  &  b  flat  flooring,  $85  to 
$90;  1  x  6,  No.  2  common,  $48  to  $90.  Douglas 
Fir:  2  4  S,  in  sizes  up  to  12  x  12,  in  length  up  to 
32  ft.,  $65  to  $70;  14  x  14,  $68  to  $73;  16  x  16, 
$72  to  $75;  18  x  18,  $75  to  $80.  Hard  Maple: 
Four,  J4  No.  1  and  2,  $135;  select,  $120;  No.  1 
common,  $100 ;  No.  2  common,  $65 ;  No.  3  common, 
$32.  Birch:  Four  %  No.  1  and  2,  $160;  select,  $133 
to  $138 ;  No.  1  common,  $95  to  $100 ;  No.  2  common, 
$60  to  $65 ;  No.  3  common,  $40.  Red  Gum:  Four 
J4  No.  1  and  2,  $150;  No.  1  common,  $90  to  $92; 
No.  2  common,  $45. 

Face  Brick  —  Standard,  vitrified  red,  $32@ 
34.00;  Smooth,  Indiana  red,  $38.00@40;  Smooth 
Ohio  red,  $38.00@40.00 ;  Smooth,  Pennsylvania  red, 
$46.00@48.00;  Smooth,  buff,  $45.00@47.00; 
Smooth,  gray,  $47@49.00;  Rough,  buff,  $44.00 
@46.00;  Rough,  gray,  $47.00@49.00 ;  Variegated, 
rough  texture,  $34.00@49.00. 

Common  brick,  $16.00  per  M.  Portland  cement, 
$3.00  per  bbl.  Torpedo — Lake  and  bank  sand, 
$3.50  per  yd.  Crushed  stone,  gravel  screenings, 
$3.50  per  yd.  Hydrated  lime,  Ohio,  paper,  $22.00 
per  ton.  Hydrated  lime,  Ohio,  cloth,  $29.00  per  ton. 
(Includes  sacks  at  30c.  each.)  Hydrated  lime, 
Wis.  paper,  $20.00  per  ton.  Bulk  lime,  $1.75 
per  ton. 

(.Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

BOSTON — The  outstanding  feature  here  this 
week  was  the  opening  of  all  the  textile  mills,  large 
and  small,  in  New  England.  After  several  months 
during  which  mills  were  either  completely  closed  or 
running  but  one  or  two  days  a  week,  at  the  present 
time  all  are  open,  with  some  operating  on  a  full  time 
basis  and  others  on  four  or  five  days  a  week  sched- 
ule, with  indications  that  full  time  may  soon  be 

This  is  important  to  architects  in  that  the  indus- 
trial situation  as  a  whole  in  New  England  (and  there- 
fore any  component  part  of  that  situation)  depends 
almost  wholly  on  the  textile  business.  Once  the  gen- 
eral industrial  situation  is  cleared  up,  there  will  be  a 
marked  improvement  in  the  building  industry.  A 
most  significant  fact  is  that,  almost  without  excep- 
tion, the  mills  are  renewing  with  wage  cuts  of  22]/2 
per  cent,  in  effect,  the  American  Woolen  Company 
being  the  last  large  concern  to  announce  the  reduc- 
tion. In  practically  every  case,  the  workers  returned 
to  their  looms  without  marked  protest.  This  is  most 
certainly  an  encouraging  factor. 

Leading  textile  mill  owners  are  on  record  as  de- 
claring that  more  goods  have  been  sold  in  the  last 
three  or  four  weeks  than  during  the  entire  six  months 
preceding.  There  is  every  confidence  that  the  revival 
is  not  a  flurry,  but  a  healthy  renewal  of  life  in  the 
textile  industry. 

More  than  80  per  cent,  of  the  workers  are  back  in 
Fall  River  and  from  70  to  80  per  cent,  are  again  at 
work  in  other  important  textile  centers  in  this  sec- 
tion, including  the  more  important  centers  of  New 
Hampshire  and  Rhode  Island,  also  in  Maine.  About 
50  per  cent,  are  reported  as  working  in  Lowell, 
Lawrence  and  New  Bedford. 

Andrew  Adie,  president  of  the  United  States 
Worsted  Company,  declares  the  industry  is  now  on 
the  "front  edge"  of  a  healthy  revival. 

All  reports  agree  that  there  is  little  merchandise 
in  the  mills'  warehouses  and  that  practically  all  new 
business  must  be  met  by  a  resumption  of  mill 

Architects  here  find  these  symptoms  most  encour- 
aging. The  uncertainty  of  the  textile  situation  has 
been  a  decided  drawback  to  any  comprehensive  or 
even  partial  building  program.  Owners  were  not 
willing  to  put  money  into  any  new  project  where  the 
inhabitants  of  the  communities  were  either  out  of 
work  or  in  a  state  of  uncertainty  concerning  their 
next  day's  meals.  The  importance  of  the  textile  in- 
dustry here  is  comparable  somewhat  to  New  York's 
commerce.  Imagine  New  York's  harbor  bottled  up 
for  weeks  and  you  have  a  fair  idea  of  what  the  situa- 
tion has  been  here  for  some  time. 

Your  correspondent  finds  that  a  number  of  archi- 
tects are  looking  forward  to  such  a  distinctly  bettered 
industrial  situation  that  a  number  of  building  proj- 
ects will  now  very  probably  go  forward  without 
further  delay.  Architects  generally  in  the  New  Eng- 
land region  are  looking  forward  to  a  distinct  im- 
provement in  the  building  industry,  as  a  result  of  the 
improved  textile  situation.  It  is  even  possible  that 
the  workers  in  the  building  industry  may  agree  to 
certain  wage  cuts  in  order  to  speed  the  revival  of 
building,  precisely  as  the  textile  operators  have  ac- 
cepted their  wage  cuts  in  the  same  spirit. 








Reconstruction  in  Northern  France — V 

The  Future 


STANDING  in  the  doorway  of  a  tiny  wooden 
barrack,  talking  with  the  owner  of  this  poor 
though  much  appreciated  substitute  for  his 
once  pretentious  dwelling  and  gazing  out  across  the 
broad  fields  still  bearing  the  marks  of  a  cruel  devas- 
tation, as  one  listens  to  one's  garrulous  host  telling 
of  the  beauty  of  the  various  spots,  of  the  adjacent 
village  and  neighboring  fields  "avant  la  guerre,"  one 
tries  to  visualize  the  future  of  the  massacred  regions 
of  Northern  France.  Having  traversed  the  devas- 
tated regions  of  the  old  battle  lines,  and  having  been 
deeply  impressed  or  perhaps  depressed  by  the  breadth 
and  magnitude  of  material  destruction,  the  like  of 
which  had  probably  never  been  witnessed  before  the 
Great  War,  and  with  the  compelling  force  of  vivid 

contrasts,  having  recalled  the  peace  and  prosperity 
of  these  regions  in  their  pre-war  days,  one  wonders 
what  the  future  will  bring  forth.  Even  with  the 
plucky  attempts  made  by  the  returning  refugees  to 
begin  life  over  under  the  most  trying  of  living  con- 
ditions, what  will  Time,  galloping  over  the  next  ten 
or  twenty  years,  do  for  the  stricken  areas  of  North- 
ern France?  In  what  form  and  in  what  style  will 
be  the  buildings  that  are  to  take  the  place  of  the 
600,000  destroyed  homes  ?  What  shape  and  plan  will 
be  that  of  the  new  villages  that  supplant  the  pic- 
turesque old  ones  as  the  waste  areas  again  come 
under  the  constructive  rule  of  Peace? 

Prophets    are    not    without    honor    except    when 
making  their  forecasts  on  the  devastated  fields  them- 

Cofyright,   1921,   The   Architectural  <t  Building  Press  (Inc.) 


selves  where,  surrounded  by  all  the  chaotic  destruc- 
tion, it  is  often  difficult  for  the  most  optimistic  to 
predict  any  very  rapid  reclamation.  Especially  is 
the  prophet  apt  to  command  no  great  credit  among 
those  who  have  not  learned  to  appreciate  the  many 
sterling  qualities  of  the  French  peasant  makeup. 
There  has  been  much  criticism  of  the  way  that  the 
French  have  undertaken  their  gigantic  tasks  of  re- 
construction with  unfavorable  comparisons  with  the 
work  in  Belgium.  It  cannot  be  denied  by  anyone 
who  has  had  to  unsnarl  a  way  through  the  entangled 
meshes  of  French  official  red  tape,  and  has  seen  the 
suffering  and  discouragement  that  delay  and  appar- 
ently useless  politics  inflicted,  that  there  have  not 
been  times  when  one  was  apt  to  say  most  uncom- 


plimentary  things  about  Gaelic  business  methods  and 
political  systems. 

When  immediately  after  the  armistice,  the  govern- 
ment refused  British  and  American  aid  for  per- 
manent reconstruction,  France  hoped  to  'promote  her 
home  industries,  although  it  seems  that  she  could  not 
have  realized  her  exhausted  state  nor  foreseen  the 

rapid  depreciation  in  the  value  of  her  currency.  She 
expected  the  Germans  to  supply  the  necessary  labor. 
The  days  of  the  Pharaohs  are  past  and  slave  labor 
has  long  since  been  proved  to  be  non-productive. 
To  date  the  Germans  have  done  practically  nothing 
although  it  must  be  stated  in  justice  to  the  groups 
of  German  prisoners  allowed  for  the  building  work 
in  the  Meuse,  that  more  capable,  willing  and  indus- 
trious workers  would  have  been  hard  to  obtain,  once 


sustaining  rations  and  some  degree  of  humanity  were 
granted  them.  It  now  seems  that  if  there  is  to  be 
any  very  rapid  reconstruction,  it  must  come  through 
foreign  assistance.  Nor  is  this  any  disparagement  to 
the  French  people  at  large  when  one  considers  what 
the  nation  has  been  through  during  these  years  of 
struggle.  One  must  needs  turn  from  censure  to  ad- 
miration when  thoroughly  considering  what  ihey 
have  withstood  and  of  what  they  have  given  many 
proofs  of  being  able  to  accomplish.  No  country  in- 
volved in  the  war,  not  even  Belgium,  had  to  with- 
stand the  magnitude  of  suffering  that  was  inflicted 
upon  France.  Many  a  French  village  of  the  devas- 
tated regions  had  hardly  a  male  citizen  of  military 



age  returning  to  take  up  the  fight  of  peace  times. 
Consider  the  miles  of  occupied  and  contested  terri- 
tory through  the  valleys  of  the  Somme  and  Oise, 
the  Ainse  and  the  Marne.  Think  of  the  railroads 
alone  of  which  eight  hundred  miles  were  still  to  be 
reconstructed  on  the  first  of  last  May.  Without 
means  of  transportation,  any  reconstruction  work 
could  progress  but  slowly.  Not  dwelling  further 
upon  the  vastness  of  the  problem,  one  may  look  for 
hope  for  the  future  and  find  it  in  the  toiling  figures 
of  the  fields,  that,  reminiscent  of  Millets'  paintings, 


are  everywhere  seen  trying  to  gather  something  from 
the  thorny  aftermath  of  war.  Forgetting  the  un- 
pleasant experiences  with  cumbersome  officialdom 
and  profiteering  "entrepreneurs."  one  may  take  hope 
in  the  remembrance  of  the  acquaintance  with  cul- 
tured and  refined  old  men  and  women,  accustomed 
to  pre-war  culture,  wealth  and  leisure,  coming  back 
to  their  old  homes  with  only  their  pluck  and  gentility 
left,  there  to  undertake  with  their  own  hands  the 
sordid  tasks  of  cleaning  and  repairing  their  demol- 
ished homes. 

From  an  architectural  viewpoint,  some  hope  for 

the  future  may  be  gleaned  by  a  visit  to  the  drafting 
rooms  of  the  department  of  "Regions  Liberees"  at 
Bar  le  Due,  Chalons  or  other  "prefectures"  where 
draftsmen  are  busy  on  village  plans  and  property 
lines.  More  hope  for  the  three  dimensional  progress 
may  be  obtained  by  a  visit  to  bustling  Rheims  or  to 
secluded  Grand  Pre,  to  cite  two  specific  instances 
of  very  different  places  where  the  work  of  perma- 
nent reconstruction  has  already  begun.  Rheims  be- 
fore the  war  had  a  population  of  more  than  125,000 
souls,  living  in  some  17,000  houses.  By  the  latter 
part  of  the  summer  of  1918,  the  city  was  supposedly 
evacuated  of  all  civilian  population  and,  of  the 
homes,  but  few  were  undamaged  beyond  much  hope 
of  repair.  By  the  beginning  of  1920,  little  more 
than  a  year  after  the  cessation  of  hostilities,  twenty- 
five  thousand  people  were  reported  back  within  the 
mutilated  city  and  organized  rebuilding  was  well 
under  way.  While  retaining  the  essential  project  of 


the  old  city  plan  with  its  admirable  squares,  plans 
are  being  executed  to  unite  the  railroad  stations  for 
more  efficient  communication  than  the  old  plan 
afforded ;  to  improve  the  location  of  the  market- 




places;  to  open  up  the  vistas  toward  the  cathedral 
whose  towering  grandeur,  shut  off  since  mediaeval 
days  by  the  encroaching  buildings,  was,  in  a  way, 
more  thoroughly  appreciated  after  the  leveling  of 
the  entourage.  The  city  will  for  generations  to  come 
retain  the  ugly  scars  of  battle,  but  a  few  years  are 
pretty  certain  to  see  Rheims  intact  and  prospering. 
With  its  crowds  of  tourists  on  their  pilgrimage  to 
the  heroic  cathedral  and  its  location  in  the  midst  of 
rich  though  sadly  uprooted  vineyards,  it  is  bound  to 
recuperate,  although  its  buildings  must  necessarily 
show  the  effects  of  inartistic  haste  and  dearth  of  the 
substantial  building  materials  of  old,  while  the 
quaint  old  historic  houses  can  never  be  reproduced. 
Compared  with  such  a  famed  and  easily  accessible 
town  as  Rheims,  the  fate  of  the  smaller  secluded 
village  is  not  likely  to  be  as  happy.  Yet,  Grand  Pre 
in  the  Ardennes  may  be  cited  as  an  example  of  one 
from  many  of  the  more  remote  villages  that  are 
taking  on  new  life.  Here  a  new  village  has  been  laid 
out  with  straight  streets  and  open  places  to  substi- 
tute for  the  compact  dwellings  that  bordered  the 
curved  streets  of  the  old  town.  A  model  school- 

house  with  ample  play-ground  to  take  the  place  of 
the  former  cramped  ecole,  and  fresh  air  and  cleanli- 
ness are  items  to  be  considered  as  never  before, 
thanks  to  the  new  institutions  of  district  nursing 
and  public  welfare.  These  are  but  two  very  different 
examples  cited  from  the  many  places  where  the  work 
of  rebuilding  is  progressing. 

The  story  may  be  heard  if  one  talks  with  some 
old  patriarch  about  the  Marne  Town  of  Vitry-le- 
Francois  of  how  the  place  won  its  name  in  the 
XVIth  century,  as  well  as  how  it  was  saved  from 
destruction  by  the  integrity  and  diplomacy  of  the 
mayor  and  cure  when  they  were  taken  as  hostages 
by  the  late  enemy.  Whether  the  story  of  the  name 
be  authentic  or  not,  it  is  illustrative  of  the  typical 
home  devotion  of  the  inhabitants  of  Northern,  and 
perhaps  as  justly  stated,  all  of  France.  It  seems 
that  Francis  I,  "Pere  des  Lettres,"  who  has  come 
down  in  history  as  a  most  energetic  and  progressive 
builder,  had  pet  schemes  of  town  planning  that 
would  rival  in  beauty  and  order  many  of  our  gar- 
denesque  plans  of  today.  By  his  orders  and  under 


his  directions,  was  laid  out  the  new  town  of  Vitry 
with  model  symmetry  and  harmony  to  replace  the 
older  Vitry  that  had  incurred  his  majestic  dislike. 



In  spite  of  the  great  public  square,  covered  market 
and  imposing  facades  offered  them  by  the  royal 
builder  of  the  new  Vitry,  the  people  of  the  older 
town  were  loath  to  forsake  their  accustomed  homes 
and  tried  manner  of  living.  So  stubborn  were  they 
in  their  resistance  that  in  order  to  compel  them  to 
move,  Francis  had  the  homes  of  the  old  village 
burned  one  by  one,  thus  forcing  the  villagers  to 
move  over  to  the  new.  Still  they  would  not  be  con- 
tent with  the  new  village  in  name,  but  called  it 
Vitry-le-Francois  to  differentiate  it  from  the  old 
Vitry-le-Brule,  (Vitry  the  Burnt).  The  hundreds 
of  French  towns  which  have  been  forced  to  seek 
new  character  by  even  more  drastic  methods  than 
those  employed  by  the  Valois  king,  have  not  the 
newly  modeled  quarters  awaiting  their  reception,  yet 
it  is  to  be  wondered  at  how  great  an  extent  they 
will  be  enabled  to  cling  to  their  old  styles  and  tra- 
dition of  building. 

Architectural  design,  if  it  be  virile  and  vital,  must 
ever  mirror  the  conditions  of  time  and  place  and 
masters  and  means  that  make  for  its  creation.  As 
a  natural  development,  perhaps  it  is  not  safe  to  hope 
for  a  much  different  style  of  building  than  is  to  be 
seen  in  the  other  recent  architectural  developments 
in  France.  Perhaps  it  is  unreasonable  to  expect 
other  than  machine  made  goods  from  factory  system 
of  production.  Greek  curves  could  hardly  be  the 
expected  output  of  a  concrete  mixer,  nor  is  it  more 
logical  to  expect  the  subtle  curves  of  village  streets, 
the  natural  picturesqueness  of  uneven  rows  of 
houses  with  lines  and  tones  mellowed  by  centuries, 
to  be  obtained  by  an  emergency  housing  program 
put  through  in  minimum  time  under  present  labor 
conditions.  Even  if  the  old  lines  were  retained,  the 
newer,  lighter  and  more  machine-made  construction 
would  not  have  the  same  charm  as  the  old,  but 


would  be  apt  to  suggest  the  artificial  and  theatrical. 
So  to  a  degree,  the  housing  problem  of  Northern 
France  as  far  as  design  goes  is  much  the  same  as 
'  the  housing  problems  the  world  over ; — especially  in 
all  the  countries  where  the  more  natural  course  of 

events  has  been  interrupted  by  the  World  War,  is 
there  a  demand  for  new  and  better  homes. 

The  devastated  areas  of  France  have  the  advant- 
age of  offering  artistic  prototypes  and  charming 
architectural  traditions  to  the  future  builder  if  he  is 
capable  of  adapting  the  old  style  to  a  logical  con- 
struction in  new  material  and  with  modern  labor. 
It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  people  themselves  will 
appreciate  the  wealth  of  their  artistic  inheritance  and 
cling  to  it  as  their  ancestors  have  clung  to  their  old 
homes  and  family  traditions.  May  the  examples 
of  the  old  style,  relics  of  which  remain  in  nearly 
every  community,  furnish  keynotes  for  the  remod- 
eled scenes  which  are  gradually  to  take  the  place  of 
the  old.  May  the  new  villages  grow  up  in  conforma- 
tion to  all  the  new  teachings, — co-operation,  sanita- 
tion, and  advantageous  public  and  private  institu- 
tions that  the  years  of  war  occasionally  forced  upon 
the  people  in  exile,  but  as  they  develop,  with  all 
these,  may  there  still  be  retained  that  individuality 
and  naivete,  characteristic  of  older  days. 

With  families  again  united,  French  homes  are 
sure  to  revive:  with  church  and  school  again  filled, 
something  of  the  old  order  will  be  continued :  with 
farms  and  industries  re-established,  the  old  trades 
and  manners  of  work  are  quite  certain  to  reappear. 
With  the  soft  limestone  and  red  tiles,  sapin  lath  and 
rough  plaster  again  on  hand,  the  painstaking  French 
craftsman  will  no  doubt  again  be  able  to  erect  simple 
homes  of  beautiful  proportions,  the  gardeners  to 
train  their  pear  trees  into  many  branched  candela- 
brum effects  and  clip  their  planes  and  box  into 
shapely  geometrical  forms.  It  is  hoped  that  money 
will  not  be  sufficient  if  poverty  will  tend  toward  an 
avoidance  of  the  display  of  jig-saw  skill,  fancy 
dressed  stone  and  distasteful  combinations  of  the 
materials  such  as  modern  French  building  taste 
seems  apt  to  favor.  If  only  they  can  content  them- 
selves with  relying  upon  their  native  charms  and 
simplicity  of  honest  construction,  not  mimicing  the 
fads  of  the  metropolis,  but  relying  on  the  merits  of 
their  native  costumes  for  the  grace  that  is  their  birth- 
right, even  though  trade  may  inflict  a  change  of 
materials  and  hygiene  suggest  a  more  ample  cut. 

Such  vast  destruction  and  economic  waste  as  have 
had  the  fields  of  Northern  France  for  their  theatre 
of  action  cannot  be  obliterated  in  one  or  perhaps 
many  years.  Many  generations  of  future  inhabitants 
and  travellers  in  these  areas  are  to  be  reminded  by 
broken  walls  and  crumbling  stone  of  the  years  of 
savage  strife.  Diligent  work  on  the  part  of  man  and 
friendly  aid  and  co-operation  from  other  nations  is 
the  pressing  need.  Backed  by  this  the  unceasing 
labor  from  the  callous  hands  of  the  French  peasant 
is  going  to  be  the  potency  which  will  re-create  their 
land  and  make  the  world  richer  for  "La  belle 
France,  encore." 


The  American  Specification  Institute 

AS  heretofore  produced  specifications  have  been 
largely  the  product  of  individual  effort  and  as 
such  have  varied  in  many  features  that  can 
be  conventionalized  so  as  to  be  common  to  all.  Owing 
to  a  present  lack  of  means  for  collecting  and  dis- 
tributing information  concerning  specifications  and 
the  writing  thereof,  there  is  a  needless  duplication 
of  study,  research  and  labor  on  the  part  of  specifica- 
tion writers.  Practically  all  other  professions  are 
so  organized  that  the  interchange  of  knowledge  is 
effected  with  resulting  improvement  in  the  quality 
of  production  and  professional  standing.  It  is  to 
improve  the  conditions  affecting  the  writing  of  speci- 
fications and  to  benefit  by  organized  effort  that  THE 
This  organization  is  intended  to  be  national  in  scope 
and  invites  co-operation  of  all  those  interested  in 
specifications.  The  plan  and  scope  of  this  organiza- 
tion follows : 


1.  To  increase  knowledge  concerning  and  im- 
prove  the   methods   of    writing   specifica- 
tions.   The  kinds  of  specifications  included 
are  those  for  buildings,  engineering  struc- 
tures and  all  works  whatsoever  in  which 
materials    of    construction   and    labor    are 
used;  for  the  installation  and  use  of  me- 
chanical and  sanitary  apparatus  and  equip- 
ment ;  for  the  fabrication  and  installation  of 
all  furnishings  and  furniture ;  for  all  orna- 
ments and  ornamentation,  both  interior  and 
exterior ;  for  paving,  planting,  embellishing 
and  improving  of  grounds  and  waterways ; 
and  for  such  other  things  as  are  produced 
or  sold  on  specifications. 

2.  The  Institute  will  not  interfere  with  any 
of  the  present  organizations  such  as 

a — The   American    Society   For    Testing 


b — Kindred   national  and  local  architec- 
tural and  engineering  societies 
c — Manufacturers'  and  trade  associations, 
but  will  endeavor  to  carry  forward  the  ac- 
tivities of  such  and  give  additional  assist- 
ance to  specification  writers. 


The  architectural  and  engineering  professions 
will  gain  through 

a — The     development     of     specification 

b — The  development  of  specifications  that 

will  eliminate  cause  for  argument  and 

guesswork    and  lower    the    cost    of 
building   construction   by   eliminating 
waste  of  labor  and  materials 
c — Professional  recognition  of  specifica- 
tion writers 

Will  be  composed  of 


a — Persons  who  devote  their  entire  time 
or  a  part  thereof  to  the  writing  of 


a — Persons  who  employ  specification 


a — Testing  and  laboratory  engineers 
b — Instructors  in  specification  writing  in 
architectural  and  engineering  schools 


a — Will  be  governed  by  a  constitution  and 
set  of  by-laws 

b — The  secretary  will  direct  the  activities 
of  all  researches,  co-operation  with 
other  societies,  etc.,  and  will  secure 
and  provide  answers  to  all  inquiries 
of  the  members. 


1.  Study  of  materials 

a — The  production  and  physical  proper- 
ties of  raw  materials 

b — Methods  of  manufacturing,  fabrica- 
tion and  finishing 

c — Relative  value  based  on  appearance, 
initial  cost  and  maintenance,  effect  of 
combinations  with  other  materials  and 
proper  materials  for  various  types  of 
buildings  of  varying  grades. 

2.  Methods  of  writing  specifications 
A  study  will  be  made  of  : 

a — The  means  of  accomplishing  complete 
co-operation  between  the  drawings  and 
specifications  and  determining 
What   methods   of   construction  and   in- 
stallation should  be  used 
What  the  drawings  should  show  or  indi- 

What  should  be  omitted  for  inclusion  in 
the  specifications 
b — -The    development    of    an    outline    or 

checking  list 

c — The  general  contract  conditions 
d — Specific  requirements  governed  by  lo- 
cal conditions 



e — Use  of  Standard  Specifications  of  ma- 
terials as  prepared  by  societies  and 

f — The  arrangement  of  specifications  so 
as  to  conform  to  the  sequence  of  con- 
struction and  installation  of  the  work 

g — The  writing  of  specifications  that  are 
clear,  concise,  coherent  and  that  can  be 
understood  by  the  courts 

h — The  principles  of  contract  law  as  it  af- 
fects the  writing  of  specifications 

i — Possible  standardization  of  building 

3.  The  securing  of  the  adoption  of   recom- 
mended  practices  by  the  professions  and 
others  concerned 

4.  The  deliberations  of  the  Institute  discus- 
sions, treatises  by  members  or  invited  con- 
tributors and  other  matters   will  be  pub- 

For  further  information,  applications  for  mem- 
bership, etc.,  address  Organization  Committee,  THE 
Coughlen,  Sec'y  Pro  Tern,  Room  1144,  American 
Bond  &  Mortgage  Building,  Chicago,  Illinois. 





The  Billop  House,  Staten  Island 

(See  Reproduction  of  Original  Drawing  by  O.  R.  Eggers  on  Opposite  Pane) 

rHE  Billop  House  here  presented  by  Mr.  Eggers  is  one 
of  the  earliest  examples  of  American  architecture. 
From  its  first  beginnings  it  has  been  linked  with  events 
in  American  history  that  have  endeared  it  as  the  background 
for  many  legends. 

At  a  time  back  in  the  1660'j  the  Duke  of  York  claimed 
Staten  Island  as  part  of  the  colony  of  New  York.  New  Jer- 
sey also  wanted  possession.  In  order  to  give  his  decision  the 
semblance  of  fairness  the  Duke  ruled  that  all  islands  lying  in 
or  near  the  harbor  which  could  be  circumnavigated  in 
twenty-four  hours  were  to  belong  to  New  York  and  the  others 
to  New  Jersey.  In  those  slow  old  days  this  was  a  tedious  proc- 
ess and  the  Duke  was  put  to  it  to  find  a  competent  sailor.  It 
was  Captain  Christopher  Billop,  in  command  of  a  small 
vessel,  who  succeeded,  and  this  act  won  from  the  Duke  of 
York  a  tract  of  land  containing  1,163  acres. 

The  house  here  illustrated,  located  at  Tottenville,  is  the 
oldest  structure  in  Staten  Island  and  was  built  b\  Billop  soon 
after  the  land  was  presented  to  him  in  1668.  It  stands  a  little 
way  beyond  a  group  of  farmhouses  under  the  shade  of  huge 
trees  generations  old,  such  as  one  rarely  sees  in  this  part  of 
the  world,  where  axes  and  forest  fires  have  wrought  havoc. 

During  the  Revolution,  Generals  Howe,  Cornwallis,  Clin- 
ton, Burgoyne  and  others  were  entertained  there.  Under  the 
roof  of  the  Billop  House  was  held  the  only  peace  conference 
of  the  Revolution,  which  took  place  on  September  6,  1776 
Benjamin  Franklin,  John  Adams  and  Edward  Rutledge  had 
been  appointed  by  the  Continental  Congress  to  confer  with 
the  English  on  the  issues  of  the  war.  The  house  was  used  as 
a  barracks  during  the  Revolution  and  in  the  cellar  there  is  a 
brick  vault  and  dungeon,  large  and  finely  arched,  which  is 
said  to  have  been  put  to  stern  use.  It  is  believed  that  an 
underground  passage  was  made  at  that  time,  leading  down 
to  the  river,  a  distance  of  two  hundred  yards. 

The  gloomy  tales  of  the  dungeon,  the  suffering  prisoners, 
the  underground  passage,  are  only  one  side  of  the  old  house's 
history.  Gay  and  sparkling  scenes  took  place  above.  Many 
a  banquet  did  the  old  manor  see;  many  a  daintily  brocaded 
lady,  many  a  gallant,  ruffled  and  powdered  gentleman.  Its 
rise  and  fall  encompass  perhaps  every  human  emotion  and  it 
is  one  of  the  honored  landmarks  of  a  rich  country. 


BILLOP    HOUSE,    STATEN    ISLAND,    N.    Y. 

TBE   AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  Siriet  of  Earlt  Amtriian   Archtlttturi 

mm  m  mmmmm  mmm  mm 

The  American  Specification  Institute 

IT  is  a  distinct  satisfaction  to  be  able  to  present 
on  another  page  of  this  issue  a  complete  pros- 
pectus of  the  organization  now  forming  to  place  spe- 
cification writing  on  a  plane  somewhat  in. keeping 
with  its  importance.  That  comparatively  few  archi- 
tectural offices  have  heretofore  given  this  subject  the 
attention  it  deserved  has  been  readily  apparent  from 
a  study  of  the  specifications  issued  by  them.  A  care- 
ful reading  of  the  Specification  Institute's  prospectus 
leads  to  the  belief  that  if  the  plan  set  forth  is  car- 
ried out  the  net  result  will  be  not  only  better  build- 
ings for  less  money,  but  also  a  definite  enhancement 
of  the  architect's  reputation. 

THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  cheerfully  pledges  its 
support  to  this  movement  and  also  bespeaks  the  active 
co-operation  of  the  profession  with  the  group  of  men 
who  have  undertaken  this  work  with  no  thought  or 
possibility  of  personal  gain.  In  fact  it  is  perfectly 
apparent  that  the  profession  as  a  whole,  rather  than 
any  individuals,  will  profit  by  the  betterment  of  any 
of  the  processes  by  which  architects  procure  a  final 

Greenwich  Village,  Los  Angeles 

A  GROUP  of  men  in  Los  Angeles,  it  is  learned, 
have  bought  certain  ground  in  that  city  where 
they  propose  to  build  an  amusement  center.  There 
are  to  be  one  and  two  story  reinforced  concrete  and 
brick  amusement  buildings,  theatre,  studios,  art 
building,  cafes  and  residences,  and  shopping  district. 
This  section  of  Los  Angeles  is  to  be  called  Green- 
wich Village. 

To  a  New  Yorker,  to  anyone  pledged  to  historical 
accuracy,  this  seems  a  misleading  and  in  a  sense 
desecrating  thing  to  do.  The  real  Greenwich  Village 
stands  for  certain  traditions.  One  cannot  success- 
fully imitate  a  thing  that  has  grown  through  long- 
years,  whose  very  history  is  the  reason  for  its  exist- 

Yet  Los  Angeles  is  satisfied  to  build  a  series  of 
more  or  less  standardized  reinforced  concrete,  mod- 
ern buildings,  and  by  usurping  a  time-honored  name, 

let  it  appear  that  there  is  presented  an  honest  replica 
of  the  ancient,  weather-worn,  picturesque  structures 
which  have  been  converted  and  reconverted  to  serve 
purposes  dictated  by  an  ever-changing  populace. 

There  is  a  mental  twist,  a  certain  looseness  that 
sanctions  a  misrepresentation  like  this.  Nomencla- 
ture is  useless  if  it  is  not  accurate.  The  many  dwell- 
ers on  the  coast  who  have  never  seen  the  Greenwich 
Village  of  Manhattan  will  be  given  false  impres- 
sions as  to  what  it  stands  for;  and  indeed  today, 
it  is  the  admixture  of  foreign  folk  with  the  native 
residents  that  gives  Greenwich  Village  in  New  York 
an  atmosphere  which  not  even  an  honest  physical 
duplication  of  surroundings  can  produce  outside  of 
the  metropolis.  Its  very  cosmopolitan  quality  is  its 
distinguishing  trait.  This  is  felt  as  one  saunters 
through  New  York's  Greenwich  Village.  A  subtle 
something  that  is  not  apparent  to  the  eye,  but  that 
causes  it  to  reveal  a  different  and  novel  aspect  with 
each  variety  of  type  that  one  happens  to  encounter. 
An  Italian  peasant  woman  transplanted,  it  would 
seem,  from  the  sunny  fields  of  Italy,  but  really  living 
two  streets  away.  Some  little  Chinese  boys  who  had 
strayed  from  winding  Doyers  Street  with  its  dilapi- 
date'd  yet  tidy  houses,  and  are  unconcernedly  wash- 
ing a  cat  in  the  public  drinking  fountain.  A  short- 
haired  girl  in  a  painter's  smock,  heavy  Indian  beads 
around  her  neck,  gazing  abstractedly  at  a  man  who 
carries  a  brief  case  and  studies  the  erotic  captions 
of  erotic  books  in  an  erotic  shop  window.  A  limou- 
sine which  pauses  before  an  Italian  restaurant  to 
discharge  two  fat  women  in  seal  coats  and  a  gray- 
haired  man  with  a  silver-topped  cane.  A  feeble, 
bearded  Jew,  bent  under  a  huge  jute  bag  of  waste 
paper.  All  this,  in  Greenwich  Village. 

And  the  quaint  old  gabled  houses,  reminiscent  of 
Dutch  occupation.  The  stables  of  old  Washington 
Square  mansions  now  used  for  studios.  The  occa- 
sional, amusingly  discordant  public  garage.  The 
crooked  streets  laid  before  there  was  thought  of  a 
city  plan.  The  fine  doorways  of  private  dwellings 
where  once  lived  the  aristocracy  of  a  peaceful  town. 

An  Indian  Village,  a  large  Dutch  farm,  a  small 
English  colony  and  one  of  the  earliest  American 
settlements— all  have  left  their  marks  on  Greenwich 



Village  in  New  York.  Today  it  is  the  habitat  of  the 
artist,  the  writer,  the  dreamer,  both  the  genuine  and 
the  poseur.  Here  come  those  students  in  art  who 
hope  to  develop  under  the  influence  of  metropolitan, 
or  cosmopolitan  life,  the  faddist  and  the  would-be 
great,  as  well  as  the  tried  and  proven  artists.  It  is 
of  happiness  to  those  who  cannot  afford  the  luxury 
the  home  of  happy,  care-free  indigence  and  ambi- 
tion. It  gives  music  and  conversation  and  touches 
of  more  formal  places.  It  gives  color  to  many  a 
life  that  would  otherwise  be  drab. 

Picture  it  in  brand-new  modern  white  reinforced 
concrete  buildings,  regularly  laid  out  in  cold  uni- 
formity in  Los  Angeles ! 

The  Personal  Equation 


WHAT  is  the  matter  with  the  individual  ? 
AT  a  time  when  we  should  hear  the  thun- 
derous voice  of  the  multitude  demanding  to  know  the 
facts — there  is  silence.  At  a  time  when  every  per- 
son should  be  giving  his  thought  to  the  problems  of 
reconstruction,  we  find  instead  the  expression  of  the 
vast  public  to  be  indefinite,  waiting  for  someone  else 
to  do  its  thinking  for  it.  Instead  of  a  lively  interest 
which  would  seem  to  arise  inevitably  from  the  indi- 
vidual's need,  we  have  the  unlovely  spectacle  of  leg- 
islative committees  investigating  conditions  while  the 
Press  and  the  Public  satisfy  their  appetite  for  sen- 
sation and  scandal. 

While  this  is  the  general  situation  there  are  small 
groups — pathetically  small — of  forward  looking  citi- 
zens, committees  for  research  and  study  and  a  few 
scattered  individuals  with  views  and  understanding, 
occasionally  suggesting  constructive  programs,  which, 
however,  fall  upon  deaf  ears  and  closed  minds. 

On  the  other  hand,  there,  is  no  lack  of  complaint 
and  condemnation.  The  average  individual  seems 
to  have  lost  his  sense  of  responsibility  for  things 
as  they  are  and  has  joined  the  herd  in  its  quest  for 
victims  upon  which  to  vent  its  wrath. 

Individually  and  collectively,  by  both  omission 
and  commission,  we  are  responsible  for  things  as 
they  are.  Particularly  is  this  true  of  the  present 
paralysis  affecting  the  building  industry. 

This  vacuum,  where  there  should  be  an  impelling 
feeling  of  responsibility,  this  mental  lethargy  and 
lack  of  forethought  on  the  part  of  a  large  number  of 
individuals  has  let  the  building  industry  in  New 
York  City  slip  gradually  into  the  condition  of  com- 

plete demoralization  revealed  by  the  investigations 
of  the  Lockwood  Committee. 

Similar  investigations  in  other  large  cities  would 
probably  reveal  the  same  loathsome  conditions.  Who 
is  responsible?  There  is  only  one  answer.  The  in- 
dustry— the  individuals  composing  the  industry. 

NO  nation,  no  industry,  can  endure  in  which  the 
individual  does  no  thinking,  in  which  he  does 
not  contribute  his  thought  to  the  mass  thought,  his 
will  to  the  mass  will,  his  opinion  to  the  mass  opinion. 
There  are  always  groups  of  thinkers — always  piti- 
fully small — who  can  and  do  lead  the  unthinking 
crowd.  But  such  leadership  lasts  only  so  long  as 
there  is  a  crowd  to  follow,  and  a  crowd  that  will 
translate  ideas  and  ideals  into  action.  Knowledge 
is  power  only  when  applied.  Upon  the  truth  of  that 
assertion  rests  our  whole  concept  of  education. 

How  many  individuals  realize  that  the  rent  legis- 
lation adopted  by  the  special  session  of  the  New 
York  State  Legislature  completely  stifled  any  will 
there  was  to  build  on  the  part  of  those  who  were 
able  to  help  in  satisfying  the  public's  need  for  hous- 
ing? The  problem  was  one  of  getting  houses.  The 
legislature  closed  the  door  on  any  possibility  of .  a 

We  cry  out  against  the  railway  embargoes,  the 
shortage  of  cars  and  the  high  rates.  Does  the  in- 
dividual ever  ask  why  these  conditions  prevail  or 
what  the  underlying  causes  really  are?  No.  He 
"leaves  it  to  George"  to  get  the  facts  and  do  his 
thinking  for  him. 

The  building  will  never  be  better  than  it  has  been, 
and  is,  if  we  do  not,  all  of  us,  apply  ourselves  to  the 
improvement  of  conditions.  To  do  that,  we  must 
individually  do  some  straight  thinking  on  the  basis 
of  facts.  What  do  you,  as  an  individual,  think  the 
trouble  is.  What  do  you,  again  as  an  individual, 
suggest  as  a  corrective  measure? 

Do  some  thinking,  and  then  write  your  thoughts 
to  the  Editor  of  this  journal,  to  be  used  in  forward- 
ing the  movement  for  convening  the  Congress  of  the 
Building  and  Construction  Industry. 

And  if  you  did  not  read  about  that  Congress  and 
what  it  proposes  to  do,  or  if  you  did  read  of  it  and 
gave  it  little  thought,  get  hold  of  last  week's  issue 
of  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT  and  turn  to  page  137, 
read  carefully  what  is  written  there,  and  let  the 
Editor  know  just  what  you  think  of  the  idea  and 
its  possibilities. 

Do  your  share  as  an  intelligent  individual  in  a 
great  profession ! 









H-  1 






VOL.  CXIX,  No.  2356 


FEBRUARY  16.  1921 















H- 1 







LJll  yjii  1M1 

L1I   La    Llill  L 






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Modern  Practice  in  Reinforced  Concrete 


Beam  and  Girder  Construction  Exemplified  in  the  Loose-Wiles  Building 

WHILE  the  use  of  concrete  in  building  con- 
struction— and  by  concrete  is  meant  an  arti- 
ficial stone  produced  by  processes  far  more 
rapid  than  those  employed  by  nature  in  the  normal 
formation  of  rock — dates   back    to    almost    ancient 
times,  yet  only  during  comparatively  recent  years 
has  any  attempt  been  made  to  supplement  this  rather 
brittle  substance  with  steel  that  it  might  be  enabled 
to  withstand  tensile  as  well  as  compressive  strains- 

By  forming  a  combination  of  steel  and  concrete  an 
all  around  structural  material  has  been  produced, 
now  termed  "reinforced  concrete." 

A  survey  of  modern  structures  built  of  reinforced 
concrete  must  force  the  admission  that  a  high  degree 
of  development  has  already  taken  place  since  the 
introduction  of  this  material  as  a  real  factor  in 
building  construction.  Engineers  of  an  inventive 
turn  of  mind  have  here  found  an  excellent  field  in 



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which  to  work,  and  the  new  systems  already  pro- 
duced lead  one  to  believe  that  a  yet  more  efficient 
use  will  be  made  of  reinforced  concrete  in  the  not 
distant  future.  Today  we  have  the  results  of  ex- 
tensive tests  on  various  systems  to  guide  us  in  mak- 
ing additional  steps  in  advance. 

It  is  not  the  purpose  of  these  articles  to  describe 
the  many  special  systems  of  construction  which  have 
made  use  of  reinforced  concrete,  but  rather  to  point 
out  the  essential  features  in  the  several  general  lines 

Space?  in  back  of  terra  coffot 
••'  filled  solid  with  mortar 

710  Gal.  wire  U placed  over  £  rod  and 
'.»:  info  anchor  hole  in  flange  of  terra  coffer 

7"    ,// 

z  »  /=,  offer  ra  cotta  Joint" 

.-#IO  Gal.  wire  ties  -IZ  "/ong,, 
spaced  S  "ff.  C.  ben  f  over-  rod. 

£T  ^  ffcd  pa'in  ted  with  red  lead 


along   which   reinforced   concrete   construction  has 
been  developed  to  date. 

Precedent  has  played  its  part  in  such  work,  and 
\ve  find  the  first  reinforced  concrete  buildings  fol- 
lowed closely  steel  design,  in  so  far  as  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  structural  members  is  concerned. 
Spacing  o  f 
beams  and 
girders  d  i  f- 
f  e  r  e  d  little 
from  standard 
practice  i  n 
steel  design, 
except  that 
where  floor 
loads  were 
heavy  it  fre- 
quently b  e  - 
came  neces- 
sary to  resort 
to  closer  col- 
umn spacing 

to  avoid  either  excessively  deep  or  wide  girders. 
This  type  is  known  as  beam  and  girder  construction. 
A  building  in  which  such  construction  was  employed, 
and  which  possesses  certain  features  of  interest  is 
here  illustrated. 

A  later  development  brought  about  the  girderless 
floor  or  "flat  slab"  type  of  construction,  as  it  is  now 
more  generally  termed.  This  form  of  construction 
will  be  described  and  illustrated  in  a  later  article. 

In  the  consideration  of  this  type  of  reinforced 



concrete  building,  reference  will  be  made  to  the 
building  of  the  Loose-Wiles  Biscuit  Company  at 
Long  Island  City,  N-  Y.,  of  which  William  Higgin- 
son  was  the  architect.  This  structure  was  erected 
by  the  Turner  Construction  Company.  It  is  the 
largest  bakery  building  in  the  world,  occupying  a 

ground  area 
430  x  200  ft, 
and  is  nine 
stories  and 
basement  i  n 
height.  A 
wood  pile 
found  ation 
was  used, 
there  being 
15,000  piles 
s  u  p  p  o  rting 
the  structure. 
In  general  the 
floor  live 
loads  vary 




Showing  erection  of  steel  columns 

from  150  Ibs.  to  400  Ibs.  per  sq.  ft.,  but  in  the 
upper  stories,  where  the  English  and  American  bake 
ovens  are  located,  the  live  load  runs  as  high  as  2000 
Ibs.  per  sq.  ft. 

In  this  building  360  different  kinds  of  biscuits  and 
crackers  are  made,  one  machine  alone  turning  out 
7,3000,000  crackers  of  one  kind  daily.  Some  2600 
persons  are  employed  when  the  plant  is  operating  to 
full  capacity. 

A  framing  plan  typical  of  the  lower  stories  is  re- 
produced on  page  178.  It  will  be  noted  that  the 
columns  are  in  general  spaced  21  ft.  2  in.  in  one 
direction  and  16  ft.  4  in.  in  the  other.  Each  bay  is 
divided  into  three  panels  by  beams  spanning  in  the 
long  direction.  By  arranging  the  girders  on  the 
short  span  the  depths  of  beams  and  girders  are  kept 

more  nearly  equal-  In  this  case  the  typical  girder 
GI  has  a  theoretical  span  of  16  ft.  4  in.  and  is  21^ 
in.  wide  by  26^  in.  total  depth.  The  reinforcement 
consists  of  four  lj^-in.  square  bars  and  fourteen 
y&-m.  square  stirrups.  Two  of  these  bars  are  run 
straight  in  the  bottom  and  two  are  run  in  the  bot- 
tom for  about  one-quarter  of  the  span  either  side 
of  the  center  line  and  bent  up  so  as  to  be  at  the 
top  over  the  support  and  run  far  enough  beyond 
the  edge  of  the  support  to  develop  the  full  strength 
in  bond  of  the3e  bars  in  order  to  resist  the  negative 
moment  at  this  point.  This  girder  is  designed  to 
resist  the  positive  bending  moment  at  the  center 
caused  by  the  concentrated  loads  from  the  beams 
at  the  third  points  and  the  uniform  dead  load  of  the 
girder  itself.  This  moment  is  reduced  to  two-thirds 


Illustrating  method  of  carrying  up  terra  cotta  facing 



to  allow  for  the  continuous  monolithic  construction 
and  the  section  and  reinforcement  at  the  support  is 
designed  to  resist  s.  negative  moment  equal  to  the 
reduced  positive  moment.  It  should  be  noted  that 
the  width  of  this  girder  is  greater  than  that  required 
to  resist  the  allowable  shearing  stress  of  150  Ibs- 
per  sq.  in.  This  is  done  so  as  to  permit  the  rein- 
forcing bars  to  run  by  on  either  side  of  the  steel 

part  of  the  beam  provided  its  effective  width  shall  not 
exceed  on  either  side  of  the  beam  one-sixth  of  the  span 
length  of  the  beam  nor  be  greater  than  six  times  the 
thickness  of  the  slab  on  either  side  of  the  beam,  the 
measurements  being  taken  from  edge  of  web." 

This  provision  is  generally  taken  advantage  of  in 
the  design  when  beam  and  girder  construction  is 

In  the  Loose-Wiles  building  the  floor  arches  in 

"t  i    - 

"-•'r--^ '  *~'r±*^H,l*.jf 

,    '/-    v    ,'-.'. 


—  -i-MSSrf- 




Showing  location  of  English  and  American  bake  ovens 

column  cores.  The  typical  beam  B3  is  7"x20j4" 
reinforced  with  %-in.  square  bars  and  fourteen 
5/16-in.  square  stirrups.  These  bars  are  placed  in 
a  way  similar  to  the  girder  reinforcing  bars  above. 


In  the  calculation  of  the  beams  the  formula — ^~- 

was  used  to  obtain  both  the  positive  and  negative 
bending  moments  to  be  resisted.  The  floor  illus- 
trated was  designed  for  a  live  load  of  200  Ibs.  per 
sq.  ft- 

The  New  York  Building  Code  provides  that, 

"Where  adequate  bond  between  slab  and  web  of  beam 
is  provided,  the  slab  may  be  considered  as  an  integral 

the  majority  of  the  floors  are  4  in.  thick,  reinforced 
with  Y^-m.  square  bars  9l/2  in.  on  centers.  A 
^2 -in.  square  distributing  bar  is  placed  in  the  center 
in  each  case  and  a  1"  x  l"x  %"  T-bar  is  carried 
by  cast  iron  bridges  over  each  beam,  this  bar  serv- 
ing to  raise  the  slab  reinforcement  to  the  top  at  these 
points,  as  shown  in  the  drawing,  as  well  as  in  one 
of  the  photographs. 

By  many  it  may  bethought  that  beam  and  girder 
construction  was  now  but  seldom  used,  being  almost 
entirely  superseded  by  flat  slab  construction.  This, 
however,  is  not  the  case.  Where  the  floor  panels 
can  be  arranged  approximately  in  squares,  it  will 




often  be  found  that  a  flat  slab  design  will  prove  the 
most  economical.  There  are  many  buildings  in 
which  such  an  arrangement  of  columns  is  not  pos- 
sible- Remembering  that  primarily  the  building  is 
erected  to  house  a  business,  often  of  an  industrial 
nature,  the  first  condition  to  be  met  is  the  harmo- 
nizing of  the  constructional  features  with  the  sys- 
tem of  operation  to  be  employed.  It  will  often  oc- 
cur that  a  certain  number  of  machines  of  a  certain 
size  must  be  placed  in  a  bay  and  this  will  determine 
the  column  spacing  in  that  direction.  Other  features 
may  fix  the  spacing  in  the  other  direction,  with  the 
result  that  rectangular  bays  are  formed.  In  such 
cases,  the  beam  and  girder  type  will  often  prove  both 

the  most  satisfactory  and  economical.  In  cases 
where  heavy  concentrated  loads  or  heavy  vibrating 
machinery  are  to  be  supported  this  type  of  con- 
struction may  also  prove  best. 

One  of  the  factors  which  to  some  extent  at  least 
has  tended  to  limit  the  height  of  reinforced  con- 
crete structures  is  the  large  proportions  the  columns 
assume  in  the  lower  stories.  For  industrial  build- 
ings up  to  six  stories  with  nominal  floor  loading  the 
column  sizes  will  not  usually  prove  objectionable. 
However,  in  buildings  over  this  height  or  those  in 
which  heavy  floor  loadings  occur,  and  also  in  build- 
ings occupied  for  office  purposes,  hotels,  etc.,  it  be- 
comes necessary  to  keep  the  column  sections  to  min- 
imum size.  This  can  be  accomplished  in  reinforced 
concrete  construction  by  the  use  of  steel  cores, 
usually  fabricated  the  same  as  for  a  structural  steel 
building.  In  some  cases  cast  iron  cores  have  been 

By  fixing  a  limit  to  the  size  of  column,  it  is  pos- 
sible to  make  use  of  reinforced  concrete  columns 
until  the  loads  bring  the  column  to  the  maximum 
size  permissible,  and  below  this  level  structural  steel 
cores  can  be  used-  This  was  done  in  the  Loose- 




Wiles  building,  the  steel 
cores  extending  from  foot- 
ing to  seventh  floor  level. 
By  resorting  to  this  com- 
bination the  columns  in 
the  first  story  do  not  ex- 
ceed 21  y2"  x  25"  in  sec- 
tion. These  steel  columns 
can  be  clearly  seen  in  two 
of  the  photographs.  This 
is  by  no  means  an  unusual 
feature,  and  seems  a  log- 
ical design  under  the  cir- 
cumstances, since  these 
columns  each  carry  in  the 
neighborhood  of  1000  tons 
in  the  lowest  story,  which 
load  would  require  a  rein- 
forced concrete  column  of 
from  3j^  to  4  ft.  in  diam- 
eter. Where  possible, 
however,  it  is  more  eco- 
nomical to  use  reinforced 
concrete  throughout. 

When  steel  cores  are 
used  it  is  safe  to  use  a 
higher  unit  stress  in  the 
steel  than  would  be  per- 
missible were  the  steel  not 
encased  in  concrete.  Most 
building  codes  make  al- 
lowance for  this.  The 
New  York  code,  for  in- 
stance, provides  as  fol- 

"In  columns  of  structural 
steel,  thoroughly  encased 
in  concrete  not  less  than 
four  inches  thick  and  rein- 
forced with  not  less  than 
one  per  cent,  of  steel,  the 
allowable  load  shall  be  six- 
teen thousand  pounds  per 
square  inch  on  the  struc- 
tural steel,  the  percentage 
of  reinforcement  being  the 
volume  of  the  reinforcing 
steel  divided  by  the  volume 
of  the  concrete  enclosed  by 
the  reinforcing  steel.  Not 
more  than  one-half  of  the 
reinforcing  steel  shall  be 
placed  vertically.  The  rein- 
forcing steel  shall  not  be 
placed  nearer  than  one  inch 
to  the  structural  steel  or 
to  the  outer  surface  of  the 
concrete.  The  ratio  of 
length  to  least  radius  of 
gyration  of  structural  steel 
section  shall  not  exceed 
one  hundred  and  twenty." 

Such  steel  columns,  if 
not  so  encased  would 



probably  have  a  limiting 
unit  stress  of  about  12,000 
Ibs.  per  sq.  in.  on  the  cross 
sectional  area  of  the  steel 
instead  of  16,000  Ibs. 

The  choice  of  materials 
for  wall  construction  is 
largely  a  matter  of  indi- 
vidual selection  or  taste, 
governed,  of  course,  by  lo- 
cal conditions.  The  wall 
columns  and  girders  will 
naturally  be  of  reinforced 
concrete,  and  concrete 
walls,  with  perhaps  some 
simple  decoration,  seem 
the  logical  selection.  How- 
ever, brick  or  brick  faced 
with  ornamental  terra  cot- 
ta  are  not  uncommon  ma- 
terials. Where  a  brick  or 
terra  cotta  facing  is  used 
over  the  concrete  wall  col- 
umns and  girders,  the  de- 
tail of  anchoring  is  im- 

The  walls  of  the  build- 
ing here  illustrated  are 
faced  with  white  glazed 
terra  cotta.  The  spandrel 
walls  are  of  brick  faced 
with  terra  cotta.  The 
method  of  anchoring  the 
facing  is  clearly  illustrated 
in  two  of  the  drawings 
showing  different  wall  sec- 
tions. Sections  AA  and 
BB  give  a  general  idea  of 
the  wall  construction  while 
the  partial  sections  to 
larger  scale  show  the  de- 
tails. The  terra  cotta  fac- 
ing for  the  brick  spandrel 
walls  is  anchored  by  or- 
dinary galvanized  iron 
strap  anchors,  while  wire 
ties  embedded  in  the  con- 
crete and  an  angle  iron  an- 
chored to  the  concrete  hold 
the  tile  facing  to  the  con- 
crete wall  girders.  An  in- 
spection of  the  section 
taken  through  a  portion  of 
the  concrete  wall  columns 
will  show  that  here  the  an- 
choring of  the  terra  cotta 
became  more  complicated. 



Horizontal  chases  Ji"xl^"  spaced  approximately 
12  in.  apart  vertically  were  formed  on  the  face  of 
the  wall  columns  when  they  were  poured.  These 
recesses  are  clearly  defined  on  some  of  the  wall  col- 
umns in  the  photograph  showing  the  lower  stories 
already  faced  and  the  concrete  exposed  above.  Here 
wire  anchors  12  in.  long  and  8  in.  on  centers,  placed 
prior  to  the  pouring  of  the  concrete,  were  embedded 
6  in.  in  the  concrete.  These  wire  ties  were  used  to 

This  building  was  one  of  those  visited  by  members 
of  the  American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers  who  at- 
tended the  1921  annual  meeting,  and  the  writer  care- 
fully inspected  the  present  condition  of  the  facing, 
and  so  far  as  could  be  seen,  it  has  "stayed  put." 

In  the  majority  of  reinforced  concrete  buildings,  a 
troweled  finish  cement  floor  is  used.  However,  in 
some  buildings,  due  to  the  very  nature  of  the  pro- 
cesses of  manufacture  to  be  carried  on,  a  wood  floor- 


hook  over  a  horizontal  l/4-m.  anchor  rod.  When  the 
tile  facing  was  laid,  a  wire  U  was  placed  through  the 
anchor  holes  in  the  terra  cotta  and  this  horizontal 
rod.  As  the  placement  of  the  facing  progressed,  the 
space  between  it  and  the  face  of  the  concrete  was 
slushed  in  solid  with  mortar.  It  will  thus  be  seen 
that  after  this  mortar  had  set  the  facing  became  se- 
curely tied  to  the  concrete  structure.  As  the  build- 
ing has  been  up  some  years,  ample  opportunity  has 
been  afforded  to  show  the  efficiency  of  this  method- 

ing  is  desired.  In  the  Loose-Wiles  buildings  most 
of  the  floors  of  which  are  devoted  to  the  baking  and 
packing  of  various  brands  of  crackers,  a  concrete 
floor  was  objectionable,  and  so  in  these  stories  wood 
flooring  was  used.  One  of  the  photographs  shows 
this  flooring  in  process  of  being  laid.  On  top  of  the 
concrete  floor  arches  a  thin  sand  cushion  was  spread, 
and  splined  wood  under  flooring,  2  in.  thick,  laid 
directly  on  top  of  this  cushion.  The  planks  are 
fastened  together  by  diagonal  nailing.  Over  this 



under  flooring  the  finished  maple  flooring  was  laid. 
It  is,  of  course,  important  when  using  this  method 
that  the  sand  be  thoroughly  dry  prior  to  laying  the 

Solid  steel  sash  windows  are  at  present  largely 
used  in  reinforced  concrete  structures,  and  in  a  later 
article  details  of  placing  this  type  of  window  will 
be  described  and  illustrated. 

In  the  Loose-Wiles  building  wooden  windows 
were  used  and  the  details  of  construction  are  shown 
in  one  of  the  drawings.  In  the  second  and  eighth 
stories  the  openings  have  curved  arches,  but  the 
window  frames  have  square  heads- 

A  study  of  the  details  will  prove  instructive.  Wood 
nailing  strips  were  embedded  in  the  concrete  for 
fastening  both  window  and  head  and  jambs,  and  to 
these  the  frames  were  nailed.  It  will  be  noted  that 
all  frames  are  caulked.  This  is  an  essential  feature 
where  wood  frames  used  in  reinforced  concrete 
buildings,  to  insure  against  excessive  air  and  water 

A  reinforced  concrete  moulded  cornice  was  made 
use  of,  a  detail  of  which  is  shown.  This  provides 
permanent  construction  and  is  vastly  superior  to 
galvanized  iron  cornice  construction. 

Due  to  the  special  use  of  this  building,  extensive 
ovens  had  to  be  installed.  These  extend  from  the 
seventh  floor  to  the  roof.  One  of  the  illustrations 



Showing  special  construction   in  floors  below 

shows  the  manner  in  which  sections  of  the  floor  slabs 
were  omitted  above  the  seventh  floor  to  permit  the 
proper  construction  of  the  ovens.  Attention  is 
directed  to  the  fact  that  one  row  of  columns  just 
in  front  of  the  ovens  has  been  entirely  omitted 
above  the  eighth  floor,  making  necessary  the  con- 
struction of  special  long  span  girders  at  the  ninth 
floor  and  roof,  shown  in  part  at  the  left  of  the  illus- 
tration above  referred  to.  The  peculiar  construction 
necessary  to  support  the  ovens  is  indicated  in  the 
plan  of  the  seventh  floor.  As  the  loads  to  be  sup- 
ported under  the  American  or  revolving  ovens  are 
very  much  in  excess  of  those  usually  met  with  in 
common  practice,  the  use  of  reinforced  concrete 
construction  under  these  ovens  would  have  required 
girders  of  very  considerable  dimensions.  There- 
fore, steel  girders  were  substituted  for  this  section 
of  the  seventh  floor- 

In  order  to  permit  the  greatest  degree  of  flexibility 
in  the  operation  of  this  plant,  insofar  as  the  baking 
operations  were  concerned,  the  seventh  floor  con- 
struction is  so  designed  that  at  any  time  the  English 
or  endless  conveyor  type  of  oven,  numbered  from 
1  to  8  at  the  left  of  the  seventh  floor  plan,  may  be 
extended  to  the  right,  replacing  some  of  the  Ameri- 
can ovens,  should  this  seem  desirable.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  steel  construction  under  the  American 
ovens,  numbered  from  1  to  22  at  the  right  of  the 
plan,  was  continued  so  as  to  permit  the  extension  of 
this  type  of  oven  so  as  to  replace  entirely  the  Eng- 
lish oven,  should  experience  warrant  such  a  change. 
The  floor  construction  under  the  English  ovens  is  of 
heavy  reinforced  concrete  designed  to  carry  in  the- 
neighborhood  of  1700  Ibs.  per  sq.  ft. 

These  points  are  brought  out  to  show  the  possi- 
bilities of  taking  care  of  exceptional  conditions, 
which  often  occur  in  industrial  buildings. 


Preventing  Cracks  in  Plaster  Walls—Part  1 

Results  of  Investigation  by  the  Associated  Metal  Lath  Manufacturers 

THE   appearance   of    cracks    in   plaster    walls, 
particularly  in  corners  where  two  walls  or  a 
wall  and  ceiling  join,  has  attracted  consider- 
able study  and  investigation  in  the  past  for  the  pur- 
pose of   determining  correct   methods   of   applying 
lath  and  plaster  so  that  such  cracks  might  be  avoided. 

Recent  tests  have  been  conducted  to  show  the 
effect  that  different  arrangements  of  metal  lath  have 
upon  the  cracking  tendency  of  plaster  walls  and 
to  determine  the  best  method  of  application  of  the 
lath  to  prevent  cracks.  These  investigations  have 
been  divided  into  several  parts,  and  what  is  known 
as  Series  A  deals  with  cracks  where  ceiling  and  side 
walls  join. 

Six  different  forms  of  construction  were  used, 
namely : 

1.  Wood   lath   side   walls;    metal    lath   ceiling;    metal    lath 
extending  6  in.  down  side  wall;  metal  lath  attachments  6  in. 
from  corner. 

2.  Wood  lath  wall;  metal  lath  ceiling;  no  bend. 

3.  Metal  lath  wall;   metal  lath  ceiling;  metal  lath  corner; 
attachments  6  in.  from  corner. 

4.  Same  as   3  except  attachments  are   right  up   to   corner. 

5.  Metal  lath  wall;  metal  lath  ceiling;  joint  at  corner,  not 
bent  over.     No.   18  gauge  iron  ties  were  once  between  each 
pair  studs. 

6.  Wood  lath  side  wall;  wood  lath  ceiling. 


The  samples  used  in  these  tests  consisted  in  each 
case  of  a  full  sized  section  of  wall  and  ceiling.  They 
were  made  up  of  three  2"  x  4"  hemlock  studs,  spaced 
16  in.  center  to  center.  The  height  of  the  wall  was 
36  in.  and  the  width  of  the  ceiling  portion  was  18 
in.  The  sample  was  34  in.  deep.  The  plaster  was 
used  in  the  proportion  of  2 :  1  of  sand  and  gypsum 
plaster.  Two  coats  were  applied  on  the  wood  lath 
and  three  on  the  metal. 

A  brief  summary  of  the  results  follows  and  shows 
that  metal  lath  on  wall,  corner  and  ceiling  with  at- 
tachments right  up  to  the  corner  is  the  strongest 
construction  and  permitted  the  greatest  distortion 
before  cracks  first  appeared. 











6   .. 

-Appearance  of  First  Crack— v 
Load  Deflection 

.10  . 


Current   News 

Happenings  and  Comments  in  the  Field  of  Architecture 

and  the  Allied  Arts 

Paris  Prize  of  the  Society  of  Beaux- 
Arts  Architects 

The  first  preliminary  competition  of  the  14th 
Paris  Prize,  open  to  all  citizens  of  the  United  States 
under  thirty  (30)  years  of  age  on  July  1st,  1921, 
will  be  held  on  February  26th,  1921. 

For  particulars  apply  to  chairman,  126  East  75th 
street.  New  York  City. 

Architectural  Water  Colors 

The  Department  of  Architecture  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts Institute  of  Technology  has  placed  on  view 
in  the  Rogers  Building,  Boylston  street,  Boston,  a 
loan  collection  of  architectural  water  colors  by  art- 
ists of  distinction.  Guardi,  Turner  and  Ruskin  are 
among  the  greater  names.  There  are  several  Wins- 
low  Homers  and  Sargents  and  there  is  a  little  Vene- 
tian subject  painted  by  Sargent's  mother.  Ross 
Turner,  Ralph  W.  Gray,  E.  H.  Rankin,  W.  T.  Aid- 
rich,  Denman  W.  Ross,  F.  L.  W.  Richardson  and 
Charles  F.  McKim  are  others  of  note.  The  original 
idea  in  forming  the  exhibition  was  to  offer  instruct- 
ive and  inspiring  material  to  the  students  in  the 
school,  and  it  is  an  example  that  well  might  be  fol- 
lowed wherever  young  architects  are  in  training. 

Oswald    Speir 

Oswald  Speir,  Executive  Secretary  of  National 
Terra  Cotta  Society,  died  suddenly  on  the  Twentieth 
Century  Limited  en  route  to  Chicago  on  business  at 
6  o'clock  Wednesday  morning,  February  2.  The 
cause  of  death  was  acute  indigestion.  He  was  in 
the  best  of  health  at  the  time  of  taking  the  train. 

A  New  Yorker,  he  had  spent  ten  years  of  his 
life  on  the  Pacific  Coast. 

Few  men  had  a  wider  acquaintance  among  the 
architectural  profession  the  country  over  than  Mr. 
Speir.  He  was  a  pioneer  of  the  Terra  Cotta  indus- 
try in  this  country.  As  a  representative  and  sales 
manager  of  the  old  Perth  Amboy  company  it  is  not 
too  much  to  say  that  without  the  manufacturer's 
co-operation  he  supplied  to  his  friend,  Stanford 
White,  the  eminent  architect,  such  architectural 
masterpieces  as  Madison  Square  Garden,  Judson 
Memorial  Church,  the  Herald  Building  and  Park- 

hurst  Church  and  others  might  not  have  been  pos- 
sible. These  buildings,  endeared  to  New  Yorkers 
and  famous  over  the  world,  mark  the  renaissance  of 
American  architecture,  in  bringing  about  which  Mr. 
Speir  contributed  directly. 

Oswald  Speir  was  born  in  New  Orleans,  La., 
August  18,  1864.  After  studying  architecture  for 
a  year  he  entered  the  employ  of  the  Perth  Amboy 
Terra  Cotta  Company,  with  whom  he  continued 
until  1908,  when  he  moved  to  Los  Angeles  to  become 
local  manager  for  the  Pacific  Coast  Terra  Cotta 
Manufacturers,  Gladding,  McBean  &  Co.  While 
on  the  coast  in  1918-19,  as  Vice-President  of  Pacific 
Marine  and  Construction  Company,  he  took  a  lead- 
ing part  in  the  construction  of  concrete  ships  for 
the  Emergency  Fleet  Corporation.  He  came  back 
last  June  to  serve  the  terra  cotta  industry  with 
enlarged  powers  as  secretary  of  the  National  Terra 
Cotta  Society.  Under  his  administration  note- 
worthy progress  has  been  made  in  the  short  time 

Mr.  Speir  resided  in  New  York  at  26  Gramercy 
Park.  He  leaves  a  wife  and  four  children.  He  was 
a  member  of  American  Institute  of  Architects, 
New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,  American  Ceramic 
Society.  His  clubs  were :  Faculty,  University 
of  California ;  Jonathan,  Los  Angeles ;  Cuyamaca, 
San  Diego;  National  Arts,  New  York. 

Southern  California  Chapter's 

Edwin  Bergstrom  was  unanimously  re-elected 
president  of  the  Southern  California  Chapter  of 
the  American  Institute  of  Architects  at  the  Decem- 
ber meeting  at  the  City  Club.  The  other  officers 
elected  were:  Henry  F.  Withey,  vice-president;  R. 
Germain  Hubby,  secretary ;  Robert  H.  Orr,  treas- 
urer ;  and  D.  C.  Allison,  director. 

Georgia   Architects   Organize 

The  Georgia  Chapter  of  the  American  Institute 
of  Architects  has  elected  the  following  officers  for 
the  ensuing  year :  President,  Warren  C.  Powell ; 
first  vice-president,  P.  Thornton  Marye;  second 
vice-president,  G.  Lloyd  Preacher ;  secretary,  Ar- 
thur Neal  Robinson;  treasurer,  Ernest  D.  Ivey: 



chairman  executive  committee,  Wm.  A.  Edwards. 
Mr.  Preacher  resides  in  Augusta,  and  all  the  other 
officers  live  in  Atlanta. 

Alabama  Architects 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Alabama  Chapter  was 
held  in  Montgomery  on  January  27.  New  officers 
were  chosen  as  follows :  George  B.  Rogers,  Mobile, 
president;  Bern  Price,  Birmingham,  vice-president; 
Eugene  H.  Knight,  Birmingham,  secretary-treas- 
urer ;  Frederick  Ausfeld,  Montgomery ;  D.  O.  Whil- 
din,  Birmingham,  and  Prof.  Fred  C.  Biggin,  Au- 
burn, board  of  directors. 

It  was  decided  to  have  an  Alabama  Chapter  ex- 
hibit at  the  May  convention  of  the  American  Insti- 
tute in  Washington. 

The  Chapter  will  also  undertake  the  collection  of 
a  series  of  slides  on  Alabama  architectural  subjects 
which  will  be  exhibited  nationally  as  well  as  in 

The  annual  prize  was  renewed  to  the  class  in  de- 
sign of  the  department  of  architecture  at  Auburn. 
Steps  are  also  to  be  taken  looking  to  a  better  under- 
standing between  those  representing  architectural 
art  and  the  general  public. 

Washington    State    Society    Elects 

The  Washington  State  Society  of  Architects  held 
its  annual  election  in  Seattle  on  December  7  and  re- 
elected  the  old  board  of  officers  as  follows :  Messrs. 
Harry  H.  James,  American  Bank  Building,  Seattle, 
president;  Clayton  D.  Wilson,  Mutual  Life  Build- 
ing, Seattle,  first  vice-president ;  Julius  Zittel,  Spo- 
kane, second  vice-president ;  Watson  Vernon,  Aber- 
deen, third  vice-president;  Richard  V-  Gough, 
Okanogan,  fourth  vice-president ;  Edgar  Blair,  Ep- 
ler  Building,  Seattle,  secretary,  and  L.  L.  Mendel, 
Empire  Building,  Seattle,  treasurer.  The  new  board 
of  trustees  consists  of  Harry  H.  James,  chairman; 
Frank  H.  Fowler,  A.  Warren  Gould,  Wm.  J.  Jones 
and  R.  H.  Rowe. 

Kansas     Architects     Hold     Annual 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Kansas  Society  of 
Architects  was  held  January  21  at  Topeka,  Kans. 
The  morning  session  was  devoted  to  the  reports  of 
committees  and  the  election  of  officers.  During  the 
afternoon  John  H.  Kitchen,  Kansas  City,  Mo., 
talked  on  "Co-operation  Between  Architects  and 
Heating  Engineers."  A  general  discussion  was. 
held  on  "Should  the  Basis  of  Charging  for  Archi- 

tectural Services  Be  Changed?"  The  speakers  at 
the  banquet  in  the  evening  included  Tom  McNeal, 
Topeka;  Frank  A.  Slack,  Beloit;  Lorentz  Schmidt, 
Wichita,  retiring  president;  Bishop  James  Wise, 
Topeka.  W.  E.  Glover  of  Topeka  was  the  toast- 

The  following  officers  were  elected :  President, 
W.  E.  Glover,  Topeka ;  vice-president,  Ed.  Fors- 
blom ;  secretary  and  treasurer,  J.  S.  Stookey,  Ot- 
tawa. Two  new  directors  are  C.  W.  Squires  of 
Emporia  and  Cecil  F.  Baker  of  the  faculty  of  the 
Department  of  Architecture  of  the  State  Agricul- 
tural College  at  Manhattan. 

Wichita  Architects   Hold   Election 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Wichita  (Kans.)  As- 
sociation of  Architects  was  held  January  20,  when 
the  following  officers  were  elected :  President,  Ed. 
Forsblom  (re-elected)  ;  vice-president,  Godfrey 
Hartwell ;  secretary-treasurer,  Glen  H.  Thomas. 
Plans  were  advanced  and  discussed  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  series  of  talks  and  discussion  pertain- 
ing to  architecture,  to  be  given  at  the  society's  reg- 
ular meetings.  Various  outside  concerns  or  their 
representatives  will  be  invited  to  talk  before  the 
meetings  as  well  as  the  members. 

Virginia    Chapter,    A.  I.  A.,  Names 

The  Virginia  Chapter  of  the  American  Institute 
of  Architects  held  its  annual  meeting  January  18  at 
the  Jefferson  Hotel,  Richmond,  Va.  The  following 
officers  were  elected :  President,  Fiske  Kimball, 
University  of  Virginia,  Charlottesville,  Va. ;  vice- 
president,  John  Kevan  Peebles,  Peebles  &  Fergu- 
son, Norfolk,  Va. ;  secretary  and  treasurer,  Charles 
J.  Calrow,  Calrow,  Wrenn  &  Tazewell,  Norfolk, 

Sargent   Returns   to   Boston 

John  S.  Sargent  has  returned  from  England  and 
will  continue  his  work  on  the  decorations  for  the 
rotunda  of  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts. 

For  a  National   Arboretum 

A  resolution  for  the  establishment  of  a  botanical 
garden  and  arboretum  of  not  less  than  1,000  acres 
near  Washington,  D.  C.,  for  the  purpose  of  grow- 
ing and  classifying  all  varieties  of  trees  and  plants 
available  to  American  horticulturists,  was  passed 
unanimously  at  the  annual  convention  of  the  New 
England  Nurserymen's  Association  at  the  American 
House,  Boston.  E.  F.  Coe  is  secretary. 



The  Ricker  Library  of  Architecture 

There  has  come  to  us  an  illustrated  booklet  of 
some  seventy  pages  published  by  the  Department  of 
Architecture  of  the  University  of  Illinois. 

This  is  replete  with  interesting  information  on 
the  early  literature  of  architecture  and  modern  ar- 
chitectural books.  One  chapter  gives  a  compre- 
hensive list  of  works  on  architecture  recommended 
to  students  of  architecture  and  available  in  the 
Ricker  Library  of  the  University  of  Illinois. 

For  a  Omaha  Art  School 

Introduction  of  a  bill  providing  for  incorporation 
of  a  board  of  trustees  for  an  institute  of  teaching 
and  learning,  to  be  devoted  chiefly  to  art,  revealed 
plans  for  the  construction  of  a  magnificent  fine  art 
school  by  Mrs.  George  A.  Joslyn.  Property  from 
Twenty-second  to  Twenty-fourth  and  Dodge  streets 
probably  will  be  used  for  the  site  of  the  school, 
which  is  expected  to  represent  an  expenditure  of 
from  $1,000.000  to  $3,000,000. 

Plan  Permanent  Buildings  for  1926 
World's  Fair 

Permanent  buildings  rather  than  gaudy  temporary 
structures  are  advocated  by  members  of  the  art  jury 
of  Philadelphia  for  the  world's  fair  contemplated  in 
1926  on  the  150th  anniversary  of  the  signing  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence.  Already  ambitious 
plans  have  been  proposed  for  an  exposition  un- 
equaled  by  any  heretofore  held  anywhere. 

Our  Imports  of  Art  Works 

In  the  eleven  months  ending  with  November  the 
United  States  imported  paintings,  statuary  and 
other  works  of  art  to  the  aggregate  value  of  $25,- 
782,842,  as  against  $17,579,291  in  the  same  eleven 
months  of  1919  and  $6,730,650  in  1918.  The  im- 
portation, contrary  to  general  belief,  was  not  as 
great  as  in  the  year  or  two  before  the  war.  During 
the  same  eleven  months  of  1913  our  imports  of 
such  articles  amounted  to  $29,273,341,  and  in  1912 
to  $53,286,218. 

Philadelphia  Architects  Co-operate 
with  Labor 

Mr.  D.  Knickerbocker  Boyd,  former  Secretary  of 
the  Institute,  conferred  with  the  council  of  the 
Associated  Building  Trades  for  Philadelphia  and 
vicinity  (composed  of  all  branches  of  the  industry 

except  carpenters)  and  requested  opportunity  to 
address  that  body  on  the  subject  of  bettering  con- 
ditions in  the  building  industry,  which  request  was 
granted.  He  urged  the  need  of  closer  co-operation 
between  the  various  elements  in  the  industry,  that 
the  mechanics  might  know  better  the  aims  of  the 
architect,  and  that  the  architect  might  help  to  cre- 
ate in  the  mechanic  a  keener  interest  in  his  work 
and  in  the  results  sought  for  in  the  architect's  de- 
signs, to  the  end  that  they  might  all  help  to  de- 
velop themselves  as  instruments  of  service  for  the 
good  of  the  industry. 

He  suggested  that  the  Council  provide  oppor- 
tunities for  lectures  on  the  crafts,  plan  reading,  etc., 
and  assured  them  of  the  co-operation  of  architects 
in  such  an  undertaking. 

The  bricklayers  promptly  responded  to  the  sug- 
gestion and  under  Mr.  Boyd's  active  leadership  a 
meeting  was  held  at  which  a  number  of  architects 
addressed  the  men,  and  offered  their  assistance  and, 
as  a  first  definite  step  in  the  program,  a  plan  read- 
ing class  was  started.  This  was  conducted  by  Mr. 
Victor  D.  Abel,  architect,  every  Thursday  night, 
starting  with  an  attendance  of  about  100  men,  which 
gradually  increased  to  the  capacity  of  the  hall. 

Instruction  was  given  in  the  reading  of  plans, 
the  meanings  of  indications  of  materials  on  draw- 
ings, dimension  lines,  the  placing  of  windows,  parti- 
tions, the  working  out  of  stairways  and  the  relation 
between  the  drawings  and  the  specifications. 

In  addition  to  this  class  Mr.  Boyd  arranged  for 
speakers  at  as  nearly  as  possible  every  regular 
weekly  meeting  of  the  union,  with  subjects  of  in- 
terest to  the  journeymen  who  were  present  to  the 
extent  of  three  or  four  hundred  at  each  meeting, 
these  talks  being  followed  frequently  by  interesting 
open  discussion. 

Hotel    Entrances 

The  big  hotels  of  New  York  can  no  longer  ap- 
parently afford  to  devote  their  fronts  to  displaying 
their  purpose.  One  of  the  largest  on  Broadway  is 
about  to  rip  out  its  first  floor  and  convert  the  space 
into  fine  shops.  Thus  the  ambitious  hostelries  of 
Gotham  promise  to  imitate  a  fashion  long  prevalent 
in  the  West,  which  has  the  virtue  of  preventing  the 
interruption  of  the  continuity  of  a  shopping  district. 
Hereafter,  regretfully,  the  monumental  character 
of  buildings  in  those  parts  of  the  metropolis  devoted 
to  the  retail  trade  of  the  city  is  not  likely  to  be  re- 
garded. The  architects  will  perhaps  have  to  devote 
their  skill  to  other  parts  of  the  city,  where  the  ten- 
dency to  lift  the  eyes  above  the  level  of  a  shop  win- 
dow is  more  pronounced  than  on  Broadway  or  Fifth 



Art  Appreciation  Lacking 

A  lack  of  appreciation  by  Bostonians  of  the  Mu- 
seum of  the  Fine  Arts  and  its  treasures  in  statuary, 
ceramics  and  paintings  was  a  subject  of  comment 
in  the  annual  report  of  Morris  Gray,  president  of 
the  trustees  of  the  Boston  Museum  of  Fine  Arts. 

In  that  city  of  748,000  persons,  with  a  reputation 
as  a  center  of  culture,  he  pointed  out  that  the  visitors 
to  the  art  galleries  last  year  were  only  about  one- 
third  of  the  number  of  inhabitants. 

Historic  French  Village  Has  Ameri- 
can Aid  in  Memorial 

The  municipality  of  Barbizon,  deep  in  the  Fon- 
tainbleau  forest  and  famous  for  its  association  with 
artists  of  the  past  and  present,  has,  it  is  learned  in 
special  press  dispatches,  joined  efforts  with  a  com- 
mittee of  Americans  for  the  construction  of  a  mon- 
ument to  the  French  and  American  soldiers  fallen 
in  the  war. 

The  French  sculptor  Revillion  has  been  commis- 
sioned to  execute  the  memorial  which  he  has  of- 
fered gratuitously.  The  townsfolk  have  contributed 
8,000  francs  and  the  American  committee  has  or- 
ganized to  raise  15,000  francs  needed  to  complete 
the  work.  The  monument  will  be  placed  in  the 
center  of  the  village  on  ground  formerly  owned  by 
the  painter,  Theodore  Rousseau,  and  near  the 

The  artist  proposes  to  mount  a  bronze  bust  of  the 
"Gaulois"  on  a  rustic  shaft  formed  of  rocks  from 
the  forest.  It  will  bear  a  plaque  inscribing  the 
.  names  of  Barbizon's  sons  killed  in  the  war  and  a 
palm  leaf  and  ribbon  with  the  names  of  the  French 
victories,  Marne,  Verdun,  Rheims,  Alsace  and  Lor- 
raine. The  general  aspect  will  be  in  harmony  with 
the  quaint  charm  of  the  village  so  intimately  linked 
with  the  lives  of  Millet,  the  painter,  and  Barye,  the 

The  American  committee  is  composed  of  Ridg- 
way  Knight,  president;  Sidney  B.  Veit,  secretary 
and  treasurer;  Alexander  Harrison,  Paul  W.  Bart- 
let,  George  Rowland  and  Dr.  A.  L.  Hipwell  The 
proposed  dedication  will  be:  "This  monument  was 
erected  by  subscription  donated  by  the  citizens  of 
Barbizon  and  our  American  friends." 

rid  of  the  law,  and  that  in  itself  is  likely  to  take 
considerable  time. 

Architects  say  that  the  houses  as  they  stand  can 
easily  support  several  more  stories,  and  the  inten- 
tion is,  if  a  law  giving  the  necessary  powers  is 
passed,  to  make  the  buildings  of  the  whole  street 
for  a  distance  of  more  than  a  mile  of  uniform 
height.  As  it  is  now,  the  buildings  are  only  four 
stories  high.  As  the  street  faces  the  Tuileries  Gar- 
dens, with  houses  only  on  the  north  side,  the  pro- 
posal, it  is  argued,  might  very  easily  be  carried  out 
without  injuring  the  appearance  of  the  famous 

In  view  of  the  constantly  increasing  population  of 
Paris  and  the  limitation  of  possibilities  of  spreading 
outward,  the  need  for  buildings  is  beginning  to  be 
pressing.  The  authorities  are  likely,  however,  to 
prevent  any  building  which  would  injure  the  beauty 
of  the  city. 


J.  A.  Pitzinger  has  opened  an  office  for  architec- 
tural practice  in  Dallas,  Texas,  607  Insurance 
Building.  He  has  discontinued  his  connection  with 
the  architectural  department  of  the  General  Motors 

Joseph  Hudnut  has  moved  his  office  from  41 
Union  Square  to  51  West  10th  street,  New  York 

Rue  de  Rivoli  Wants  Skyscrapers 

To  make  the  Rue  de  Rivoli  into  a  street  of  sky- 
scraper apartment  houses  is  the  latest  proposal  of- 
fered as  a  remedy  for  the  housing  shortage  in  Paris 
according  to  a  recent  press  despatch.  The  street  was' 
built  one  hundred  years  ago,  and  the  law  which  then 
compelled  builders  not  to  exceed  a  uniform  height 
is  still  m  force.  The  first  step,  then,  will  be  to  get 

Louis  D.  Grubb  has  moved  from  New  York  to 
Register  Building,  Room  20,  Wheeling,  W.  Va. 
Manufacturers'  information  is  desired. 

G.  Lloyd  Preacher  has  admitted  to  partnership 
George  Harwell  Bond,  J.  F.  Wilhoit  and  Nicholas 
Mitchell  to  practice  under  the  name  of  G  Lloyd 
Preacher  &  Co.,  Healey  Building,  Atlanta,  Ga.,  and 
Masonic  Building,  Augusta,  Ga. 

Clarence  T.  Myers,  architect,  and  Kenneth  D 
Coffin,  architectural  engineer,  have  organized  for 
the  practice  of  their  profession  at  412  Traction  Ter- 
minal Building,  Indianapolis. 

The  architectural  practice  formerly  carried  on 
under  the  firm  name  of  Bollard  &  Webster,  520 
Paxton  Bldg.,  Omaha,  will  be  conducted  in  the 
future  by  James  R.  Webster  at  the  same  address. 

Stiles  S.  Dixon  has  opened  an  office  for  the  prac- 
tice of  architecture  in  the  Home  &  Ray  Building 
Fayetteville,  N.  C.  Catalogues  and  samples  desired.' 

Cv  Desmond  Co-  have  removed  to  new  offices 
Beaver  street,  New  York. 




Health  Commissioner  Invokes 

Dr.  Royal  S.  Copeland,  speaking  recently  before 
the  Educational  Alliance  Forum,  New  York,  said 
there  is  no  city  in  the  world  where  housing  condi- 
tions are  as  bad  as  here.  He  said  there  are  100,000 
more  families  than  houses  in  this  city  which  means 
that  100,000  families  are  living  with  other  families. 

Dr.  Copeland  told  of  having  had  a  conference  with 
fifty  millionaires — bankers,  trust  company  directors 
and  financiers  generally — and  said  that  as  a  result  a 
committee  had  been  appointed  by  these  men  to  look 
into  the  housing  question  with  a  view  to  furnishing 
more  homes. 

He  stated  further,  that  there  are  two  classes  who 
do  not  want  to  see  more  houses  built — the  real  estate 
men  and  the  savings  banks. 

He  said  there  are  $2,000,000,000  in  the  savings 
banks  of  this  city,  and  one  quarter  of  that  sum  would 
be  sufficient  to  relieve  the  housing  conditions. 

School  Building  Program  for 
New  York 

A  school  building  program  of  $65,000,000  has 
been  adopted  at  a  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Education 
and  will  be  submitted  to  the  Board  of  Estimate  of 
New  York  with  the  request  that  action  be  taken  as 
soon  as  possible.  The  lack  of  schools  is  creating 
an  acute  situation. 

LeBrun  Scholarship  Award 

The  jury  in  the  LeBrun  Scholarship  Competition 
for  1920-21,  conducted  by  the  New  York  Chapter 
A.  I.  A.,  has  made  the  following  awards: 

Traveling  Scholar — Oliver  Reagan,  New  York 

First  Honorable  Mention — Robbins  L.  Conn,  New 
York  City. 

Second  Honorable  Mention — Edward  S.  Lacosta. 
New  York  City. 

Third  Honorable  Mention — Charles  J.  Irwin, 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

The  following  men,  whose  names  are  given  alpha- 
betically, were  mentioned  by  the  jury  for  the  excel- 
lence of  their  work : 

Howard   Stanley  Atkinson,  Philadelphia,   Pa. 

John  S.  Burrell,  New  York  City. 

Louis  Fentnor,  New  York  City. 

J.  Harold  Geisel,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Owen  L.  Gowman,  New  York  City. 

Carl  W.  Lason,  Boston,  Mass. 

Benjamin  Moscowitz,  New  York  City. 

John  G.  Schuhmann,  New  York  City. 

Edgar  F.  Stoeckel,  New  York  City. 

The  interest  in  the  competition  was  very  gratify- 
ing, forty-one  sets  of  drawings  being  presented,  rep- 
resenting thirteen  states,  widely  distributed  through- 
out the  country. 

Publicity  by  Contractors 

Instead  of  plastering  a  building  job  with  a  lot  of 
signs  advertising  various  sub-contractors,  the  general 
contractors  in  a  number  of  cities  are  displaying  one 
big  sign  containing  the  names  of  all  the  sub-con- 
tractors on  the  project.  This  new  departure  not 
only  makes  for  neatness,  but  it  gives  all  the  con- 
cerns connected  with  the  job  an  equal  amount  of 

Hudson  River  to  be  Bridged 

Papers  of  incorporation  have  been  filed  in  Albany 
for  the  Hudson  River  Corporation.  That  is  an  im- 
portant step  toward  the  realization  of  the  cherished 
dream  of  many  years — the  spanning  of  the  Hudson 
and  the  connecting  of  Manhattan  and  New  Jersey 
by  a  great  bridge,  the  river  span  of  which  will  be 
more  than  double  the  length  of  the  river  section  of 
the  old  Brooklyn  Bridge. 

The  entire  plan  is  estimated  to  require  seven  to 
eight  years'  time  and  a  total  investment  of  about 
$200,000,000,  of  which  approximately  one-half  will 
be  represented  by  the  bridge  itself. 

The  colossal  structure  will  hang  suspended  from 
towers  higher  than  the  apex  of  the  Woolworth  Build- 
ing. The  centre  of  its  central  or  river  span  will 
be  165  feet  clear  above  the  surface  of  the  water, 
as  compared  with  135  feet  between  the  river  and 
the  middle  span  of  the  older  structure.  The  new 
bridge  is  expected  to  accommodate  fourteen  rail- 
road tracks  in  all,  four  on  its  upper  deck  and  ten 
on  its  lower,  and  to  have  a  traffic  capacity  of  600,000 
persons  an  hour,  as  compared  with  700,000  for  all 
four  of  the  East  River  bridges  combined,  which  carry 
twenty-four  tracks  in  all.  The  Hudson  River 
bridge  is  to  accommodate  12,000  vehicles,  which  is 
equal  to  the  combined  vehicular  capacity  of  the 
Brooklyn,  Manhattan,  Williamsburg  and  Queens- 
borough  bridges  combined,  and  on  its  upper  deck 
will  sustain  40,000  tons  of  vehicular  freight  by  rail 
and  truck. 

Gustav  Lindenthal,  the  well  known  bridge  builder, 
is  author  of  the  present  plan  and  will  continue  to 
be  identified  with  it  as  engineer-in-chief. 


Weekly  Review  of  the  Construction  Field 

With  Reports  of  Special  Correspondents  in   Regional  Centers 

World  Situation 

RUSSIA  continues  to  show  stability,  though  no 
one  speaks  encouragingly  of  Russian  trade.  The 
Bolsheviki    apparently    have    the    situation    well    in 


Austria  and  the  Balkans  show  little  improvement. 
Conditions  in  Austria  are  desperately  bad,  due  funda- 
mentally to  the  political  severance  of  Vienna  from 
the  territory  of  which  it  has  been  the  industrial  as 
well  as  political  center..  The  immediate  problem 
is  to  get  the  population  of  Vienna  through  the  win- 
ter. Hungary,  Roumania,  Bulgaria  and  Jugo-Slavia 
are  largely  agricultural  territory.  Treasuries  and 
food  stocks  are  low,  but  there  are  fortunately  no 
great  cities  to  be  provided  with  supplies. 

Italy  has  quieted  her  most  alarming  disorders. 
Her  treasury  is  in  improved  condition  as  a  result  of 
new  taxation;  the  revenues  of  January,  1921,  are 
reported  as  three  times  those  of  January,  1920.  The 
note  circulation  of  the  Bank  of  Italy  on  October 
10,  1920,  was  15,238,000,000  lire,  against  14,445,- 
000,000  a  year  before,  and  1,556,000,000  in  1914. 
With  the  increased  revenues,  this  inflation  should 

Poland  has  been  prostrated  by  the  struggle  with 
Russia.  The  industrial  and  financial  situation  is  very 
bad,  with  the  currency  depreciated  almost  to  the  van- 
ishing point  by  the  enormous  issues  of  the  past  year. 
Ordinarily  almost  self-supporting  in  food  production, 
Poland  required  importations  in  1920,  and  socialistic 
experiments  in  state  management  of  industries  have 
added  enormous  confusion,  the  state  railways  hav- 
ing five  times  as  many  employees  per  kilometer  as 
the  roads  of  western  Europe.  No  figures  are  avail- 
able regarding  commercial  activity. 

GERMANY  is  still  unsettled  and  agitated.  The 
1920  crops  were  not  good.  The  printed  money 
has  demoralized  the  currency  and  foreign  exchanges. 
The  railroads  are  a  severe  burden  on  the  public  treas- 
ury. Coal  is  lacking,  but  some  improvement  has  re- 
cently bee  nshown — the  most  hopeful  sign  of  1920. 

The  overshadowing  problem  is  naturally  that  of 
indemnities.  No  sane  man  would  think  of  predict- 
ing anything  with  regard  to  this  matter. 

Belgium  and  France  show  substantial  progress  in 
industrial  recovery.  Belgium,  before  the  present  de- 
pression, was  back,  on  the  whole,  on  a  pre-war  pro- 
duction basis.  In  France  remarkable  progress  has 
been  made.  The  first  ten  months  of  1920  showed 
the  value  of  imports  to  be  29,784,000  francs,  as 

against  27,397,000,000  in  1919,  and  exports  for  the 
same  period  were  18,890,000,000,  against  7,733,000,- 
000  in  1919.  Production  of  coal  is  increasing.  A 
new  internal  loan  has  recently  been  successfully 
floated,  aggregating  50,000,000,000  francs.  By  the 
aid  of  this  the  government  has  been  able  to  reduce  its 
indebtedness  to  the  Bank  of  France  to  such  an  ex- 
tent that  the  note  circulation  of  this  institution  is 
lower  than  it  was  a  year  ago. 

Great  Britain  has  passed  through  several  grave 
disorders,  notably  the  coal  strike,  the  settlement  of 
which  was  the  most  reassuring  sign  in  the  British 
industrial  situation.  At  the  close  of  1919,  the  gov- 
ernment announced  that  the  outstanding  issue  of 
exchequer  currency  notes,  above  cash  reserves,  would 
not  be  permitted  to  exceed  £320,600,000  in  the  year 
1920,  and  that  pledge  was  observed.  The  gold  stock 
of  the  Bank  of  England  on  December  1,  1920,  was 
£124,991,291,  against  £91,790,369  on  that  date  of 
1919.  On  December  1,  1920,  the  adverse  balance 
in  foreign  trade  had  been  reduced  about  $600,- 

(Special  Correspondence  to  THE  AMERICAN  ARCHITECT) 

CHICAGO. — Chicago's  building  apathy  continues 
here  but  there  is  a  sign  of  improvement.  The  most 
encouraging  harbinger  of  better  days  is  the  constant 
discussion  of  the  great  need  for  building.  In  this 
discussion,  newspapers,  bankers,  contractors,  home- 
owners, flatclwellers — everybody,  seems  to  be  taking 
part.  It  s